Dictatorship and Martial law in the Philippines

The criticism of Marcos grew directly from the dishonesty and his failure to curb the bribery and corruption in government. . Marcos initiated an ambitious spending program on public works. schools and urban beautification projects. health centers.1986 Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos was 10th President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.Marcos Dictatorship 1965 . building roads. bridges.

.The Communist Party of the Philippines formed the New People's Army and the Moro National Liberation Front fought for the secession of Muslim Mindanao. Marcos took advantage of these and other incidents such as labour strikes and student protests to create a political atmosphere of crisis and fear that he later used to justify his imposition of martial law.

declaring martial law over the entire country. Marcos issued Proclamation 1081.000 detainees were kept at military compounds run by the army and the Philippine Constabulary. the military arrested opposition figures. .Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law y On September 21. y A total of about 30. y Under the president's command. and criminal elements. student and labor activists. including Benigno Aquino. 1972. journalists.

and "private armies" connected with prominent politicians and other figures were broken up. many of which were never published. y Marcos. and the mass media were brought under tight control. y Newspapers were shut down. . invested with dictatorial powers.y Weapons were confiscated. issued hundreds of presidential decrees.

professionals. . laborers. which did not protest the demise of Philippine democracy. students. intellectuals.y Marcos claimed that a network of "front organizations" was operating "among our peasants. and mass media personnel"--found a ready audience in the United States.

Social Realism .

Social Realism y It is an artistic movement that depicts the daily struggle of the working class y It developed as a reaction against Romanticism. slums proliferated on a new scale contrasting with the display of wealth of the upper classes. . urban centers grew. y Consequences of the Industrial Revolution became apparent.

‡ With a new sense of social consciousness. ‡ They focused on the ugly realities of contemporary life and sympathized with working-class people. because they didn't know how to look at it or what to do with it. the Social Realists pledged to fight the beautiful art . . particularly the poor. ‡ The public was outraged by Social Realism. in part.

First Quarter Storm .

y It was one of the factors leading to the declaration of Martial Law in 1972. . protests. composed of a series of heavy demonstrations.. y A period of leftist unrest in the Philippines. y The movement was led by the student leaders of the University of the Philippines. or the first quarter of 1970.First Quarter Storm. and marches against the government from January to March 1970.

y Most of the activists carried Molotov cocktails and pillbox bombs to counter the policemen's attacks at Malacanang Palace. led by the Kabataang Makabayan. protesting against graft and corruption in government. .y The Moderate demonstration turned into a Radical one. y Laborers also took part. y The storm ended violently when the police used tear gas and arms to quell the demonstrators.

engaging in guerrilla and urban warfare. and the University of the East. and took up arms. . y The storm extended to Divisoria district in Tondo Manila.y Students tried to counter using Molotov cocktails and pillbox bombs while retreating. some of the surviving radical students. Polytechnic University of the Philippines. mostly from the University of the Philippines. y After the failed protest. became avowed Marxists.

Dekada 70 .

y On September 21. . 1972. Marcos consolidated control of the armed forces. but kept himself in power. Marcos declared Martial Law which placed the country under the rule of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. the Republic of the Philippines was under the rule of then President Ferdinand Marcos.y Dekada '70 is set in the turbulent Martial Law era in Philippine history. In the 1970's. y Under the Martial Law era. freedom of the press was severely limited and opponents of Marcos were detained.

People Power Revolution .

y It is sometimes referred to as the Yellow Revolution due to the presence of yellow ribbons during the arrival of Ninoy Aquino.y The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986) was a series of nonviolent and prayerful mass street demonstrations in the Philippines that occurred in 1986. .

000. military. such as Cardinal Jaime Sin.000 Filipino civilians as well as several political. . Metropolitan Manila and involved over 2. and religious figures. in Quezon City. known more commonly by its acronym EDSA. y The majority of the demonstrations took place at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue.y These protests were the culmination of a long resistance by the people against the 20-year running authoritarian regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world".

when Marcos fled Malacañang Palace to the United States and conceded to Corazon Aquino as President of the Philippines. fueled by a resistance and opposition of years of corrupt governance by Marcos. .y The protests. occurred from February 22 to 25 in 1986.