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Components

Microwave Network Components

Active Passive

Solid state Dielectric

devices based

Vacuum

Ferrite based

Tube devices

Active Devices

Solid State Devices Tube based Devices

– MW BJTs ―Klystrons

– Hetero junction ― Multi cavity Klystrons

BJTs(HBTs)

― Reflex Klystrons

– MW FETs

― Helix TWT

– MW Tunnel diode

– Transferred Electron ― Coupled cavity TWT

Devices (TEDs) ― High power and grid control TWT

– Gunn Effect Diodes ― Magnetron

– LSA diodes ― Cross Field Amplifier

– InP diodes

– CdTe diodes

– Read Diode

– IMPATTS

– TRAPATTS

– BARRITS

Passive Devices

Dielectric based Ferrite based

– Waveguide Tees ―Circulators

– Magic Tees ―Isolators

– Hybrid rings ―Attenuators

– Waveguide ―Gyrators

corners, bends,

twists

―Directional

Couplers

―Hybrid couplers

S-parameter model at a glance

Port 1 Port 2

Microwave device

Vi1 Vi2

Input signal

Vr1 Vr2

reflected signal

Vt2 transmitted signal Vt1

Vt Vr

Vi Vi

S-parameters

Vt 2

S11

Vr1 S12

Vi1 Vi 2 Vr 2 0

Vr 2 0

V Vr 2

S 21 t1 S 22

Vi1 Vi 2 Vr1 0

Vr1 0

S-parameters

•S11and S22 are a measure

Vr1 1 Vi1 12Vi 2 of reflected signal at port

1 and port 2 respectively

Hence •S21 is a measure of gain or

Vr 2 21 Vi1 2Vi 2 loss of a signal from port 1

to port 2.

•S12 is a measure of gain or

Vr1 1 12 Vi1 loss of a signal from port 2

V

In matrix form

V to port 1.

r 2 21 2 i2

Logarithmic form

Vr1 S11 S12 Vi1 S11=20 log(1)

V S

S-matrix

V S22=20 log(2)

r 2 21 S 22 i 2 S12=20 log(12)

S21=20 log(21)

S-parameters

S-parameters are complex

(i.e. they have magnitude and angle) because

both the magnitude and phase of the input

signal are changed by the network.

(This is why they are sometimes referred to as complex

scattering parameters).

What do S-parameters depend on?

change.

S-matrix of a Multi-port network

Port 5

Port 1

network

Port 4

V S S 22 S 23 S 24 S 25 Vi 2

r 2 21

Vr 3 S31 S32 S33 S34 S35 Vi 3

V S S 42 S 43 S 44

S 45 Vi 4

r 4 41

Vr 5 S51 S52 S53 S54 S55 Vi 5

Properties of S-matrix

1. Symmetry Property

[ S ] [ S ] ji or [ S ]T [ S ],

ij

2. Unitary property

k k 2 4. Zero Property

S ij S ij |S ij | 1

*

The sum of (each term of

i 1 i 1

any column (row)

3. Phase shift property multiplied by the complex

conjugate of the

corresponding terms of

any column(row) is zero. )

Power loss calculation

Waveguide Tees

Tee Junction

A waveguide or coaxial-line junction with three

independent ports

which should be independent.

E-plane Tee(1)

Series Tee

the axis of its side arm is

parallel to the E-field of the

main guide.

E-plane Tee(2)

If the collinear arms are

symmetric about the side arm,

There are two different

transmission characteristics

Two way

Transmission of E-plane tee

a) i/p-main arm

b) i/p-side arm

E-plane Tee(3)

If E-plane tee is perfectly matched at the junction, the

diagonal components of the S-matrix, S11, S22 and S33 are

zero because there will be no reflection.

When the waves are fed into the side arm (port 3), the

waves appearing at port1 and port2 of the collinear arm

will be in the opposite phase and in the same magnitude.

