You are on page 1of 78

SAP R/3 BASIS

Training
 SAP stands for Systems Applications & Products in data
processing

 Sap has two main products in the business software market


Mainframe System R/2 & Client server system R/3 .
 R stands for REAL TIME

 History of SAP Software

1972 SAP “R/1”


• Innovation = Standard Software and Real Time Computing

1983 SAP “R/2”


•Innovation = Integration of Applications (Mainframe-based)

1989 SAP “R/3”


• Innovation = Relational Database, Client-/Server-Architecture,
Platform Independence

SAP has no plans for R/4 today .


SAP Layers
Three tier client server architecture of the R/3 system separated into three
system layers .
DATABASE Layer (handles database services)
APPLICATION Layer (process business logic & all other services)
PRESENTATION Layer (SAP Graphical User Interface  SAPGUI)

Presentation Application Database

Central System

Distributed System

2-Tier System

3-Tier System
Homogeneous SAP Systems
Where Database server & Application server are running on the same

O.S. Like Win NT & Unix , presentation are running on windows


workstation.

Heterogeneous SAP Systems

Database server running on one O.S. (Unix) & Application server

running on different O.S (Win NT) ,& presentation server running on

Windows-based workstations.
SAP R/3 Architecture

R/3 User R/3 User

Presentation Components

ABAP R/3 Basis R/3 Application R/3 Application


Workbench 1 n
System

Kernel & Basis Services

Database Management System

Database
SAP R/3 Communication Protocol

Communication among the three tiers server is accomplished with the use of
standard protocol services,such as one provided by TCP/IP or CPIC .

TCP/IP  Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol


At the OS level TCP/IP protocol used , Mainly to communicate with database,
application & presentation layer

CPIC  Common Programming Interface Communication


AT the programming level ,R/3 system uses the CPIC protocol for program to
program communication and also includes support for Remote Function Calls
(RFC).
Installation of SAP R/3

1.
1. INSTALL
INSTALL DATABASE
DATABASE SOFTWARE
SOFTWARE ON
ON DATABASE
DATABASE SERVER
SERVER

2.
2. INSTALL
INSTALL SAP
SAP SOFTWARE
SOFTWARE ON
ONAPPLICATION
APPLICATION SERVER
SERVER

3.
3. UPLOAD
UPLOAD DATA
DATATO
TO SAP
SAP SYSTEM
SYSTEM (Main
(Main database
database creation)
creation)

4.
4. SUPPORT
SUPPORT PACKAGE
PACKAGE (PATCH)
(PATCH) LOADING
LOADING

5.
5. POST
POST INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION Steps
Steps

6.
6. READY
READYFOR
FORUSING
USING
SAP R/3 Supported Platforms(1)
The key of SAP R/3 success was the strategy of making open solutions ,
in which the applications can run on multiple operating systems ,
databases ,and communication technologies.

OPERATING SYSTEM LEVEL :


AIX
COMPAQ TRU64
DG-UX
DYNIX/PTX
HP-UX
NCR UNIX
SNI DC/OSX
WINDOWS SERVER 32-BIT
RELIANT
SOLARIS/SPARC
LINUX/INTEL
OS/400

DATABASE LEVEL :
ORACLE
SQL SERVER
DB2
ADABAS
INFORMIX
SAP R/3 Supported Platforms(2)

Oracle Informix DB2 SQL Adabase D


SERVER
HP-UX X X X
AIX X X X X
Reliant/UNIX X X X
Digital unix X X X
Solaris X X X
NT 4.0 Intel X X X X X
NT 4.0 Alpha X X X
OS/390 X
OS/400 X
SAP R/3 Supported Platforms(3)
SAPR/3
SAP R/33.1H:
3.1H:
ORACLE7.3.3
ORACLE 7.3.3 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE7.3.4
ORACLE 7.3.4 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.0.4
ORACLE 8.0.4 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.0.5
ORACLE 8.0.5 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.0.6
ORACLE 8.0.6 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
SQL7.0
SQL 7.0 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL

SAPR/3
SAP R/3 4.6B:
4.6B:
ORACLE8.0.6
ORACLE 8.0.6 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.1.6
ORACLE 8.1.6 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.1.7
ORACLE 8.1.7 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.1.6
ORACLE 8.1.6 WIN2000
WIN 2000 INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.1.7
ORACLE 8.1.7 WIN2000
WIN 2000 INTEL
INTEL
SQL88/ /2000
SQL 2000 WIN2000
WIN 2000 INTEL
INTEL

