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- 3 PhaseInductionMotors BookChapter 1
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You are on page 1of 43

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

overbye@illinois.edu

Special Guest: TA Soobae Kim

1

Announcements

• Read Chapter 3

2

Synchronous Machine Modeling

• Electric machines are used to convert mechanical

energy into electrical energy (generators) and from

electrical energy into mechanical energy (motors)

– Many devices can operate in either mode, but are usually

customized for one or the other

• Vast majority of electricity is generated using

synchronous generators and some is consumed using

synchronous motors, so that is where we'll start

• Much literature on subject, and sometimes overly

confusing with the use of different conventions and

nominclature

3

Synchronous Machine Modeling

Field winding (fd) on rotor

(1d) on rotor

(1q, 2q) on rotor

4

Dq0 Reference Frame

• Stator is stationary and rotor is rotating at synchronous

speed

• Rotor values need to be transformed to fixed reference

frame for analysis

• This is done using Park's transformation into what is

known as the dq0 reference frame (direct, quadrature,

zero)

• Convention used here is the q-axis leads the d-axis

(which is the IEEE standard)

– Others (such as Anderson and Fouad) use a q-axis lagging

convention

5

Fundamental Laws

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, Ohm’s Law, Faraday’s

Law, Newton’s Second Law

d a d fd d shaft 2

va ia rs v fd i fd r fd

dt dt dt P

d 1d 2 d

d b v1d i1d r1d J Tm Te T f

vb ib rs dt P dt

dt d 1q

d c v1q i1q r1q

vc ic rs dt

dt d 2 q

v2 q i2 q r2 q

dt

6

Dq0 transformations

vd va

v

v

q Tdqo b or i,

v vc

o

va vd

v T 1 v

b dqo q

vc v

o

7

Dq0 transformations

P P 2 P 2

sin shaft sin shaft sin

3

shaft

2 2 3 2

2 P P 2 P 2

Tdqo cos shaft cos shaft cos

3

shaft

3

2 2 3 2

1 1 1

2 2 2

P P

sin shaft cos shaft 1

2 2

2 2

1 P P

Tdqo sin shaft cos shaft 1

2 3 2 3

P 2 P 2

sin

2 shaft 3 cos shaft 1

2 3

8

Dq0 transformations

means that some unusual things will happen when we

use it.

Example: If the magnetic circuit is assumed to be

linear

abc Liabc

(symmetric)

Tabc TLT 1idqo

1

dqo TLT

idqo

Not symmetric if T is not power invariant. 9

Transformed System

Stator Rotor Shaft

d fd d shaft 2

d v fd r fd i fd

vd rsid q d dt dt P

dt

d 1d 2 d

d q v1d r1d i1d J Tm Te T f

vq rsiq d dt P dt

dt d 1q

d v1q r1qi1q

vo rsio o dt

dt

d 2 q

v2 q r2 qi2 q

dt

10

Electrical & Mechanical Relationships

Electrical system: d

v iR (voltage)

dt

d

vi i R i

2

(power)

dt

Mechanical system:

2 d

J Tm Te T f (torque)

P dt

2 d 2

2

2 2

J Tm Te T f (power)

P dt P P P

11

Derive Torque

• Torque is derived by looking at the overall energy

balance in the system

• Three systems: electrical, mechanical and the coupling

magnetic field

– Electrical system losses in form of resistance

– Mechanical system losses in the form of friction

• Coupling field is assumed to be lossless, hence we can

track how energy moves between the electrical and

mechanical systems

12

Energy Conversion

3 3

vaia vbib vcic vd id vqiq 3voio

2 2

13

Change to Conservation of Power

elect

v2qi2q

Plost rs ia2 ib2 ic2 r fd i 2fd r1d i12d r1qi12q r2qi22q

elect

da db dc d fd d1d

Ptrans ia ib ic i fd i1d

elect dt dt dt dt dt

d1q d2q

i1q i2q

dt dt

14

With the Transformed Variables

3 3

Pin vd id vqiq 3voio v fd i fd v1d i1d

elect 2 2

v1qi1q v2qi2q

3 2 3 2

Plost rsid rsiq 3rsio2 r fd i 2fd r1d i12d

elect 2 2

r1qi12q r2qi22q

15

With the Transformed Variables

Ptrans qid id d iq

elect 2 2 dt 2 dt 2 2 dt

3 dq do d fd d1d

iq 3io i fd i1d

2 dt dt dt dt

d1q d2q

i1q i2q

dt dt

16

Change in Coupling Field Energy

dW f 2 d da db

Te ia ib

dt P dt dt dt

dc d fd d1d

ic i fd i1d

dt dt dt

d1q d2 q

i1q i2 q

dt dt

assumption

17

Change in Coupling Field Energy

For independent states , a, b, c, fd, 1d, 1q, 2q

dW f W f d W f da W f db

dt dt a dt b dt

W f dc W f d fd W f d1d

c dt fd dt 1d dt

W f d1q W f d2 q

1q dt 2 q dt

18

Equate the Coefficients

2 W f W f

Te ia etc.

