Dictatorship and Martial law in the Philippines

building roads. schools and urban beautification projects. bridges. health centers. The criticism of Marcos grew directly from the dishonesty and his failure to curb the bribery and corruption in government.Marcos Dictatorship 1965 .1986 Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos was 10th President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. . Marcos initiated an ambitious spending program on public works.

The Communist Party of the Philippines formed the New People's Army and the Moro National Liberation Front fought for the secession of Muslim Mindanao. . Marcos took advantage of these and other incidents such as labour strikes and student protests to create a political atmosphere of crisis and fear that he later used to justify his imposition of martial law.

and criminal elements. declaring martial law over the entire country. y Under the president's command. y A total of about 30. the military arrested opposition figures. including Benigno Aquino.Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law y On September 21. journalists.000 detainees were kept at military compounds run by the army and the Philippine Constabulary. . student and labor activists. 1972. Marcos issued Proclamation 1081.

y Weapons were confiscated. and the mass media were brought under tight control. many of which were never published. invested with dictatorial powers. . issued hundreds of presidential decrees. y Newspapers were shut down. and "private armies" connected with prominent politicians and other figures were broken up. y Marcos.

laborers. . students. intellectuals. which did not protest the demise of Philippine democracy. and mass media personnel"--found a ready audience in the United States.y Marcos claimed that a network of "front organizations" was operating "among our peasants. professionals.

Social Realism .

Social Realism y It is an artistic movement that depicts the daily struggle of the working class y It developed as a reaction against Romanticism. y Consequences of the Industrial Revolution became apparent. urban centers grew. slums proliferated on a new scale contrasting with the display of wealth of the upper classes. .

in part. ‡ They focused on the ugly realities of contemporary life and sympathized with working-class people.‡ With a new sense of social consciousness. . the Social Realists pledged to fight the beautiful art . particularly the poor. because they didn't know how to look at it or what to do with it. ‡ The public was outraged by Social Realism.

First Quarter Storm .

composed of a series of heavy demonstrations. or the first quarter of 1970. .First Quarter Storm. and marches against the government from January to March 1970.. protests. y It was one of the factors leading to the declaration of Martial Law in 1972. y A period of leftist unrest in the Philippines. y The movement was led by the student leaders of the University of the Philippines.

. y Laborers also took part. y Most of the activists carried Molotov cocktails and pillbox bombs to counter the policemen's attacks at Malacanang Palace. led by the Kabataang Makabayan.y The Moderate demonstration turned into a Radical one. protesting against graft and corruption in government. y The storm ended violently when the police used tear gas and arms to quell the demonstrators.

some of the surviving radical students. engaging in guerrilla and urban warfare. y After the failed protest. and the University of the East. . and took up arms. y The storm extended to Divisoria district in Tondo Manila.y Students tried to counter using Molotov cocktails and pillbox bombs while retreating. Polytechnic University of the Philippines. became avowed Marxists. mostly from the University of the Philippines.

Dekada 70 .

freedom of the press was severely limited and opponents of Marcos were detained. y On September 21. . but kept himself in power. Marcos consolidated control of the armed forces. In the 1970's. Marcos declared Martial Law which placed the country under the rule of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. the Republic of the Philippines was under the rule of then President Ferdinand Marcos.y Dekada '70 is set in the turbulent Martial Law era in Philippine history. 1972. y Under the Martial Law era.

People Power Revolution .

y The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986) was a series of nonviolent and prayerful mass street demonstrations in the Philippines that occurred in 1986. . y It is sometimes referred to as the Yellow Revolution due to the presence of yellow ribbons during the arrival of Ninoy Aquino.

y The majority of the demonstrations took place at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue.000. in Quezon City. and religious figures. known more commonly by its acronym EDSA. Metropolitan Manila and involved over 2.y These protests were the culmination of a long resistance by the people against the 20-year running authoritarian regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world".000 Filipino civilians as well as several political. . such as Cardinal Jaime Sin. military.

when Marcos fled Malacañang Palace to the United States and conceded to Corazon Aquino as President of the Philippines. . occurred from February 22 to 25 in 1986.y The protests. fueled by a resistance and opposition of years of corrupt governance by Marcos.

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