SAPR/3
SAP R/34.6C:
4.6C:
ORACLE8.0.6
ORACLE 8.0.6 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.1.6
ORACLE 8.1.6 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.1.7
ORACLE 8.1.7 WINNT
WIN NT4.0
4.0INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.1.6
ORACLE 8.1.6 WIN2000
WIN 2000 INTEL
INTEL
ORACLE8.1.7
ORACLE 8.1.7 WIN2000
WIN 2000 INTEL
INTEL
SQL88/ /2000
SQL 2000 WIN2000
WIN 2000 INTEL
INTEL
SAP support period

PleaseUpgrade
Please UpgradeSAP
SAP before
beforethe
themention
mentiondate
date
SAP R/3 CORE BUSINESS MODULES

•SAP R/3 applications usually categorized in three core functional areas


Financial
Logistics
Human Resource
Application Modules
•Financials
Financial Accounting (FI)
Controlling (CO)
Asset Management (AM)
Enterprise Controlling (EC)
Capital Investment Management (IM)
Treasury (TR)
•Logistics
Plant Maintenance (PM)
Quality Management (QM)
Production Planning (PP)
Materials Management (MM)
Sales and Distribution (SD)
Project System (PS)
•Human Resources (HR)
Personal Administration
Personal Development
INDUSTRY SOLUTIONs (ADD-ON s)
Additionally,SAP actively develops special software packages on top of R/3
,targeted to specialized vertical industries.These packages are known as
INDUSTRY SOLUTIONs (IS) .These packages are fully integrated with the
rest of R/3 applications.SAP has the following IS packages like
•IS-B: Sap Industry solution for Banks
•IS-H: Sap Industry solution for Hospitals
•IS-IS: Sap Industry solution for Insurance,Money,Foreign Exchange
•IS-OIL: Sap Industry solution for Oil companies
•IS-P: Sap Industry solution for Publishing sector
•IS-PS: Sap Industry solution for Public sector
•IS-Retail: Sap Industry solution for Retail
•IS-T: Sap Industry solution for Telecommunication Sector

These IS-Packages are a collection of specific business processes,set of


transactions,programs,screens,documentation's Which fully integrated
with the R/3 applications.

Other solutions like CRM , SCM , BIW , PUBLIC-SECTOR etc.


can integrate With the sap system .
Basis Software

 R/3 BASIS Software is the set of programs & tools which interfaces
with the computer operating system ,database ,Application server &
and the presentation interfaces .

Basis software mainly R/3 common Kernel or R/3 Middle ware


which is the nucleus of a system known as the SAP KERNEL .

The main kernel directory in application server is

\usr\sap\<SID>\sys\exe\run
R/3 WORK PROCESS or SERVICES

In SAP naming convention , a service is a process or a group of work


process .Computing system i e running the particular Services known
as a server or Application server .
SERVICES in R/3
Standard Work processes

SAPGUI SAPGUI SAPGUI SAPGUI

Dispatcher
E B M G
D U
N A E A S
I P
Q C S T P
A D
U K S E O
L A
E G A W O
O T
U R G A L
G E
E O E Y

DATABASE INSTANCE
Dispatcher processes

The SAP dispatcher is the control program which manages


the resources of the R/3 applications.

The main tasks of the dispatcher are as follows:


 Balanced assignment of the transaction load to the
appropriate work process

 Buffer management in the main memory.

 Connection with the presentation level.

 Organization of the communication process.


Dialog work processes(1)

Dialog Step:
A dialog step is a sap r/3 screen,which is represented by a dynamic
program(dynpro) .A dynamic program consists of a screen and all the
associated processing logic .
When users are entered something on the screen & press enter ,they are
actually making one dialog step .

 The dialog work processes are in charge of interactive


task of the R/3 System . A dialog process performs the
dialog steps corresponding to the user interactive
sessions.

 The SAP profile parameter that controls the number of


interactive Dialog Work Process per instance is
rdisp/wp_no_dia
Dialog work processes(2)
Update work Process

The update process is in charge of executing


database changes when requested by dialog or
background work Processes.
Enqueue work Process

The enqueue work process is in charge of lock


Management system. It allows multiple application
Services to synchronize the access to the database
and maintain data consistency.
Background work Process
The background work processes are in charge of
executing ABAP/4 programs submitted for background
execution. SAP background processing automates
routine tasks and helps in optimize computing
resources. Using background processing, SAP System
runs programs for you. Background processing lets you
move long-running or resource-intensive program runs
to times when the system load is low. It also lets you
delegate to the system the task of running reports or
programs. Your dialog sessions are not tied up, and
reports that run in the background are not subject to the
dialog-step run-time limit that applies to interactive
sessions.
The SAP profile parameter that controls the number of
background work processes per instance is
rdisp/wp_no_btc
Message work Server

The message server is a service used by the


different Application servers to exchange data
and internal messages. The message server
routes the messages between application servers.
Gateway work Server

The gateway server allows the communication


between the R/3, R/2 and external applications.

