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Chris Mutungi, SIS/PHD/C/015/17

An emotion
- An emotion is a complex psychological
state that involves three distinct components:
a subjective experience(individual), a
physiological response (body movement), and
a behavioral or expressive response (reaction)

-An emotion is a mental and physiological

state associated with a wide variety of
feelings, thoughts and behaviour.
Emotional Response

Emotional response can be defined as "A

reaction to a particular intrapsychic feeling or
feelings, accompanied by physiological
changes that may or may not be outwardly
manifested but that motivate or precipitate
some action of behavioral change” Mosby
 The way the body responds to external
stimulus and the accompanying physical
reaction through one or more of the basic
human emotions. E.g. anger and fear
 Some of the physical reactions experienced
include sweating palms and a racing heart
-The process of raising voices in an effective
manner in order to influence others. It is a
process rather than a product. Subedi (2008)
-When advocacy is carried out to support or
empower the marginalised, it is a means of
gaining a better policy environment with
implications for the implementation of
policies, rather than an end in itself

Planned communication initiatives aimed at

generating specific outcomes in a relatively
large number of individuals, within a
specified time, and through an organized set
of communication activities
Message Design

-The careful integration of words, images,

sound, and motion into a message that
clearly conveys an idea to the relevant public.

-Message design is important since it

determines the level of acceptance or
rejection of the message by the target
 Griffin (2012) A theory is an idea that
explains an event or behavior and it brings
clarity to an otherwise jumbled situation, and
brings order out of chaos. A theory seeks to
explain how and why things happen.
 Theories are general statements that
summarise our understanding of the way the
world works.
 Whenever a human being is confronted by a
situation (stimulus), the body reacts to the
situation by generating an emotion which is
in-line with the stimulus’ perceived effect to
the body.
 The generation of the emotions is driven by
the need for survival.
 There are several emotions but the common
ones include, anger, disgust, fear, joy,
sadness, trust, distrust, surprise, happiness,
contempt etc.
 Three categories of emotions. primary,
secondary and tertiary.

 Primary- love

 Secondary- affection/longing/lust

 Tertiary -adoration/caring and liking as

The evolution theory
-historical approach to explain the origin of
the development of emotions.
-history, culture and social factors define how
emotions develop. ( some communities more
emotional than others)
-Evolution theorists say that human beings
share crucial emotions and believe that one
does not need to reason in order to exhibit a
particular emotion
James-Lange theory
-People have a physiological response to
environmental stimuli and that their
interpretation of that physical response then
results in an emotional experience. James &
Lange (1927)
-An event causes physiological arousal first,
the after an interpretation of the arousal an
emotion is generated
Canon-Bard theory
-people react to a stimulus and exhibit the
corresponding or associated emotion at the
same time.
-Physiological reactions to different emotions
can be similar.
-people can experience sweating, a racing
heart and increased respiration in response to
fear, anger or excitement
Cognitive appraisal theory
 emotions are as a result of appraisals of
situations and events that in turn elicit
different reaction to different people.
 It’s a conscious reaction to stimulus.

 one reasons first, and then engages the

relevant emotion to react to the stimulus.
Agenda setting theory
-The media chooses a few things to highlight
and this makes their audiences think that
those are the most important issues to follow
or discuss.
-The media points to a direction and the
audience’s line of thought is focused on that
Hypodermic needle/Magic bullet theory

-The media has a direct and immediate effect

on its audience.
-Once the message from the media reaches
the audience, they respond immediately.
Mainstreaming theory
-This theory proposes that the media has the
ability to move its audiences towards a
common view of something.

- It is a theory which sees the public move

together towards a common goal.
Two step flow theory

-Information from the media moves in two

clear steps
-Opinion leaders in society, who then
interpret, sometimes adding their own
opinions, and pass the information to the
general public.
 Both theories place the target public at the

 The theories expect some response

 The reaction to the stimulus and message

vary from one individual to another

 With the emotional response theories, the

campaign message can be equated to the
 It is the message that elicits the response
from the public.

 It is that which triggers the emotions relevant

to how it affects the public.

 The public’s reaction to the external factor

(message/stimulus) depends on how the
message is designed and presented and how
it affects them
 It is the message that triggers the reaction
from the people

 The public’s reaction to a message depends

on how the message is designed and
presented and how it affects them

 Two factors that affect message reception are

demographics and living standard measure.
An example of the living standard measure is
the mpango wa kando campaign
 Message was to discourage promiscuity but
took the cost angle

 Failed to consider SLM

 Different people reacted differently. Those

with money ,no effect

 The design of the message failed to show the

dangers of HIV
 To the rich , this message may elicit
contempt and get ignore. The poor may also
ignore. Cost items may be irreverent ( not

 message designers should know which

emotion they what aroused and for which
effect. The expected result should be very
 On the media theories, Agenda setting theory is
very applicable in message design and response.

 Example of post election violence 2007/8

 Musicians grouped and composed songs and

messages for peace. They called on Kenyans to
shun violence and co-exist.

 Several personalities were also involved in the

 it played a crucial role in ending the hatred
among different ethnic groups and
rejuvenated harmony and co-existence
 The mainstreaming theory of mass
communication proposes that, the media has
the ability to move the public towards a
common view/goal
 The objective of most campaigns is to
influence the public towards a
certain/common view point or action
 World under 18 Nairobi Championships’
digital campaign.
 The games took place at Kasarani stadium,
Nairobi from 12th to 16th July 2017
 Attendance in the first two days was not very
 The media campaign team used popular radio
stations and presenters to push numbers
 Ash tag #twendekasa was created
 The results were overwhelming.

 For the first time since 1987, Kasarani

stadium was filled to capacity (65,000) in the
final two days of the games.

 Many more were watching the games from

outside the stadium
 The above examples show how
understanding of both the emotional
response and mass media theories can help
message owners and designers in crafting
messages that directly speak to the target
 The theories are relevant in that their focus is
on the public and how they react to that
which hits them. stimulus/message
 This helps message designers create content
that will elicit the desired response/effect