Therefore,

E-plane Tee(4)

For a matched junction,

S11 = S22=S33=0

From Symmetry property

S12 = S21, S13 = S31and S23 = S32

From Zero property,

S11S12* + S21S22* + S31S32* = 0

Hence,

S13S23* = 0

i.e S13 = 0 or S23 = 0 or both = 0

E-plane Tee(5)

From Unity property,

S21S21* + S31S31* = 1 I

S12S12* + S32S32* = 1 II

S13S13* + S23S23* = 1 III

IV

E-plane Tee(6)

Eqn III and IV are contradictory

If S13 = 0 then S23 = 0 and thus eqn III is false.

is also not true.

This inconsistency proves the statement that the

tee junction cannot be matched to the three arms.

E-plane Tee(7)

When an E-plane is constructed of an empty waveguide, it

is poorly matched at the tee junction.

Hence

the side arm,

Thus,

E-plane Tee(8)

• If port 3 is perfectly matched S33=0

• Therefore S-matrix becomes

manipulations, we can write S-matrix of E-plane

tee as

H-Plane Tee(1)

Shunt tee

A waveguide tee in which the axis of its side arm is

“shunting” the E-field or parallel to the H-field of

the main guide.

H-Plane Tee(2)

If two input waves are fed into port 1 and port 2 of

the collinear arm, the output wave at port 3 will be

in phase and additive.

If the input is fed into port 3, the wave will split

equally into port 1 and port 2 in phase and in the

same magnitude.

Therefore the S matrix of H-plane tee is similar to

E-plane tee except

S13 = S23

Magic Tees (Hybrid Tees)

Combination of E-plane tee and H-plane tee.

Magic Tee Characteristics

1. If two waves of equal magnitude and the same phase

are fed into port 1 and port 2, the output will be zero

at port 3 and additive at port 4

equally between port 1 and port 2 of the collinear

arms and will not appear at port 3 (E arm).

output of equal magnitude and opposite phase at

port 1 and port 2. Output at port 4 is zero i.e S43 =

S34 = 0.

Magic Tee Characteristics

4. If a wave is fed into one of the collinear arms at

port 1 or port 2, it will not appear in the other

collinear arm at port 2 or port 1 because the E arm

causes a phase delay while the H arm causes the

phase advance. i.e S12 = S21 = 0.

Hybrid Rings (Rat-Race Circuits)

Four arms are connected at proper intervals by means of

series or parallel junctions to sustain standing waves.

Hybrid Rings characteristics

Characteristics similar to hybrid tee.

When a wave is fed into port 1, it will not appear at

port 3 because the difference of phase shifts for the

waves travelling in the clockwise and anticlockwise

directions is 180.

Thus the waves are cancelled at

port 3.

will not emerge at port 4 and so

on.

Hybrid Rings

S matrix for an ideal hybrid ring

for an ideal hybrid ring.

In actual hybrid rings there are small leakage couplings,

and hence the zero elements in the matrix above are not

quite equal to zero.

Waveguide Corners, Bends, and Twists

E plane Corner

H-plane corner

Waveguide Corners, Bends, and Twists

Bend

Continuous twist

Waveguide Corners, Bends, and Twists

These waveguide components are normally used to

change the direction of the guide through an

arbitrary angle.

In order to minimize reflections from the

discontinuities, it is desirable to have the mean

length L between continuities equal to an odd

number of quarter wavelengths.

i.e

Waveguide Corners, Bends, and Twists

If the mean length L is an odd number of quarter

wavelengths, the reflected waves from both ends of

the waveguide section are completely cancelled.

For the waveguide bend, the minimum radius of

curvature for a small reflection is given by

Power Dividers and Couplers

In low frequency design, it is common to sum signals by

adding their currents or voltages.

Instead there is a class of circuits used to sum or split

power.

Power Splitter

Power Combiner

Power Dividers and Couplers

Two basic types of these circuits are:

Power Divider and Power Combiner.

1

and combiners can be multi-port networks. The most

common value for in splitter is –3 dB (when P2 = P3 ).

The power ratio in splitter can range up to –40 dB for one

path.

Directional Coupler

into port 1 coupled in to port 3 (the coupled port) with the

remainder of the power delivered to port 2 (the through

port) and no power delivered to the isolated port.