This service is a CPIC handler which implements


the CPIC protocol for Communication. This is
commonly known as a gateway.

The function of the SAP gateway is to exchange


larger Amounts of data between application
servers.
Spool work Process

The spool work process is in charge of formatting


the data for printing and passing it to the host
spool system.

The SAP profile parameter that controls the


number of background work processes per
instance is rdisp/wp_no_spo
Setting of R/3 WORK PROCESS

Min Number Taken care by


Name of the Services . of processes the parameters

Dialog Services (D) >=2 rdisp/wp_no_dia


rdisp/wp_no_vb,
Update Services (V) >=0 rdisp/wp_no_vb2

Enqueue (Lock management) (E) 0 or 1 rdisp/wp_no_enq

Background Process (B) >=1 rdisp/wp_no_btc

Message Server process (M) 0 or 1

Gateway services (G) >=1


Spool services (S) >=1 rdisp/wp_no_spo
Process Overview
Logical flow of a execution of a user request
1.
1. User
User enter
enter data
data using
using SAPGUI
SAPGUI

2.
2. SAPGUI
SAPGUI convert
convert data
data to
to sap
sap format
format && sent
sent to
to dispatcher
dispatcher

3.
3. Dispatcher
Dispatcher keeps
keeps the
the requests
requests in
in queues
queues &
& process
process one
one by
by one
one

4.
4. Dispatcher
Dispatcher allocates
allocates user
user request
request to
to free
free work
work process
process

5.
5. Real
Real execution
execution takes
takes place
place inside
inside work
work processes
processes

6.
6. End
End of
of execution,
execution, result
result goes
goes back
back to
to Dispatcher
Dispatcher

7.
7. Dispatcher
Dispatchersends
sendsdata
datato
touser
userusing
usingSAPGUI
SAPGUI

Timeisistaken
Time takenfrom
fromstep1
step1totostep
step77isisknown
knownasas RESPONSE
RESPONSETIME
TIME. .
Basis Terminology (1)
R/3 System
A R/3 System consists of combination of database server and the application servers .
SAP System Identification
The SAP System Identification, often referred to as the SAPSID, or SID, is a unique three-
character code that identifies the R/3 System. SAP System Identification codes used are
DEV for the development system, QAS for the quality assurance system, and PRD for the
production system.
Client
A client is a legal and organizational entity in the R/3 System whose business
management data is protected against unlawful access.
In addition, a client:
Has its own set of user data
Is a logical system with separate master records
Has its own set of table data on common table .
System Landscape
The landscape consists of all R/3 Systems (Instances) involved in the implementation
project and client architectures that access (or share) a common transport directory.
Basis Terminology (2)
Customizing
Customizing is the process of configuring the SAP R/3 System such that the R/3
functionality fits the company’s needs.

Database Server
This is where the database resides. Main data stores in this server .

Application Server
This is where R/3 application runs. On a 2 tiered system, this would be combined with the
database server.

Instance
An installation of R/3 on a application server .

GUI:
Graphical User Interface. The SAPgui is the software on users computer
or local server that allows to connect to one or more of the SAP
environments.
Disk Space Requirements
To configure a R/3 Release 4.X System, each database will require approximately 20
GB of disk space.
An application server will require approximately 2 GB of disk space .
A client with pure customizing data will require between 700 to 1500 MB.
If the client also contains application data, such as a production system, the storage
requirements can increase to several GB.

The disk space requirements can also be affected by the:


Relational database management system (RDBMS) selected
Number of clients in the system
Number of master data records
Number of transaction data records
Amount of historical data retained
SAP R/3 Directory structure (1) SCM
SCM
Thesesap
These sap
directories
directories
createdby
created by
sap
sap
installation
installation

DVEBMGS00
DVEBMGS00

The
 Thephysical
physicalparent
parentdirectory
directoryof
ofthe
thewhole
wholesap
sapapplication
applicationisis/usr/sap
/usr/sap
Transport
 Transportdirectory
directoryisis/usr/sap/trans
/usr/sap/trans
SAP
 SAPsystem
systemparent
parentdirectory
directory<sapsid>
<sapsid>, ,which
whichisis/usr/sap/SCM
/usr/sap/SCM
IfIfmore
 morethan
thanone
onesap
sapsystem
systemwill
willinstalled
installedon
onthe
thesame
samemachine
machinethen
thenadditional
additional
directorywill
directory willbe
becreated
createdunder
under/usr/sap/…..
/usr/sap/…......
SAP R/3 Directory structure (2)

