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# ECE 576 – Power System

## Prof. Tom Overbye

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
overbye@illinois.edu
Special Guest: TA Soobae Kim
1
Announcements
• Read Chapter 3

2
Synchronous Machine Modeling
• Electric machines are used to convert mechanical
energy into electrical energy (generators) and from
electrical energy into mechanical energy (motors)
– Many devices can operate in either mode, but are usually
customized for one or the other
• Vast majority of electricity is generated using
synchronous generators and some is consumed using
synchronous motors, so that is where we'll start
• Much literature on subject, and sometimes overly
confusing with the use of different conventions and
nominclature
3
Synchronous Machine Modeling

## 3 bal. windings (a,b,c) – stator

Field winding (fd) on rotor

(1d) on rotor

## 2 dampers in “q” axis

(1q, 2q) on rotor

4
Dq0 Reference Frame
• Stator is stationary and rotor is rotating at synchronous
speed
• Rotor values need to be transformed to fixed reference
frame for analysis
• This is done using Park's transformation into what is
known as the dq0 reference frame (direct, quadrature,
zero)
• Convention used here is the q-axis leads the d-axis
(which is the IEEE standard)
– Others (such as Anderson and Fouad) use a q-axis lagging
convention
5
Fundamental Laws
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, Ohm’s Law, Faraday’s
Law, Newton’s Second Law

## Stator Rotor Shaft

d a d  fd d shaft 2
va  ia rs  v fd  i fd r fd   
dt dt dt P
d 1d 2 d
d b v1d  i1d r1d  J  Tm  Te  T f 
vb  ib rs  dt P dt
dt d 1q
d c v1q  i1q r1q 
vc  ic rs  dt
dt d 2 q
v2 q  i2 q r2 q 
dt
6
Dq0 transformations

vd  va 
  v 
v
 q  Tdqo  b  or i, 
v  vc 
 o

va  vd 
v   T 1 v 
 b  dqo  q 
vc  v 
 o

7
Dq0 transformations
 P P 2  P 2  
 sin  shaft sin   shaft   sin    
3 
shaft

2 2 3  2 
2 P P 2  P 2  
Tdqo  cos  shaft cos   shaft   cos    
3 
shaft
3

2 2 3  2 
 1 1 1 
 
 2 2 2 

## with the inverse,

 P P 
 sin  shaft cos  shaft 1
2 2
 2  2  
1  P  P
Tdqo  sin   shaft   cos  shaft   1
 2 3  2 3  
 P 2   P 2  
sin  
  2 shaft 3  cos  shaft   1
2 3  
8
Dq0 transformations

## Note: This transformation is not power invariant. This

means that some unusual things will happen when we
use it.
Example: If the magnetic circuit is assumed to be
linear
abc  Liabc

(symmetric)
Tabc  TLT 1idqo
1
dqo  TLT
idqo
Not symmetric if T is not power invariant. 9
Transformed System
Stator Rotor Shaft
d  fd d shaft 2
d v fd  r fd i fd   
vd  rsid  q  d dt dt P
dt
d 1d 2 d
d q v1d  r1d i1d  J  Tm  Te  T f 
vq  rsiq  d  dt P dt
dt d 1q
d v1q  r1qi1q 
vo  rsio  o dt
dt
d 2 q
v2 q  r2 qi2 q 
dt

10
Electrical & Mechanical Relationships

Electrical system: d
v  iR  (voltage)
dt
d
vi  i R  i
2
(power)
dt
Mechanical system:

 2  d
J   Tm  Te  T f  (torque)
 P  dt
 2  d 2
2
2 2
J    Tm  Te  T f  (power)
P dt P P P
11
Derive Torque
• Torque is derived by looking at the overall energy
balance in the system
• Three systems: electrical, mechanical and the coupling
magnetic field
– Electrical system losses in form of resistance
– Mechanical system losses in the form of friction
• Coupling field is assumed to be lossless, hence we can
track how energy moves between the electrical and
mechanical systems