P a

this model.

an expression for the torque in terms of the

coupling field energy.

19

Equate the Coefficients

W f

3P

shaft 2 2

d iq qid Te

W f 3 W f3 W f

id , iq , 3io

d 2 q 2 o

W f W f W f W f

i fd , i1d , i1q , i2 q

fd 1d 1q 2 q

These are key conditions – i.e. the first one gives an

expression for the torque in terms of the coupling field energy.

20

Coupling Field Energy

• The coupling field energy is calculated using a path

independent integration

– For integral to be path independent, the partial derivatives of

all integrands with respect to the other states must be equal

3 id i fd

For example,

2 fd d

• Since integration is path independent, choose a

convenient path

– Start with a de-energized system so all variables are zero

– Integrate shaft position while other variables are zero, hence

no energy

– Integrate sources in sequence with shaft at final shaft value

21

Do the Integration

shaft

W f W fo

o

3 P ˆ

i

2 2 d q ˆ i

qd ˆ

d shaft

shaft

d q o

3 3

id d d iq d ˆq 3io d ˆo

ˆ

o 2 o 2

d q oo

fd 1d 1q 2q

i fd d ˆ fd i1d d ˆ1d i1q d ˆ1q i2q d ˆ2q

ofd 1od 1oq 2oq

22

Torque

• Assume: iq, id, io, ifd, i1d, i1q, i2q are independent of shaft

(current/flux linkage relationship is independent of

shaft)

• Then Wf will be independent of shaft as well

• Since we have

W f

shaft

3P

22

d iq q id Te 0

Te

3P

22

d iq qid

23

Define Unscaled Variables

P d fd

shaft st r fd i fd v fd

2 dt

d 1d

s is the rated r1d i1d v1d

dt

synchronous speed

d plays an important role! d 1q

r1qi1q v1q

d d dt

rsid q vd d 2 q

dt r2 qi2 q v2 q

d q dt

rsiq d vq

dt d

s

d o dt

rsio vo 2 d 3 P

dt J

p dt 2 2

Tm d iq qid T f

24

Convert to Per Unit

• As with power flow, values are usually expressed in per

unit, here on the machine power rating

VBase I Base PBase

positive currents into machine, generator has positive

out of the machine

• Modify the flux linkage current relationship to account

for the non power invariant “dqo” transformation

25

Convert to Per Unit

va vb vc

Va , Vb , Vc ,

VBABC VBABC VBABC

ia ib ic

Ia , Ib , Ic

I BABC I BABC I BABC

a b c

a , b , c

BABC BABC BABC

where VBABC is rated RMS line-to-neutral stator

voltage and

PB VBABC

I BABC , BABC

3VBABC B

26

Convert to Per Unit

vd vq vo

Vd , Vq , Vo ,

VBDQ VBDQ VBDQ

id iq io

Id , Iq , Io

I BDQ I BDQ I BDQ

d q o

d , q , o

BDQ BDQ BDQ

where VBDQ is rated peak line-to-neutral stator voltage

and

2 PB VBDQ

I BDQ , BDQ

3VBDQ B

27

Convert to Per Unit

v fd v1d v1q v2 q

V fd , V1d , V1q , V2 q

VBFD VB1D VB1Q VB 2Q

i fd i1d i1q i2 q

I fd , I1d , I1q , I 2q

I BFD I B1D I B1Q I B 2Q

fd 1d 1q 2 q

fd , 1d , 1q , 2q

BFD B1D B1Q B 2Q

flux linkages

28

Convert to Per Unit

PB PB

VBFD , VB1D ,

I BFD I B1D

PB PB

VB1Q , VB 2Q

I B1Q I B 2Q

And the rotor circuit base flux linkages are

VBFD VB1D

BFD , B1D ,

B B

VB1Q VB 2Q

B1Q , B 2Q

B B

29

Convert to Per Unit

rs r fd r1d

Rs , R fd , R1d ,

Z BDQ Z BFD Z B1D

r1q r2 q

R1q , R2 q ,

Z B1Q Z B 2Q

Z BDQ , Z BFD , Z B1D ,

I BDQ I BFD I B1D

VB1Q VB 2Q

Z B1Q , Z B 2Q

I B1Q I B 2Q

30

Convert to Per Unit

• Almost done with the per unit conversions! Finally

define inertia constants and torque

2

1 2

J (B )