Sap
 Sap mount
mountdirectory
directoryisis/sapmnt
/sapmntuseful
usefulfor
forsharing
sharingthe
thecommon
commonfiles
fileswith
withall
all
systembelonging
system belongingto
tothe
thesame
samegroup
group. .
Mainly
 Mainly/sapmnt/scm
/sapmnt/scm  indicatesthe
indicates thedirectory
directory /usr/sap/scm
/usr/sap/scm
Directory
 Directory /sapmnt/scm/sys/exe/run
/sapmnt/scm/sys/exe/run ititcontains
containsall
allsap
sapruntime
runtimeprograms
programs
thisdirectory
this directoryalso
alsocalled
calledsap
sapkernel
kernel directory.Most
directory.Mostof ofthe
theprogram
programfilesfilesininthis
this
directoryare
directory aredirectly
directlyused
usedbybysap
sapprocesses
processes
Directory
 Directory/sapmnt/scm/sys/profile
/sapmnt/scm/sys/profilewhich whichcontains
containssapsapprofile
profilefiles
fileslike
like
startup-profile,default-profile
startup-profile ,default-profile&&instance-profile.
instance-profile.
Directory
 Directory /sapmnt/scm/sys/global
/sapmnt/scm/sys/globalwhich whichcontains
containsglobal
globalororcommon
commondata data
managedby
managed bythe
theSAP
SAPapplication
application&&shared
sharedbybyall
allinstances
instances,all
,alltypes
typesof oflogs.
logs.
R/3 Client
WhenSap
When
 Sapinstalled
installedititcomes
comeswith
with 33 default
default clients
clients with
withdefault
default
usersand
users anddefault
defaultpassword.
password.

Client User Default


Password
000 SAP* 06071992
000 DDIC 19920706
001 SAP* 06071992
001 DDIC 19920706
066 EARLYWATCH SUPPORT
R/3 Data(1)
CLIENT
CLIENT CLIENT
CLIENT CLIENT
CLIENT
000
000 066
066 001
001
CLIENTIndependent
CLIENT Independentcustomizing
customizing

SAP
SAP
RepositoryObject
Repository Object

An
 AnR/3
R/3System
Systemis
issubdivided
subdividedinto
intoclients
clients. .

InR/3
In
 R/3 most
mostof
ofCustomer
Customerbusiness
businessdata
datain
insub
subgroups
groupsdivided
dividedby
by
clients,these
clients ,thesetype
type of
of data
data is
is client
clientdependent
dependent data
data
Whenthe
When theSAP
SAPobjects
objectsare
arejust
justaccessed
accessedby
byonly
onlyone
oneclient,
client,we
we
definethem
define themas
as client
clientdependant
dependantdata.
data.

Somedata
Some
 datain
inR/3
R/3which
which is
isshared
sharedby
byall
allclient
clientlike
likeR/3
R/3
repositorydata.This
repository data.Thistype
typeof
of data
datais
is client
clientindependent
independentdata.
data.
R/3 Data(2)
R/3 database can be divided into two logical components:
• R/3 repository object
• R/3 customer data
R/3 repository : central part of this is ABAP dictionary i.e. programs,screens,
reports provided by sap or created or modified by sap user .

Customer data : customer data consists of any kind of data entered into r/3
by the customer in time of sap implementation or day to day
business processing .
Customizing data
This data generated when r/3 is configured to meet the particular needs of the
customer through customizing.Most customizing data is client-dependent some
is independent .
Application data
Also known as business data ,which generated day by day business processing.
Mainly master data , transaction data .
User master data
Records of R/3 users password & authorization
System strategies(1)
•Intime
•In timeof
ofsystem
systemsetup
setupthe
thequestion
questionwewe have
haveto
toface
face
Howmany
 How manyR/3
R/3systems
systemswill
willbe
beneeded
needed??
Whatfunction
 What functionwill
willbe
beperformed
performedbybyeach
eachR/3
R/3system
systemin
inaa
systemlandscape
system landscape??
Howmany
 How manyclients
clientswill
willbe
beneeded
neededby byeach
eachR/3
R/3system
system??
Whatrole
 What rolewill
willeach
eachclient
clientplay
playin
inthe
thesystem
systemLandscape
Landscape??

Threetypes
Three typesof
ofEnvironment
Environmentneeded
neededfor
foraasystem
systemstrategies
strategies
 Development
Developmentenvironment
environment (DEV)
(DEV)
Fordevelopment
For developmentactivities
activities. .
 Quality
 QualityAssurance
Assuranceenvironment
environment(QA)
(QA)
Forextensive
For extensivetesting
testingthe
thedeveloped
developedor
orcustomized
customizedobject
object.Mainly
.Mainlyfor
for
integrationtesting
integration testingpurpose.
purpose.
 Production
 Productionenvironment
environment(PRD)
(PRD)
Foractual
For actualcompany
companybusiness
business transaction.
transaction.

Combination of all the system is called SYSTEM LANDSCAPE .