12
Energy Conversion

## Look at the instantaneous power:

3 3
vaia  vbib  vcic  vd id  vqiq  3voio
2 2
13
Change to Conservation of Power

## Pin  vaia  vbib  vcic  v fd i fd  v1d i1d  v1qi1q

elect
 v2qi2q

 
Plost  rs ia2  ib2  ic2  r fd i 2fd  r1d i12d  r1qi12q  r2qi22q
elect
da db dc d fd d1d
Ptrans  ia  ib  ic  i fd  i1d
elect dt dt dt dt dt
d1q d2q
 i1q  i2q
dt dt
14
With the Transformed Variables
3 3
Pin  vd id  vqiq  3voio  v fd i fd  v1d i1d
elect 2 2
 v1qi1q  v2qi2q

3 2 3 2
Plost  rsid  rsiq  3rsio2  r fd i 2fd  r1d i12d
elect 2 2

 r1qi12q  r2qi22q

15
With the Transformed Variables

## 3 P d shaft 3 dd 3 P d shaft

Ptrans   qid  id  d iq
elect 2 2 dt 2 dt 2 2 dt
3 dq do d fd d1d
 iq  3io  i fd  i1d
2 dt dt dt dt
d1q d2q
 i1q  i2q
dt dt

16
Change in Coupling Field Energy
dW f 2 d da db
 Te  ia  ib
dt P dt dt dt

dc d fd d1d
 ic  i fd  i1d
dt dt dt

d1q d2 q
 i1q  i2 q
dt dt

## This requires the lossless coupling field

assumption

17
Change in Coupling Field Energy

For independent states , a, b, c, fd, 1d, 1q, 2q

dW f W f d W f da W f db
  
dt  dt a dt b dt

W f dc W f d fd W f d1d
  
c dt  fd dt 1d dt

W f d1q W f d2 q
 
1q dt 2 q dt
18
Equate the Coefficients

2 W f W f
Te  ia  etc.
P  a

this model.

## These are key conditions – i.e. the first one gives

an expression for the torque in terms of the
coupling field energy.

19
Equate the Coefficients

W f

3P
 shaft 2 2

d iq  qid  Te 

W f 3 W f3 W f
 id ,  iq ,  3io
d 2 q 2 o

W f W f W f W f
 i fd ,  i1d ,  i1q ,  i2 q
 fd 1d 1q 2 q
These are key conditions – i.e. the first one gives an
expression for the torque in terms of the coupling field energy.
20
Coupling Field Energy
• The coupling field energy is calculated using a path
independent integration
– For integral to be path independent, the partial derivatives of
all integrands with respect to the other states must be equal
3 id i fd
For example, 
2  fd d
• Since integration is path independent, choose a
convenient path
– Start with a de-energized system so all variables are zero
– Integrate shaft position while other variables are zero, hence
no energy
– Integrate sources in sequence with shaft at final shaft value
21
Do the Integration
 shaft
W f  W fo 
o

3 P ˆ
 i
 2 2 d q  ˆ i
qd   ˆ
d shaft
 shaft

d q o
3 3
  id d d   iq d ˆq   3io d ˆo
ˆ
o 2 o 2
d q oo
 fd 1d 1q 2q
  i fd d ˆ fd   i1d d ˆ1d   i1q d ˆ1q   i2q d ˆ2q
 ofd 1od 1oq 2oq

22
Torque
• Assume: iq, id, io, ifd, i1d, i1q, i2q are independent of shaft
(current/flux linkage relationship is independent of
shaft)
• Then Wf will be independent of shaft as well
• Since we have
W f
 shaft

3P
22
 d iq  q id   Te  0

Te  
3P
22
d iq  qid 

23
Define Unscaled Variables

P d  fd
   shaft   st  r fd i fd  v fd
2 dt
d 1d
s is the rated  r1d i1d  v1d
dt
synchronous speed
d plays an important role! d 1q
  r1qi1q  v1q
d d dt
  rsid  q  vd d 2 q
dt   r2 qi2 q  v2 q
d q dt
  rsiq  d  vq
dt d
   s
d o dt
  rsio  vo 2 d  3  P 
dt J
p dt  2  2 
 
 Tm     d iq  qid  T f 

24
Convert to Per Unit
• As with power flow, values are usually expressed in per
unit, here on the machine power rating
VBase I Base  PBase

