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RUBELLA

INFECTION
By: Kristine Mae C. Jumaya
HISTORY
 Friedrich Hoffmann, a German physician, first
described a case of rubella in 1740.
 George de Maton suggested it was distinct from
other diseases such as the measles and scarlet
fever in 1814.
 In 1962, the virus was isolated in a tissue
culture, allowing the initial research for a vaccine
to begin.
 A live attenuated virus vaccine was licensed in
1969 and introduced in combinations with other
vaccines shortly after.
• Derived from the latin, meaning Little red
• Also called as German measles
• An acute viral infection that usually affects
children and young adults
• transmitted between humans via airborne
droplets when infected individuals cough or
sneeze.
• It is usually mild in children but can have
severe consequences in some population
groups, such as pregnant women.
• It has the potential to cause fetal death or
birth defects to the infant
SYMPTOMS
 The virus spreads in the body over
the course of a week and symptoms
may present 2-3 weeks after
infection. Symptoms may include:
 Rash(affects most patients)

 Low fever

 Nausea

 Mild conjunctivitis

 Swollen lymph glands

 Adults with the infection tend to


have more severe symptoms than
children and may also develop
painful joints that last for 3-10 days.
ACQUIRED RUBELLA INFECTION
 Incubation varies from 10 to 21 days.
 Infected persons are usually contagious for 12 to
15 days, beginning 5 to 7 days before the
appearance (if present) of a rash.
 Infection last forom3 to 5 days and usually
requires minimal treatment.
 clinical manifestations:

 Maculopapular rash

 Temperature less than 34.4° C


CONGENITAL RUBELLA SYNDROME

 If a pregnant woman becomes infected with


rubella, there is a high risk (approximately 90%)
that the viral infection will be passed on to the
fetus. This can cause miscarriage, stillbirth or
birth defects known as congenital rubella
syndrome.
 IgM demonstration in a single neonatal specimen
is diagnostic of congenital rubella syndrome
 Children with the syndrome
may suffer from a range of
effects including:
 Deafness

 Eye defects including


cataracts and glaucoma
 Heart defects

 Brain abnormalities causing


mental retardation
HEMAGGLUTINATION INHIBITION(HAI)

 antibody testing
 Most frequently used method of screening for the
presence of rubella antibodies
Normal:
• Negative for IgG and IgM.

• IgG positive indicate previous exposure or


immunization.
• IgM positive indicate current or recent infection.

• HAI = <1:8 = No immunity to infection.

• HAI = >1:20 = Immunity to rubella infection


OTHER METHODS:
 Latex procedures provide more rapid and
convenient alternatives to HAI.
 EIA

 Chemiluminescent assay

 FIA
VACCINATION
 The rubella vaccination uses a live attenuated
strain that provides more that 95% long-lasting
immunity with a single dose, similar to the
natural protection acquired when an individual is
infected with the virus in childhood.
 Some individuals may experience a mild reaction
to the vaccination, such as local irritation at the
injection site, low fever, rash and muscle aches.
 The vaccination is available as a monovalent
formulation but is usually administered in
combination with other vaccines for measles,
mumps.