Three types of system landscape are
 Single-system Landscape
 Two-system Landscape
 Three-system Landscape
System strategies(2)

Single-systemLandscape
Single-system Landscape
Developmentclient
Development client,,Testing
Testingclient
client,,Production
ProductionClient
Clienton
onaasame
sameserver
server..

Advantages
Advantages
•Forthis
•For thistype
typeof
ofsystem
system,,hardware
hardwarecost
cost&&administrative
administrativecost
costisislower
lower..

Disadvantages
Disadvantages
•Changesto
•Changes toclient-independent
client-independent or
orrepository
repositoryobjects
objectswill
willaffect
affectthe
thewhole
whole

environment..
environment

•Theperformance
•The performanceof
ofthe
thesystem
systemaffect
affectall
allclients
clients

•Productiondata
•Production dataisisaaaccessible
accessiblefrom
fromdevelopment
development&&testing
testingenvironment
environment

•Problemsduring
•Problems duringthetheimplementation
implementationof
ofother
otherapplications
applications,,when
whensome
some
productionisisgoing
production goingon
on..

•Problemswhen
•Problems whenmodifying
modifyingstandard
standardprograms
programs

•Ifthe
•If thesystem
systemcrashes
crashesthe
theall
allthree
threeR/3
R/3systems
systemswill
willbe
beaffected
affected..
Mostof
Most ofthe
thedisadvantages
disadvantageswith
withaaone-system
one-systemlandscape
landscapeare
are
associatedwith
associated withclient
clientindependent
independentchanges,
changes,repository
repository
changes,&
changes, &upgrades
upgrades,,that
thatimmediately
immediatelyimpact
impact the
theproduction
production
environment.These
environment. Thesedisadvantages
disadvantagesareareaamuch
muchgreater
greaterproblem
problem
oncethe
once theR/3
R/3System
Systemisisin
inaaproductive
productivestate.
state.
System strategies(3)

Two-systemLandscape
Two-system Landscape
For this
For thiscase
casedevelopment
development&& QA QAtesting
testingdone
done on
onsame
samesystem
system ..
Butproduction
But productionon ondifferent
differentsystem
system..

Advantages
Advantages
•Theproduction
•The productionsystem
system(PRD)
(PRD)containing
containingonly
onlythe
thefinalized
finalizedproduction
production
environment..
environment

Aftercompleting
After completingthe
thepreparation
preparationphase
phase(test,
(test,verification,
verification,and
andrelease),
release),the
the
parametersand
parameters andprograms
programscancanbe
betransported
transportedfrom
fromthe
thedevelopment
developmentsystem
system
(DEV)to
(DEV) tothe
theproduction
productionsystem
system(PRD)
(PRD)..
(DEVclient
(DEV client QAclient
 QA client PRDSystem).
 PRD System).

Minimalamount
Minimal amountof
ofhardware
hardwareinvestment.
investment.

Minimalsystem
Minimal systemadministration
administrationand
andchange
changerequest
requestmanagement
managementrequired
required

Disadvantages
Disadvantages
•Recommendedonly
•Recommended onlyfor
forprojects
projectswith
withaalimited
limitedamount
amountof
ofongoing
ongoingdevelopment
development

•Noseparate
•No separatequality
qualityassurance
assurancesystem
system(QAS)
(QAS)for
forisolated
isolatedtesting
testing

•Client-independentcustomizing
•Client-independent customizingactivity
activitymust
mustbe
becarefully
carefullyplanned
plannedso
sothat,
that,itit
doesnot
does notaffect
affectother
othercustomizing/development
customizing/developmentactivities
activities
System strategies(4)
Three-system
Three -systemLandscape
Landscape
Inthis
In thiscase
casedevelopment
development,QA
,QA,,production
productiontake
takeplace
placeon
ondifferent
differentsystem.
system.
Themost
The mostrecommended
recommendedsystem
systemininSAP
SAP..

Advantages
Advantages

•Newdevelopment
•New developmentcan canstart
startwithout
withoutaffecting
affectingthe
theproduction
production environment.
environment.
•QAsystem
•QA systemallows
allowsfor
forintegration
integrationtesting
testingofofdevelopments
developmentsbefore
beforepromoted
promoted
toproduction.
to production.
•Productiondata
•Production dataisissecure,
secure,security
securitywill
willprevent
preventaccess
accesstotosensitive
sensitivedata
data&&
clientsettings
client settingswill
willprevent
preventthetheunauthorized
unauthorizedchanging
changingof ofdata
data..
•Productionperformance
•Production performanceisisnot notaffected
affectedby byother
otherclients,
clients,there
thereisisonly
onlyone
one
production client
production client..
•Thegeneral
•The generalsandbox
sandboxclient
client(SAND)
(SAND)in inthe
thedevelopment
developmentsystem
system(DEV)
(DEV)makes
makesitit

easierto
easier tobecome
becomefamiliar
familiarwith
withthe
thenew
newapplication
applicationfunctions
functionsand
andconduct
conduct
suitabilitytesting
suitability testing
•Client-independentcustomizing
•Client-independent customizingtesting
testingcan
canoccur
occurwithout
withoutconflicts
conflicts

