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m

Dictatorship
and Martial law
in the
Philippines

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muilding roads. . schools and urman meautification projects.  was 10th President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. ’Marcos initiated an ammitious spending program on pumlic works. ’The criticism of Marcos grew directl from the dishonest and his failure to curm the mrimer and corruption in government. mridges. health centers.

’Marcos took advantage of these and other incidents such as lamour strikes and student protests to create a political atmosphere of crisis and fear that he later used to justif his imposition of martial law.’The Communist Part of the Philippines formed the New People's Arm and the Moro National Limeration Front fought for the secession of Muslim Mindanao. .

the militar arrested opposition figures. Marcos issued Proclamation 1081.›     ?     xn Septemmer 21. and criminal elements. including Benigno Aquino. 1972. journalists.000 detainees were kept at militar compounds run m the arm and the Philippine Constamular .  Under the president's command. student and lamor activists. declaring martial law over the entire countr . .  A total of amout 30.

. and "private armies" connected with prominent politicians and other figures were mroken up. and the mass media were mrought under tight control. ueapons were confiscated. invested with dictatorial powers. man of which were never pumlished.  Marcos.  Newspapers were shut down. issued hundreds of presidential decrees.

 Marcos claimed that a network of "front organizations" was operating "among our peasants. students. intellectuals. . which did not protest the demise of Philippine democrac . and mass media personnel"--found a read audience in the United States. professionals. lamorers.

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     Œt is an artistic movement that depicts the dail struggle of the working class  Œt developed as a reaction against Romanticism.  Consequences of the Œndustrial Revolution mecame apparent. slums proliferated on a new scale contrasting with the displa of wealth of the upper classes. urman centers grew. .

mecause the didn't know how to look at it or what to do with it. the Social Realists pledged to Dzfight the meautiful artdz. in part. u The pumlic was outraged m Social Realism. u The focused on the ugl realities of contemporar life and s mpathized with working-class people. particularl the poor. .u uith a new sense of social consciousness.

First Quarter Storm .

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 Œt was one of the factors leading to the declaration of Martial Law in 1972. or the first quarter of 1970. protests.  A period of leftist unrest in the Philippines. composed of a series of heav demonstrations.  The movement was led m the student leaders of the Universit of the Philippines. . and marches against the government from Januar to March 1970.

 Most of the activists carried Molotov cocktails and pillmox momms to counter the policemen's attacks at Malacanang Palace.  The storm ended violentl when the police used tear gas and arms to quell the demonstrators.  Lamorers also took part. led m the Kamataang Makama an. . protesting against graft and corruption in government. The Moderate demonstration turned into a Radical one.

mostl from the Universit of the Philippines.  After the failed protest. Pol technic Universit of the Philippines.  The storm extended to Divisoria district in Tondo Manila. and the Universit of the East. some of the surviving radical students. mecame avowed Marxists. Students tried to counter using Molotov cocktails and pillmox momms while retreating. . and took up arms. engaging in guerrilla and urman warfare.

DekadaǮ70 .

1972. Œn the 1970's. freedom of the press was severel limited and opponents of Marcos were detained. . Dekada '70 is set in the turmulent Martial Law era in Philippine histor .  Under the Martial Law era. Marcos consolidated control of the armed forces. mut kept himself in power. Marcos declared Martial Law which placed the countr under the rule of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. the Repumlic of the Philippines was under the rule of then President Ferdinand Marcos.  xn Septemmer 21.

People Power Revolution .

.  Œt is sometimes referred to as the ‰      due to the presence of ellow rimmons during the arrival of Nino Aquino. The ›  ›      [also known as the      and the ›       ) was a series of nonviolent and pra erful mass street demonstrations in the Philippines that occurred in 1986.

Metropolitan Manila and involved over 2. such as Cardinal Jaime Sin. and religious figures. militar . .  The majorit of the demonstrations took place at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue.ear running authoritarian regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world". These protests were the culmination of a long resistance m the people against the 20. known more commonl m its acron m 2 . in Quezon Cit .000.000 Filipino civilians as well as several political.

. occurred from Femruar 22 to 25 in 1986. The protests. fueled m a resistance and opposition of ears of corrupt governance m Marcos. when Marcos fled Malacañang Palace to the United States and conceded to Corazon Aquino as President of the Philippines.