## • Two common sign conventions for current: motor has

positive currents into machine, generator has positive
out of the machine
• Modify the flux linkage current relationship to account
for the non power invariant “dqo” transformation

25
Convert to Per Unit

va vb vc
Va  , Vb  , Vc  ,
VBABC VBABC VBABC
ia ib ic
Ia  , Ib  , Ic 
I BABC I BABC I BABC
a b c
a  , b  , c 
 BABC  BABC  BABC
where VBABC is rated RMS line-to-neutral stator
voltage and
PB VBABC
I BABC  ,  BABC 
3VBABC B
26
Convert to Per Unit

vd vq vo
Vd  , Vq  , Vo  ,
VBDQ VBDQ VBDQ
id iq io
Id  , Iq  , Io 
I BDQ I BDQ I BDQ
d q o
d  , q  , o 
 BDQ  BDQ  BDQ
where VBDQ is rated peak line-to-neutral stator voltage
and
2 PB VBDQ
I BDQ  ,  BDQ 
3VBDQ B
27
Convert to Per Unit

v fd v1d v1q v2 q
V fd  , V1d  , V1q  , V2 q 
VBFD VB1D VB1Q VB 2Q
i fd i1d i1q i2 q
I fd  , I1d  , I1q  , I 2q 
I BFD I B1D I B1Q I B 2Q
 fd 1d 1q 2 q
 fd  ,  1d  ,  1q  ,  2q 
 BFD  B1D  B1Q  B 2Q

## Hence the  variables are just normalized

flux linkages
28
Convert to Per Unit

## Where the rotor circuit base voltages are

PB PB
VBFD  , VB1D  ,
I BFD I B1D
PB PB
VB1Q  , VB 2Q 
I B1Q I B 2Q
And the rotor circuit base flux linkages are
VBFD VB1D
 BFD  ,  B1D  ,
B B
VB1Q VB 2Q
 B1Q  ,  B 2Q 
B B
29
Convert to Per Unit
rs r fd r1d
Rs  , R fd  , R1d  ,
Z BDQ Z BFD Z B1D
r1q r2 q
R1q  , R2 q  ,
Z B1Q Z B 2Q

## VBDQ VBFD VB1D

Z BDQ  , Z BFD  , Z B1D  ,
I BDQ I BFD I B1D
VB1Q VB 2Q
Z B1Q  , Z B 2Q 
I B1Q I B 2Q

30
Convert to Per Unit
• Almost done with the per unit conversions! Finally
define inertia constants and torque
2
1 2
J (B )
H 2 P , M  2H
SB s
Tm Te T fw SB
TM , TELEC , TFW , TB
TB TB TB 2
B
P

31
Synchronous Machine Equations

1 d d 
 Rs I d   q  Vd 1 d fd
  R fd I fd  V fd
 s dt s  s dt
1 d q  1 d 1d
 Rs I q   d  Vq   R1d I1d  V1d
 s dt s  s dt
1 d o
 Rs I o  Vo 1 d 1q
 s dt   R1q I1q  V1q
s dt
1 d 2 q
  R2 q I 2  V2 q
s dt
d
   s
dt
2 H d
 s dt
 
 TM   d I q   q I d  TFW

32
Sinusoidal Steady-State
Va  2Vs cos  st   vs 
2
Here we consider the
Vb  2Vs cos  st   vs   application
 3 
 2  to balanced, sinusoidal
Vc  2Vs cos  st   vs   conditions
 3 
I a  2I s cos  st   is 
 2 
Ib  2I s cos  st   is  
 3 
 2 
I c  2I s cos  st   is  
 3 

33
Transforming to dq0

 2VsVBABC   P
Vd   sin   shaft   st   vs 
 VBDQ   2 
 
 2VsVBABC   P
Vq   cos  shaft   st   vs 
 VBDQ   2 
 
Vo 0
 2 I s I BABC  P 
Id  
 I BDQ  sin   shaft   st   is 
  2 
 2 I s I BABC  P 
Iq    cos     t   is 
 I BDQ  2
shaft s