Disadvantages
Disadvantages
•Requiresincreased
•Requires increasedsystem
systemadministration
administrationand
andchange
changemanagement
managementactivities
activities
•Increasehardware
•Increase hardwarecost
cost
Transport management system

Within
 Withinthe
the R/3
R/3System
SystemLandscape
Landscape customizing
customizing&&development
developmentchanges
changesperformed,
performed,
inaadevelopment
in developmentclient
client ,has
,hasto
totransfer
transferto
toQAS
QASclient
client&
&PRD
PRDclient
client. .

SAP
 SAPR/3R/3enables
enablesuser
usertotorecord
recordchanges
changesto
toaaCHANGE
CHANGEREQUEST
REQUEST,which
,whichisis
distributed to
distributed toother
otherclient
client or
orother
other R/3
R/3system
system. .

When
 Whenchanges
changesto
to either
eithercustomizing
customizingor
orrepository
repositoryobjects
objectsare
aremade,the
made,thechanged
changed
objectsare
objects arerecorded
recordedtotoaaTASK
TASK in
inaa Change
ChangeRequest
Requestcorresponding
correspondingto
toaaspecific
specific
user. .
user

After
 Aftercompletion
completionthe
thedevelopment
development,user
,userrelease
releasethe
theChange
ChangeRequest
Request&
&transport
transport
toQAS
to QAS& &PRD
PRDsystem
system. .

 Transport
 TransportDirectory
Directory  \usr\sap\trans
\usr\sap\trans

DEV
DEV QAS
QAS PRD
PRD
SAP consultants
SAP consultants divide themselves into 3 categories
FUNCTIONAL consultant
BASIS consultant
ABAP programmers

FUNCTIONAL consultant: Experienced people in some business areas


who knows how to customize those modules
to meet the customers need.

BASIS consultant: Technical consultants who taken care installation


sap administration , database administration.

ABAP programmer: Technical consultant who writes sap programs


& reports for any new requirements in sap by
using ABAP/4 programming language.

Customizing : Once customer buy one sap-kit,it contains all the modules
with all the business processes.the next step is to customize
to suit business needs & practices.
ABAP/4  Advanced Business Application Programming (4GL)

ABAP/4 is a SAP programming language used in the development of all standard


applications included with R/3 .SAP has designed a full purpose development
environment known as ABAP/4 development workbench.
START WORKING ON SAP BASIS
SAP Screen Features(1)
•SAP screen has seven main areas: Screen Header, Menu
Bar, Standard Toolbar, Title Bar, either a Navigation
Toolbar or Application Toolbar, Screen Body, and
Status Bar..
SAP Screen Features(2)
Command Field
The Command field is used to enter transaction codes

Standard Toolbar Buttons


The SAP buttons displayed on the Toolbar provide quick access to commonly used
SAP functions.
If a Toolbar button is gray, it is not available for use on that
particular screen.
OPENNING A SAP SESSION using saplogon-pad

• Navigation to opening a SAP session


1. Start Programs SAP Fronted  SAPLogon
2. Choose any one of the icon ‘SAPlogon’ or ‘SAPlogon-pad’ from the desktop .
Choose any server name e.g. ‘SCMA SERVER’ .
Then the Sap screen will open & connect to the Application server defined on SAPlogon pad
Continue …..
Creating one new entry on SAP-logon

EnterIP
Enter IPaddress
addressofof
theapplication
the application
server&&the
server thesystem
system
number
number

• Creation of new SAPLogon on logon-pad .


We create giving the IP address & the system number which is the
identification of the instance.`
Continue …..
OPENING A SAP SESSION using sap-session-manager
SAPfront-end
SAP front-endcan
canbe
be
openusing
open using SAP
SAP
SessionManager.
Session Manager.

ChooseApplication
Choose Application
serverfirst
server first. .
EnterProper
Enter Proper
USERID,ClientID,
USERID,Client ID,
Password&&
Password
Languagetotoopen
Language open
thesap
the sapsession
session. .
FIRST SCREEN ON SAP

EnterProper
Enter ProperClient
Clientidid, ,
Useridid, ,Password
User Password&&
Languagetotoopen
Language openthe
the
sapsession
sap session. .