Directional Coupler

Usually the isolated port is terminated within the coupler

casing. In such case, the coupler appears to be a three

port device. In ideal case no power is delivered to port 4

(the isolated port).

Hybrid Couplers

• Hybrid couplers are special cases of

directional couplers, where the coupling

factor is 3 dB.

• There are two types of hybrids. 0 1 j 0

1) The quadrature hybrid has a 90 S 1 1 0 0 j

degree phase shift between port 2 and 2 j 0 0 1

3 when fed from port 1, with the 0 j 1 0

1 0

has a 180 degree phase shift between 1 1 0 0 1

S

2 1 0 0 1

port 2 and 3 when fed from port 4, with

0 1 1 0

the following [S] matrix:

The Lossless T Junction

The simplest type of power divider is the T junction. T

junction can be implemented using virtually any type of

transmission line. However, the T junction is very simple

to implement, it must be treated with care because it

does not offer any isolation between its ports.

T junction input:

1 1 1

Z 2 Z 3 Z1

The Lossless T Junction

In order for the input port to be matched, the output lines

must be matched (terminated in their characteristic

impedance).

The power dividing ratio can be selected by using different

values of characteristic impedance for ports 2 and 3.

P1 P2 P3 P1 P1 1

1 Vo2 1 Vo2 Z1

P2 P1

2 Z2 2 Z1 Z2

1 Vo2 1 Vo2 Z1

P3 P1

2 Z3 2 Z1 Z3

The Lossless T Junction

Z L Z1 Z 2 || Z 3 Z1 Z 2 Z 3 Z1Z 2 Z1Z 3

1 0

Z L Z1 Z 2 || Z 3 Z1 Z 2 Z 3 Z1Z 2 Z1Z 3

Z 2 Z3

Z 2 Z 3 Z1 ( Z 2 Z 3 ) Z1

Z 2 Z3

Therefore, the input to the T junction can be matched

through the correct choice of impedances in port 2 and 3.

What about matching of port 2 and 3?

The Lossless T Junction

Now lets consider matching of port 2.

Z L Z 2 Z1 || Z 3 Z 2 Z 2 Z 3 Z1Z 2 Z 2 Z 3

2

Z L Z 2 Z1 || Z 3 Z 2 Z 2 Z 3 Z1Z 2 Z 2 Z 3

Z1 Z 3

Z1 Z 3 Z 2 ( Z1 Z 3 ) 0 Z2

Z1 Z 3

Z 2 Z3

Substitution of Z1 yields Z2 = 0.

Z 2 Z3

matched at all three ports simultaneously.

Ferrite Devices(1)

A FERRITE is a device that is composed of material that causes it to

have useful magnetic properties and, at the same time, high

resistance to current flow.

normally a compound of iron oxide with impurities of other oxides

added.

ferromagnetic atoms, and the impurities of the other oxides

increase the resistance to current flow.

Ferrite Devices(2)

This combination of properties is not found in conventional

magnetic materials

low resistance to current flow

classified as semiconductors.

electrical properties can be produced by the proper choice of

atoms in the right proportions

“F” Devices that are of interest

ISOLATOR

ATTENUATOR

CIRCULATOR

GYRATOR

Faraday Rotation

A Circularly polarized wave is made to pass through a ferrite

rod, which has been excited by an axial magnetic field B, the

axis of polarization gets tilted in clock wise direction and

the amount of tilt depends upon the strength of the

magnetic field and geometry of the ferrite rod

Circulator

A microwave circulator is a multiport device in which the power

is circulated from nth port to its (n+1)th port only in one

direction

direction

A four port circulator has s-matrix

Isolator

An isolator is a two-port device that

transmits microwave power in one

direction only.

entering port 1 to port 2, while absorbing

all the power entering port 2

Its S-matrix is

Faraday rotation Isolator

A faraday rotation isolator is a circular wave guide section

axially loaded with a ferrite rod of smaller diameter

transmission and about 20 to 30dB

isolation in reverse direction

Gyrator

Gyrator is a non reciprocal two

port device with relative phase

shift of 1800 in forward direction

and 00 in reverse direction

Attenuator

An attenuator is an electronic device that reduces the power

of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform

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