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Dictatorship and Martial law in the Philippines

building roads. health centers. Marcos initiated an ambitious spending program on public works.1986 Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos was 10th President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. The criticism of Marcos grew directly from the dishonesty and his failure to curb the bribery and corruption in government. . bridges.Marcos Dictatorship 1965 . schools and urban beautification projects.

Marcos took advantage of these and other incidents such as labour strikes and student protests to create a political atmosphere of crisis and fear that he later used to justify his imposition of martial law.The Communist Party of the Philippines formed the New People's Army and the Moro National Liberation Front fought for the secession of Muslim Mindanao. .

student and labor activists. the military arrested opposition figures. 1972. .Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law y On September 21. including Benigno Aquino.000 detainees were kept at military compounds run by the army and the Philippine Constabulary. y Under the president's command. declaring martial law over the entire country. y A total of about 30. journalists. and criminal elements. Marcos issued Proclamation 1081.

invested with dictatorial powers. y Newspapers were shut down. y Marcos. many of which were never published. issued hundreds of presidential decrees. . and "private armies" connected with prominent politicians and other figures were broken up.y Weapons were confiscated. and the mass media were brought under tight control.

professionals. laborers. intellectuals. which did not protest the demise of Philippine democracy.y Marcos claimed that a network of "front organizations" was operating "among our peasants. . and mass media personnel"--found a ready audience in the United States. students.

Social Realism .

slums proliferated on a new scale contrasting with the display of wealth of the upper classes. .Social Realism y It is an artistic movement that depicts the daily struggle of the working class y It developed as a reaction against Romanticism. urban centers grew. y Consequences of the Industrial Revolution became apparent.

‡ The public was outraged by Social Realism. because they didn't know how to look at it or what to do with it.‡ With a new sense of social consciousness. . ‡ They focused on the ugly realities of contemporary life and sympathized with working-class people. particularly the poor. in part. the Social Realists pledged to fight the beautiful art .

First Quarter Storm .

composed of a series of heavy demonstrations. . y The movement was led by the student leaders of the University of the Philippines.First Quarter Storm. y A period of leftist unrest in the Philippines. y It was one of the factors leading to the declaration of Martial Law in 1972. protests. or the first quarter of 1970. and marches against the government from January to March 1970..

. protesting against graft and corruption in government. y Laborers also took part. led by the Kabataang Makabayan.y The Moderate demonstration turned into a Radical one. y The storm ended violently when the police used tear gas and arms to quell the demonstrators. y Most of the activists carried Molotov cocktails and pillbox bombs to counter the policemen's attacks at Malacanang Palace.

y After the failed protest. Polytechnic University of the Philippines. became avowed Marxists. y The storm extended to Divisoria district in Tondo Manila. and the University of the East.y Students tried to counter using Molotov cocktails and pillbox bombs while retreating. engaging in guerrilla and urban warfare. some of the surviving radical students. . mostly from the University of the Philippines. and took up arms.

Dekada 70 .

Marcos consolidated control of the armed forces. . y Under the Martial Law era.y Dekada '70 is set in the turbulent Martial Law era in Philippine history. y On September 21. Marcos declared Martial Law which placed the country under the rule of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. the Republic of the Philippines was under the rule of then President Ferdinand Marcos. 1972. freedom of the press was severely limited and opponents of Marcos were detained. In the 1970's. but kept himself in power.

People Power Revolution .

.y The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986) was a series of nonviolent and prayerful mass street demonstrations in the Philippines that occurred in 1986. y It is sometimes referred to as the Yellow Revolution due to the presence of yellow ribbons during the arrival of Ninoy Aquino.

000. known more commonly by its acronym EDSA. and religious figures. y The majority of the demonstrations took place at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue. . in Quezon City.000 Filipino civilians as well as several political.y These protests were the culmination of a long resistance by the people against the 20-year running authoritarian regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world". military. Metropolitan Manila and involved over 2. such as Cardinal Jaime Sin.

y The protests. fueled by a resistance and opposition of years of corrupt governance by Marcos. when Marcos fled Malacañang Palace to the United States and conceded to Corazon Aquino as President of the Philippines. . occurred from February 22 to 25 in 1986.

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