H 2 P , M 2H

SB s

Tm Te T fw SB

TM , TELEC , TFW , TB

TB TB TB 2

B

P

31

Synchronous Machine Equations

1 d d

Rs I d q Vd 1 d fd

R fd I fd V fd

s dt s s dt

1 d q 1 d 1d

Rs I q d Vq R1d I1d V1d

s dt s s dt

1 d o

Rs I o Vo 1 d 1q

s dt R1q I1q V1q

s dt

1 d 2 q

R2 q I 2 V2 q

s dt

d

s

dt

2 H d

s dt

TM d I q q I d TFW

32

Sinusoidal Steady-State

Va 2Vs cos st vs

2

Here we consider the

Vb 2Vs cos st vs application

3

2 to balanced, sinusoidal

Vc 2Vs cos st vs conditions

3

I a 2I s cos st is

2

Ib 2I s cos st is

3

2

I c 2I s cos st is

3

33

Transforming to dq0

2VsVBABC P

Vd sin shaft st vs

VBDQ 2

2VsVBABC P

Vq cos shaft st vs

VBDQ 2

Vo 0

2 I s I BABC P

Id

I BDQ sin shaft st is

2

2 I s I BABC P

Iq cos t is

I BDQ 2

shaft s

Io 0

34

Simplifying Using

• Recall that P

shaft st

2

The conclusion is

Vd Vs sin vs if we know , then

• Hence Vq Vs cos vs we can easily relate

I d I s sin is the phase to the dq

I q I s cos is values!

• These algebraic equations can be written as

complex equations,

Vd jVq e j / 2

Vs e

j vs

Id jIq e j / 2

I se

jis

35

Summary So Far

• The model as developed so far has been derived using

the following assumptions

– The stator has three coils in a balanced configuration, spaced

120 electrical degrees apart

– Rotor has four coils in a balanced configuration located 90

electrical degrees apart

– Relationship between the flux linkages and currents must

reflect a conservative coupling field

– The relationships between the flux linkages and currents must

be independent of shaft when expressed in the dq0 coordinate

system

36

Assuming a Linear Magnetic Circuit

• If the flux linkages are assumed to be a linear function

of the currents then we can write

a ia The rotor

ib

b Lss shaft

Lsr shaft

self-

inductance

c ic

i matrix

fd fd Lrr is

1d i1d

independent

Lrs shaft Lrr shaft i of shaft

1q 1q

2 q i2 q

37

Inductive Dependence on Shaft Angle

L12 = - maximum

38

Stator Inductances

• The self inductance for each stator winding has a

portion that is due to the leakage flux which does not

cross the air gap, Lls

• The other portion of the self inductance is due to flux

crossing the air gap and can be modeled for phase a as

LA LB cos( P shaft )

modeled as

The offset angle

1

LA LB cos( P shaft offset ) is either 2/3 or

2 -2/3

39

Conversion to dq0 for Angle

Independence

d id

i

q q

o 1 io

Tdqo Lsr

Tdqo LssTdqo i

fd fd

1d i1d

1

LrsTdqo Lrr

1q i1q

2 q i2 q

40

Conversion to dq0 for Angle

Independence

d L s Lmd id Lsfd i fd Ls1d i1d 3

Lmd LA LB ,

3 3

fd Lsfd id L fdfd i fd L fd 1d i1d 3

2 Lmq LA LB

3 3

1d Ls1d id L fd 1d i fd L1d 1d i1d

2

q L s Lmq iq Ls1qi1q Ls 2 qi2 q

3

1q Ls1qiq L1q1qi1q L1q 2 qi2 q

2

3

2 q Ls 2 qiq L1q 2 qi1q L2 q 2 qi2 q

2

o L sio

41

Convert to Normalized at f = s

• Convert to per unit, and assume frequency of s

• Then define new per unit reactance variables

s L s s Lmd s Lmq

X s , X md , X mq

Z BDQ Z BDQ Z BDQ

s L fdfd s L1d 1d s L fd 1d Lsfd

X fd , X 1d , X fd 1d

Z BFD Z B1D Z BFD Ls1d

s L1q1q s L2q 2q s L1q 2q Ls1q

X 1q , X 2q , X 1q 2q

Z B1Q Z B2Q Z B1Q Ls 2q

X fd X fd X md , X 1d X 1d X md

X 1q X 1q X mq , X 2q X 2 q X mq

Xd X s X md , Xq X s X mq

42

Normalized Equations

d X d I d X md I fd X md I1d

fd X md I d X fd I fd cd X md I1d

1d X md I d cd X md I fd X 1d I1d

X fd 1d X1q 2 q

cd 1 cd

X md

, cq

X mq

q X q I q X mq I1q X mq I 2q

1q X mq I q X1q I1q cq X mq I 2 q

2 q X mq I q cq X mq I1q X 2 q I 2 q

cq 1

o X s Io

43

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