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Consumer Motivation

Learning Objectives

  • 1. To Understand the Types of Human Needs and

Motives and the Meaning of Goals.

  • 2. To Understand the Dynamics of Motivation, Arousal of Needs, Setting of Goals, and

Interrelationship Between Needs and Goals.

  • 3. To Learn About Several Systems of Needs Developed by Researchers.

Concept Of Motivation

Drive Theory: the desire for a product arises from some inner drives (physiological or psychological)

  • Expectancy theory: consumers actions

are mainly driven by expectations of desirable outcomes rather than push from inside.

Model of the Motivation Process

Model of the Motivation Process 4

The Motivation Process

The Motivation Process • Tension: unpleasant state • Drive: – The degree of arousal present due

Tension: unpleasant state

Drive:

The degree of arousal present due to a discrepancy between the consumer’s present state and some ideal state

Goal:

The end state that is desired by the consumer. Motivation can be described in terms of:

Strength: The pull it exerts on the consumer Direction: The particular way the consumer attempts to reduce motivational tension (positive or negative)

Role or functions of motives:

  • Defining basic striving: Motives influence consumers to develop and identify their basic striving which includes

general goals such as safety, affiliation, etc which

consumer seeks to achieve.

  • Identifying goal objects: Consumers view product or

service as a mean to satisfy their motives. The product is

the goal to consumers.

  • Influencing choice criteria: Motives guide consumers to buy certain products and not the other.

  • Influencing consumer perception and learning: Motives influences consumer perception and learning process.

Motivation as a Psychological Force

Motivation The processes that lead people to behave as they do. It occurs when a need arises that a consumer wishes to satisfy.

Biogenic needs (Innate needs ): Needs necessary to maintain life Psychogenic needs (Acquired Needs) needs in response to our culture or environment(e.g. need for status, power, affiliation, etc.)

Utilitarian need: Provides a functional or practical benefit Hedonic need: An experiential need involving emotional responses or fantasies

Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs.

Needs direct the motivational forces

 

Needs are never fully satisfied

New needs satisfied

emerge as old needs

are

People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves

Smart toothbrushes

Procter

&

toothbrush.

Gamble’s

Oral-B

:

First

ever

web-enabled

Setting a new standard for dental hygiene, the next SmartSeries

toothbrush includes a smartphone app, helping users to know if

they are brushing too hard or if it’s time to brush another area of their mouth.

The new Oral-B connected toothbrush experience also suggests

nearby dentists for you, gamifies teeth cleaning, and even

provides weather updates. Sounds exciting, but does it make sense for the customer?

Discussion Question
Discussion Question
Discussion Question  This ad was created by the American Association of Advertising Agencies to counter
  • This ad was created by the American Association of Advertising Agencies to counter charges that ads create artificial needs.

  • Do you agree with the premise of the ad? Why

or why not?

Rational versus Emotional Motives

Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria . A conscious, logical reason for a purchase

Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria. A feeling experienced by a customer through association with

a product.

Positive and negative motivation

Latent and Manifest Motives

Arousal of Motives-

Physiological arousal; Emotional arousal; Cognitive arousal;Environmental arousal (Certain

cues in the environment arouse a set of needs)

How Marketers Can Trigger Consumer Motives

Marketers can trigger consumer motives by inducing need recognition, motivation through need-benefit segmentation, and subconscious motivation.

Inducing need recognition to activate consumer motives and thus guide marketplace behavior, the marketer must steer the consumer from an actual state to a desired state.

How Marketers Can Trigger Consumer Motives • Marketers can trigger consumer motives by inducing need recognition,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bL5U5ZeFkZ0 (hello angel) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs " id="pdf-obj-10-11" src="pdf-obj-10-11.jpg">

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Ernest Dichter’s Consumption Motives Power-masculinity-virility, security, eroticism, moral purity/cleanliness, social acceptance, individuality, status, femininity, reward, mastery
Ernest Dichter’s Consumption Motives Power-masculinity-virility, security, eroticism, moral purity/cleanliness, social acceptance, individuality, status, femininity, reward, mastery
Ernest Dichter’s Consumption Motives Power-masculinity-virility, security, eroticism, moral purity/cleanliness, social acceptance, individuality, status, femininity, reward, mastery
Ernest Dichter’s Consumption Motives Power-masculinity-virility, security, eroticism, moral purity/cleanliness, social acceptance, individuality, status, femininity, reward, mastery