Nowstart
Now start
Working
Working
Start work on Basis StartBasis
BasisAdminstration
Adminstration
Start
••Basis
BasisAdministration
Administration
SAPmenu
SAP menuTools
ToolsAdministration
Administration ••User
UserAdministration
Administration
••Client
ClientAdministration
Administration
••Transport
TransportManagement
Management
Navigation Using Transaction Codes
 SAP provides a unique multi-character identifier for each system
task. This shorthand
name is called a transaction code which is a navigation alternative to
using a menu
path to get to a system task
 Transaction code may contain letters only, or a combination of letters
and numbers.
Used in conjunction with a prefix such as /n or /o .
e.g . SPAM , SU01 .
 /n ends the current transaction and switches to the new one without
saving any data
in the current transaction .
 /o opens a new SAP session and accesses the new transaction
Command
Command field
field
without
with ending the
withcurrent one (which will remain open in the background session)
transaction
transaction
Code.
Code.
Transaction Code(1)
Transaction is an operation that lets a user make changes to a database .

 In SAP transaction is a sequence of related steps ,are screens in which data


is introduced causing the generation of other events.

 The final task of a transaction is to modify the information which ultimately


goes into the database. The database is not updated until a transaction has
finished.

 All the transactions in the R/3 system have an associated transaction code.

 All available transaction are held in table TSTC .To see the table data we can
use the transaction codes SE16 / SE11 .

 We can create user defined transaction code by using SE93 .

The Used transaction code by the user can be monitored using the transaction
code STAT and STAD.
Transaction Code(2)

Transaction
Transaction
codeSE93
code SE93toto
maintainTC.
maintain TC.

Userdefined
User definedTCTC
startwith
start withYYor
or
ZZ
Transaction Code(3)

Transaction
Transaction
codeSTAT
code STATtoto
monitor
monitor
Transaction
Transaction
codeused
code usedby
by
anyuser
any user
System Status
Navigation
 Navigation ::Menu
Menu System
 System Status
 Status
Client Maintenance
Maintain
 Maintainclient
clientusing
usingthe
thetransaction
transactioncode
codeSCC4
SCC4
User Maintenance

Createor
Create ormaintain
maintainUser
User
usingthe
using thetransaction
transactioncode
code
SU01
SU01
Maintain Authorization
Maintain
 MaintainUser
UserAuthorization
Authorizationusing
usingtransaction
transactioncode
codePFCG
PFCG
Configure & Maintain Transport Management System
Maintain
 MaintainTransport
Transportmanagement
managementsystem
system using
usingtransaction
transaction
code STMS
code STMS..
Maintain Transport request
Maintain
 MaintainTransport
TransportRequest
Request using
usingtransaction
transactioncode
code
SE01..
SE01
Maintain RFC connection
Maintain
 MaintainRFC
RFCconnection
connectionusing
usingthe
thetransaction
transactioncode
codeSM59.
SM59.
Maintain SAP Profile
Maintain
 MaintainSAP
SAPProfile
Profile using
usingthe
thetransaction
transactioncode
codeRZ10.
RZ10.
Maintain SAP table data
Maintain
 MaintainSAP
SAPtable
tableusing
usingthe
thetransaction
transactioncode
codeSE11.
SE11.
To monitoring Logon user with R/3
Can
 CanMonitor
Monitorany
anyuser
userworking
workingor
ornot
notusing
usingTC
TC SM04.
SM04.
To maintain the customizing setting within R/3
Create
 Createcustomizing
customizingsetting
settingby
by the
thetransaction
transactioncode
codeSPRO
SPRO
To upload support package to R/3
Upload
 Uploadthe
thesupport
supportpackages
packagesusing
usingtransaction
transactioncode
codeSPAM
SPAM
To monitoring system log messages
Monitor
 Monitor log
logof
ofthe
thesystem
systemusing
usingtransaction
transactioncode
codeSM21
SM21
Database backup scheduling
Scheduling
 Schedulingand
andmonitoring
monitoringdatabase
databasebackup
backupusing
usingTC
TCDB13
DB13
Sending System Message
Send
 Sendsystem
systemmessage
messageto
tothe
thesap
sapusers
usersusing
usingTC
TCSM02.
SM02.
SAP SYSTEM STARTUP or SHUTDOWN(1)
Double click
Double clickon
onthe
the
icon‘SAP
icon ‘SAPSYSTEM
SYSTEM
MANAGEMNT
MANAGEMNT
CONSOLE’to
CONSOLE’ toSTART
START
SAPMMC..
SAPMMC

SAPMMC
SAPMMC
Whichused
Which used
tostart
to start&&
stopsap
stop sap
application
application
server..
server
SAP SYSTEM STARTUP or SHUTDOWN(2)
SAPMMC
SAPMMC
Rightclick
Right clickthe
the
applicationserver
application server
name(scma
name (scma
here)the
here) the
start/stopoption
start/stop option
willcome
will comechoose
choose
theright
the rightone
one

SAPMMC
SAPMMC
Whenthe
When thesapsap
systemstart
system start
properlythen
properly then
msg_server.e
msg_server.e
xe&&
xe
disp+work.e
disp+work.e
xe
xe
willgreen
will green&&
statuswill
status will
show
show
Running. .
Running
SAP SYSTEM STARTUP or SHUTDOWN(3)
SAPDBA tool can be invoke from operating system (dos prompt for WinNT) using the
command C:\> sapdba

SAPDBA
SAPDBA
Sapstartup/shutdown
Sap startup/shutdown
alsocan
also canbe
bedone
doneby
by
usingSAPDBA
using SAPDBAtool.
tool.

