Dictatorship and Martial law in the Philippines

bridges.Marcos Dictatorship 1965 . The criticism of Marcos grew directly from the dishonesty and his failure to curb the bribery and corruption in government. health centers. Marcos initiated an ambitious spending program on public works. schools and urban beautification projects. .1986 Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos was 10th President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. building roads.

. Marcos took advantage of these and other incidents such as labour strikes and student protests to create a political atmosphere of crisis and fear that he later used to justify his imposition of martial law.The Communist Party of the Philippines formed the New People's Army and the Moro National Liberation Front fought for the secession of Muslim Mindanao.

000 detainees were kept at military compounds run by the army and the Philippine Constabulary. 1972. y A total of about 30. y Under the president's command. student and labor activists. and criminal elements. the military arrested opposition figures. journalists. Marcos issued Proclamation 1081. declaring martial law over the entire country. including Benigno Aquino. .Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law y On September 21.

and the mass media were brought under tight control. many of which were never published. invested with dictatorial powers. and "private armies" connected with prominent politicians and other figures were broken up. y Marcos. issued hundreds of presidential decrees. . y Newspapers were shut down.y Weapons were confiscated.

intellectuals. laborers. and mass media personnel"--found a ready audience in the United States. .y Marcos claimed that a network of "front organizations" was operating "among our peasants. which did not protest the demise of Philippine democracy. students. professionals.

Social Realism .

. urban centers grew. slums proliferated on a new scale contrasting with the display of wealth of the upper classes.Social Realism y It is an artistic movement that depicts the daily struggle of the working class y It developed as a reaction against Romanticism. y Consequences of the Industrial Revolution became apparent.

in part. the Social Realists pledged to fight the beautiful art . ‡ They focused on the ugly realities of contemporary life and sympathized with working-class people. ‡ The public was outraged by Social Realism. particularly the poor.‡ With a new sense of social consciousness. . because they didn't know how to look at it or what to do with it.

First Quarter Storm .

composed of a series of heavy demonstrations. and marches against the government from January to March 1970. ..First Quarter Storm. y The movement was led by the student leaders of the University of the Philippines. or the first quarter of 1970. y It was one of the factors leading to the declaration of Martial Law in 1972. y A period of leftist unrest in the Philippines. protests.

protesting against graft and corruption in government. led by the Kabataang Makabayan. y Laborers also took part. .y The Moderate demonstration turned into a Radical one. y Most of the activists carried Molotov cocktails and pillbox bombs to counter the policemen's attacks at Malacanang Palace. y The storm ended violently when the police used tear gas and arms to quell the demonstrators.

. became avowed Marxists.y Students tried to counter using Molotov cocktails and pillbox bombs while retreating. Polytechnic University of the Philippines. y After the failed protest. and took up arms. y The storm extended to Divisoria district in Tondo Manila. and the University of the East. some of the surviving radical students. engaging in guerrilla and urban warfare. mostly from the University of the Philippines.

Dekada 70 .

but kept himself in power. In the 1970's. Marcos consolidated control of the armed forces. y On September 21.y Dekada '70 is set in the turbulent Martial Law era in Philippine history. the Republic of the Philippines was under the rule of then President Ferdinand Marcos. . Marcos declared Martial Law which placed the country under the rule of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. 1972. y Under the Martial Law era. freedom of the press was severely limited and opponents of Marcos were detained.

People Power Revolution .

y The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986) was a series of nonviolent and prayerful mass street demonstrations in the Philippines that occurred in 1986. . y It is sometimes referred to as the Yellow Revolution due to the presence of yellow ribbons during the arrival of Ninoy Aquino.

such as Cardinal Jaime Sin. in Quezon City. and religious figures. y The majority of the demonstrations took place at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue. known more commonly by its acronym EDSA.000. Metropolitan Manila and involved over 2. .y These protests were the culmination of a long resistance by the people against the 20-year running authoritarian regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the revolution that surprised the world". military.000 Filipino civilians as well as several political.

occurred from February 22 to 25 in 1986. when Marcos fled Malacañang Palace to the United States and conceded to Corazon Aquino as President of the Philippines. fueled by a resistance and opposition of years of corrupt governance by Marcos.y The protests. .

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