Ernest Dichter’s Consumption Motives Power-masculinity-virility, security, eroticism, moral purity/cleanliness, social acceptance, individuality, status, femininity, reward, mastery over environment, social connectedness, magic-mastery

Motivating consumers

Motivating with money:

Resulting sales may increase, but profits may not

Attracts consumers less likely to repeat

Price reductions may increase price sensitivity

Provide other incentives:

Premiums, free products, contests and sweepstakes are designed to motivate consumers to purchase

Implement a loyalty program

Motivate repeat buying by providing rewards to customers based on how much business they do with the company

Tracks consumer purchases and provides estimates of Customer Lifetime Value

Motivating consumers

Enhance perceived risk

Greater perceived risk increases search

Educating consumers about risks may motivate them to make more informed choices that reduce exposure to risk

Arouse consumers’ curiosity

For new products, educating potential customers is crucial

Curiosity often leads to an enhanced need for information

May advertise a benefit that is not normally associated with the product

Motivating consumers Enhance perceived risk – Greater perceived risk increases search – Educating consumers about risks

Goals

The sought-after results of motivated behavior

Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs

Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals

A goal has valance--it can be positive or negative; consumer seeks positive or avoids a negative

The goals selected by an individual depend on their:

Personal experiences, Physical capacity, Prevailing cultural norms and values, Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment

Motivational Conflicts

Different motives may conflict

Motivational Conflicts Different motives may conflict • Approach-Approach Conflict: – A person must choose between two

Approach-Approach Conflict:

A person must choose between two desirable alternatives.

Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: A state of tension occurs when beliefs or behaviors conflict with one another.

Approach-Avoidance Conflict:

Exists when consumers desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time.

Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict:

Consumers face a choice between two undesirable alternatives.

The marketer can analyse situations that are likely to result in a motivational conflict, provide a solution to the conflict, and

attract the patronage of those consumers facing the

motivational conflict.

Discuss: Doesn’t every product present an approach-avoid conflict?

The use of Social Media

Mini case study

Charles Revson, builder of the Revlon cosmetics

empire, began as a manufacturer of nail polish. In

order to expand the market for nail polish, he positioned nail polish as a fashion accessory, introducing new colors every year and suggesting

that a woman's nail polish should match her clothing,

moods, and social situations. Competing on the basis of perceived quality and greater satisfaction of women's needs for fantasy and attention, Revson

understood that he was not selling women mere nail

lacquer, but the fantasy that nail polish would attract attention and bestow class and glamour on the user.

1. Revlon nail polish is positioned to meet which of the following types

of needs?

  • A) innate needs

    • B) acquired needs

    • C) physiological needs

    • D) biogenic needs

    • E) primary needs

2. Mira wants a bottle of Revlon Berry Bon Bon nail polish to match her

new sweater. This is an example of a ________.

  • A) generic goal

    • B) general goal

    • C) needs-driven goal

    • D) product-specific goal

    • E) subjective goal

3. Priyanka wants to paint her nails in order to be more attractive. This

is an example of a(n)

________

goal

  • A) negative

    • B) avoidance

    • C) utilitarian

    • D) approach

    • E) prevention-focused

4. Sophia buys Revlon nail polish, even though the brand does not

offer the lowest price for the highest volume of nail polish, because

wearing Revlon makes her feel glamorous and successful. In doing so,

Sophia is acting on ________.

  • A) emotional motives

    • B) rational motives

    • C) avoidance motives

    • D) objective motives

    • E) utilitarian motives

Measurement of Motives

Measurement of Motives • Researchers rely on a combination of techniques • Qualitative research is widely

Researchers rely on a combination of techniques

Qualitative research is widely used Projective techniques are often very successful in identifying motives.

Qualitative Measures of Motives

ZMET-This method uses pictures as a

METAPHOR

ANALYSIS

stimulus for the consumer to express their thoughts, feelings, and beliefs regarding a

product or brand

This method consists of having customers

STORYTELLING

tell real-life stories regarding their use of

the product under study.

WORD ASSOCIATION

AND SENTENCE COMPLETION

In this method, respondents are presented with words, one at a time, and asked to say the first word that comes to mind.