STARTUP/ SHUTDOWN can be done from operating system (dos prompt for WinNT)
using the commands
C:\> startsap (Starting sap & db )
C:\> stopsap (Stoping sap & db )
C:\> startsap r\3 (Starting sap server only ,when db is running )
C:\> stopsap r\3 (Stoping sap server only, but db will running )
C:\> startsap db (Starting db only ,but sap will not start )
C:\> stopsap db (Stoping db ,when sap already stopped )
Roles of an Basis Admin(1)

Within R/3
Within R/3 ::
User
Useradministrator
administrator
Setup
Set upand
andmaintain
maintainuser
useraccounts
accounts
Newuser
New usersetup
setup
Resetaapassword
Reset password
Lockor
Lock orunlock
unlockaauser
user
Security
Securityadministrator
administrator
Createand
Create andmaintain
maintainSAP
SAPsecurity
securityprofiles
profiles
Monitorand
Monitor andmanage
managesecurity
securityaccess
accessand
andviolations
violations
System
Systemadministrator
administrator
Createaasystem
Create systemmessage
message
Startor
Start orstop
stopthe
thesystem
system
Maintainthe
Maintain thehealth
healthof
ofthe
thesystem
system
Monitorsystem
Monitor systemperformance
performanceandandlogs
logs
Transport
Transportadministrator
administrator
Transportchanges
Transport changesfrom
fromone
onesystem
systemtotoanother
another
Managechange
Manage changerequests
requests
Roles of an Basis Admin(2)

Within R/3
Within R/3 ::
Batch
Batchscheduler
scheduler
Createand
Create andmanage
managethe
thescheduling
schedulingof
ofbatch
batchjobs
jobs
Backup
Backupoperator
operator
Schedule,run,
Schedule, run,and
andmonitor
monitorbackup
backupjobs
jobsof
ofthe
theSAP
SAPdatabase
databaseand
andany
anyrequired
required
operatingsystem
operating systemlevel
levelfiles
files
Disaster
Disasterrecovery
recoverytechnical
technicalmanager
manager
Create,test,
Create, test,and
andexecute
executethe
theSAP
SAPdisaster
disasterrecovery
recoveryplan
plan
Programmer
Programmer
ApplyOnline
Apply OnlineService
ServiceSystem
Systemnote
notefixes
fixestotoprograms
programs
Data
DataDictionary
Dictionary(DDIC)
(DDIC)manager
manager
Changethe
Change theData
DataDictionary
Dictionary(when
(whenapplicable)
applicable)
Roles of an Basis Admin(3)

Outside R/3
Outside R/3 ::
DBA
DBAfor
forthe
thespecific
specificdatabase
databaseon
onwhich
whichthe
thesystem
systemisisrunning
running
Managedatabase
Manage databasespecific
specifictasks
tasks
Maintainthe
Maintain thedatabase’s
database’shealth
healthand
andintegrity
integrity
Operating
Operatingsystem
systemadministrator
administrator
Managethe
Manage theoperating
operatingsystem
systemaccess
accessand
anduser
userIDs
IDs
Manageoperating
Manage operatingsystem
systemspecific
specifictasks
tasks
Desktop
Desktopsupport
support
Supportsthe
Supports theuser’s
user’sdesktop
desktopPC
PC
MaintenanceR/3
Maintenance R/3
Changing
Changingsystem
systemprofile
profileparameters
parameters
Applying
Applyinghot
hotpackages
packagesor
orlegal
legalchange
changepatches
patches
Upgrading
Upgradingthe
thekernel
kernel
Client
Clientcopy
copy(create,
(create,copy,
copy,and
anddelete)
delete)
Transporting
Transportingobjects
objectsfrom
fromsystem
systemtotosystem
system
SAP Today

 4th largest software vendor in the world


 30+ years of business experience
 7,500+ customers in 90+ countries
 13,000+ R/3 installations
 1,400+ R/2 installations
 ~13,000 employees
 Worldwide presence in over 50 countries outside Germany

SAP WORLWIDE HEADQUARTER ADDRESS :


SAP AG Germany
Neurottstrass 16, D –69190 Walldorf ,Germany
Phone : 06227 –34 –0
Web site : www.sap.com www.sap-ag.de www.help.sap.com