 
Io  0
34
Simplifying Using 

• Recall that P
   shaft   st
2
The conclusion is
Vd  Vs sin    vs  if we know , then
• Hence Vq  Vs cos    vs  we can easily relate
I d  I s sin    is  the phase to the dq
I q  I s cos    is  values!
• These algebraic equations can be written as
complex equations,
Vd  jVq  e j    / 2 
 Vs e
j vs

 Id  jIq  e j    / 2 
 I se
jis

35
Summary So Far
• The model as developed so far has been derived using
the following assumptions
– The stator has three coils in a balanced configuration, spaced
120 electrical degrees apart
– Rotor has four coils in a balanced configuration located 90
electrical degrees apart
– Relationship between the flux linkages and currents must
reflect a conservative coupling field
– The relationships between the flux linkages and currents must
be independent of shaft when expressed in the dq0 coordinate
system

36
Assuming a Linear Magnetic Circuit
• If the flux linkages are assumed to be a linear function
of the currents then we can write
 a     ia  The rotor
     ib 

 b   Lss  shaft  
Lsr  shaft   
self-
inductance
 c     ic 
    i  matrix
 fd      fd  Lrr is
 1d     i1d 
   
independent
   Lrs  shaft Lrr  shaft  i  of shaft
 1q     1q 
2 q    i2 q 
37
Inductive Dependence on Shaft Angle

## L12 = 0 L12 = + maximum

L12 = - maximum

38
Stator Inductances
• The self inductance for each stator winding has a
portion that is due to the leakage flux which does not
cross the air gap, Lls
• The other portion of the self inductance is due to flux
crossing the air gap and can be modeled for phase a as
LA  LB cos( P shaft )

## • Mutual inductance between the stator windings is

modeled as
The offset angle
1
LA  LB cos( P shaft  offset ) is either 2/3 or
2 -2/3
39
Conversion to dq0 for Angle
Independence
 d   id 
  i 
 q   q 
 o   1   io 
Tdqo Lsr 
  Tdqo LssTdqo i 
 fd      fd 
 1d     i1d 
1
   LrsTdqo Lrr   
 1q     i1q 
2 q  i2 q 

40
Conversion to dq0 for Angle
Independence
d   L s  Lmd  id  Lsfd i fd  Ls1d i1d 3
Lmd  LA  LB  ,
3 3
 fd  Lsfd id  L fdfd i fd  L fd 1d i1d 3
2 Lmq  LA  LB 
3 3
1d  Ls1d id  L fd 1d i fd  L1d 1d i1d
2
q   L s  Lmq  iq  Ls1qi1q  Ls 2 qi2 q
3
1q  Ls1qiq  L1q1qi1q  L1q 2 qi2 q
2
3
2 q  Ls 2 qiq  L1q 2 qi1q  L2 q 2 qi2 q
2
o  L sio
41
Convert to Normalized at f = s
• Convert to per unit, and assume frequency of s
• Then define new per unit reactance variables
s L s s Lmd s Lmq
X s , X md , X mq
Z BDQ Z BDQ Z BDQ
s L fdfd s L1d 1d s L fd 1d Lsfd
X fd , X 1d , X fd 1d
Z BFD Z B1D Z BFD Ls1d
s L1q1q s L2q 2q s L1q 2q Ls1q
X 1q , X 2q , X 1q 2q
Z B1Q Z B2Q Z B1Q Ls 2q
X fd X fd  X md , X 1d X 1d  X md
X 1q X 1q  X mq , X 2q X 2 q  X mq
Xd X s  X md , Xq X s  X mq
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Normalized Equations

 d  X d   I d   X md I fd  X md I1d
 fd  X md   I d   X fd I fd  cd X md I1d
1d  X md   I d   cd X md I fd  X 1d I1d
X fd 1d X1q 2 q
cd  1 cd
X md
, cq
X mq
 q  X q   I q   X mq I1q  X mq I 2q
1q  X mq   I q   X1q I1q  cq X mq I 2 q
 2 q  X mq   I q   cq X mq I1q  X 2 q I 2 q
cq  1
o  X s   Io 

43