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Data Presentation systems

• Measurement system consists of three elements:


Sensors, signal conditioner (Amplifier) and
Display or Data presentation element
• The data presentation element is the final
element in the measurement system, its function
being to communicate the measured value of the
variable to a human observer.
• Classified elements into displays/ indicators and
recorders/printers.
• Displays/ indicators
– Give an instant visual indication
• Recorders/Printers.
– Record the output signal over a period of time
and give automatically a permanent record
Displays
• If no permanent record of measured variables
is required, then displays can be used.
• then choice will be made between analogue
pointer–scale indicators and digital displays.
• With the pointer–scale indicator, the observer
must interpolate if the pointer lies between
two scale marks.
• There are four types of digital display
technology in wide current use: light emitting
diodes (LED), cathode ray tubes (CRT), liquid
crystal displays (LCD) and electroluminescent
displays (EL).
• LEDs, which makes them only suitable for
small-scale character displays; they are not
used in graphic displays.
• CRTs are used for character and graphics displays,
monochrome and colour, but have the
disadvantage of high operating voltages and are
high-volume bulky devices.
• LCDs are used for both character and graphics
displays. LCD character displays, usually
monochrome,
• LCD graphics displays, monochrome and colour,
are flat screen panels and have lower operating
voltages and power consumption than
equivalent CRT devices.
• Electroluminescent displays are also flat
screen and are used for both character and
graphics monochrome displays. They have
higher operating voltages and power
consumption than equivalent LCD devices but
greater contrast ratio and viewing angle
Analogue and digital indicators
• Moving-coil meter is an analogue indicator
with a pointer moving across a scale.
• The basic instrument is a d.c microammeter
with shunts, multipliers and rectifiers being
used to convert it to other ranges of direct
current and measurement of a.c. current, a.c.
voltage an a.c. voltage.
• The device is restricted between about 50Hz
and 10k Hz.
• Accuracy depends upon
– Temperature
– Presence of nearby magnetic fields
– Way in which meter is mounted
– bearing friction
– Inaccuracies in scale
– Reading error i.e. parallax errors (reading against an
angle)
– Overall accuracy + 0.1 to + 5
Time taken to reach steady deflection is of a few
seconds
• Digital voltmeter
– Gives its reading in the form of a sequence of digits
– This eliminates parallax and interpolation error
accuracies as high as + 0.005%

Analogue input
Sample and
ADC Counter
Hold

Low-cost digital voltmeter sample rate of 3 per second


and impedance of 100M ohm
Analogue chart Recorder
• Data recorded on paper by fiber-tipped ink
pens, by pointer pressing a carbon ribbon
against the paper.
• Thermally sensitive paper which changes
colour when heated pointer moves across it
• Beam of UV light falling on paper sensitive to
it
Cathode-ray Oscilloscope
• Voltage measuring instrument which is
capable of displaying high frequency signals
• General purpose instrument respond to
signals upto 10MHz
• Special purpose instrument respond to signals
upto 1GH z
• Double beam oscilloscope enables two
separate traces, observe simultaneously
• Digital storage oscilloscope digitize the input
signal and it in memory,
• The signal can then be analysed and manipulate
and displayed the signal by reconstructing the
analogue signal.

• A general purpose oscilloscope is likely to have


vertical deflection i.e. Y deflection
• Sensitivities vary between 5 mV to 20V per scale
division
• AC components can be viewed in the presence
of high d.c. voltages , a blocking capacitor
switched into the input line.
• Ac mode bandwidth from 2Hz to 10MHz
• Dc mode bandwidth from DC to 10 MHz
• Interference can be reduce
by use of coaxial cable
• The capacitance of coaxial
cable and probe produce
low impedance, so
introduce significant loading
• No of probes exist for
connection increases input
impedance to avoid loading
problem