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Microwave Network

Components
Microwave Network Components

Active Passive
Solid state Dielectric
devices based

Vacuum
Ferrite based
Tube devices
Active Devices
Solid State Devices Tube based Devices

– MW BJTs ―Klystrons
– Hetero junction ― Multi cavity Klystrons
BJTs(HBTs)
― Reflex Klystrons
– MW FETs
― Helix TWT
– MW Tunnel diode
– Transferred Electron ― Coupled cavity TWT
Devices (TEDs) ― High power and grid control TWT
– Gunn Effect Diodes ― Magnetron
– LSA diodes ― Cross Field Amplifier
– InP diodes
– CdTe diodes
– Read Diode
– IMPATTS
– TRAPATTS
– BARRITS
Passive Devices
Dielectric based Ferrite based
– Waveguide Tees ―Circulators
– Magic Tees ―Isolators
– Hybrid rings ―Attenuators
– Waveguide ―Gyrators
corners, bends,
twists
―Directional
Couplers
―Hybrid couplers
S-parameter model at a glance

Port 1 Port 2

Microwave device

Vi1 Vi2
Input signal
Vr1 Vr2
reflected signal
Vt2 transmitted signal Vt1

Transmission and reflection coefficients

Vt Vr
   
Vi Vi
S-parameters
Vt 2
S11 
Vr1 S12 
Vi1 Vi 2 Vr 2 0
Vr 2 0

Vr2=0 means port 2 is matched

V Vr 2
S 21  t1 S 22 
Vi1 Vi 2 Vr1 0
Vr1 0

Vr1=0 means port 1 is matched


S-parameters
•S11and S22 are a measure
Vr1  1 Vi1   12Vi 2 of reflected signal at port
1 and port 2 respectively
Hence •S21 is a measure of gain or
Vr 2   21 Vi1   2Vi 2 loss of a signal from port 1
to port 2.
•S12 is a measure of gain or
Vr1   1  12  Vi1  loss of a signal from port 2
V   
In matrix form
  V  to port 1.
 r 2   21 2  i2 

Logarithmic form
Vr1   S11 S12  Vi1  S11=20 log(1)
V   S
S-matrix
 V  S22=20 log(2)
 r 2   21 S 22   i 2  S12=20 log(12)
S21=20 log(21)
S-parameters
S-parameters are complex
(i.e. they have magnitude and angle) because
both the magnitude and phase of the input
signal are changed by the network.
(This is why they are sometimes referred to as complex
scattering parameters).
What do S-parameters depend on?

if the network is changed, the S-parameters change.

if the frequency is changed, the S-parameters change.

if the load impedance is changed, the S-parameters change.

if the source impedance is changed, the S-parameters


change.
S-matrix of a Multi-port network
Port 5
Port 1
network
Port 4

Vr1   S11 S12 S13 S14 S15  Vi1 


V   S S 22 S 23 S 24 S 25  Vi 2 
 r 2   21
Vr 3    S31 S32 S33 S34 S35  Vi 3 
V   S S 42 S 43 S 44
 
S 45  Vi 4 
 r 4   41
Vr 5   S51 S52 S53 S54 S55  Vi 5 
Properties of S-matrix
1. Symmetry Property

[ S ]  [ S ] ji or [ S ]T  [ S ],
ij

2. Unitary property
k k 2 4. Zero Property
 S ij S ij   |S ij |  1
*
The sum of (each term of
i 1 i 1
any column (row)
3. Phase shift property multiplied by the complex
conjugate of the
corresponding terms of
any column(row) is zero. )
Power loss calculation
Waveguide Tees
Tee Junction
A waveguide or coaxial-line junction with three
independent ports

Matrix of third order, containing nine elements, six of


which should be independent.
E-plane Tee(1)
Series Tee

A waveguide tee in which


the axis of its side arm is
parallel to the E-field of the
main guide.
E-plane Tee(2)
If the collinear arms are
symmetric about the side arm,
There are two different
transmission characteristics

Two way
Transmission of E-plane tee
a) i/p-main arm
b) i/p-side arm
E-plane Tee(3)
If E-plane tee is perfectly matched at the junction, the
diagonal components of the S-matrix, S11, S22 and S33 are
zero because there will be no reflection.
When the waves are fed into the side arm (port 3), the
waves appearing at port1 and port2 of the collinear arm
will be in the opposite phase and in the same magnitude.
Therefore,

S13 = -S23 (both have opposite signs)


E-plane Tee(4)
For a matched junction,
S11 = S22=S33=0
From Symmetry property
S12 = S21, S13 = S31and S23 = S32
From Zero property,
S11S12* + S21S22* + S31S32* = 0
Hence,
S13S23* = 0
i.e S13 = 0 or S23 = 0 or both = 0
E-plane Tee(5)
From Unity property,
S21S21* + S31S31* = 1 I
S12S12* + S32S32* = 1 II
S13S13* + S23S23* = 1 III

Substituting zero property in unitary property


IV
E-plane Tee(6)
Eqn III and IV are contradictory
If S13 = 0 then S23 = 0 and thus eqn III is false.

Similarly, if S23 = 0, then S13 = 0 and hence eqn IV


is also not true.
This inconsistency proves the statement that the
tee junction cannot be matched to the three arms.

Diagonal elements are not all zero


E-plane Tee(7)
When an E-plane is constructed of an empty waveguide, it
is poorly matched at the tee junction.
Hence

However since the collinear arm is usually symmetric about


the side arm,

Thus,
E-plane Tee(8)
• If port 3 is perfectly matched S33=0
• Therefore S-matrix becomes

• Using unity property and some mathematical


manipulations, we can write S-matrix of E-plane
tee as
H-Plane Tee(1)
Shunt tee
A waveguide tee in which the axis of its side arm is
“shunting” the E-field or parallel to the H-field of
the main guide.
H-Plane Tee(2)
If two input waves are fed into port 1 and port 2 of
the collinear arm, the output wave at port 3 will be
in phase and additive.
If the input is fed into port 3, the wave will split
equally into port 1 and port 2 in phase and in the
same magnitude.
Therefore the S matrix of H-plane tee is similar to
E-plane tee except
S13 = S23
Magic Tees (Hybrid Tees)
Combination of E-plane tee and H-plane tee.
Magic Tee Characteristics
1. If two waves of equal magnitude and the same phase
are fed into port 1 and port 2, the output will be zero
at port 3 and additive at port 4

2. If a wave is fed into port 4 (H arm), it will be divided


equally between port 1 and port 2 of the collinear
arms and will not appear at port 3 (E arm).

3. If a wave is fed into port 3 (E arm), it will produce an


output of equal magnitude and opposite phase at
port 1 and port 2. Output at port 4 is zero i.e S43 =
S34 = 0.
Magic Tee Characteristics
4. If a wave is fed into one of the collinear arms at
port 1 or port 2, it will not appear in the other
collinear arm at port 2 or port 1 because the E arm
causes a phase delay while the H arm causes the
phase advance. i.e S12 = S21 = 0.

S matrix of magic tee is


Hybrid Rings (Rat-Race Circuits)
Four arms are connected at proper intervals by means of
series or parallel junctions to sustain standing waves.

Hybrid ring With series junctions


Hybrid Rings characteristics
Characteristics similar to hybrid tee.
When a wave is fed into port 1, it will not appear at
port 3 because the difference of phase shifts for the
waves travelling in the clockwise and anticlockwise
directions is 180.
Thus the waves are cancelled at
port 3.

Similarly the waves fed into port 2


will not emerge at port 4 and so
on.
Hybrid Rings
S matrix for an ideal hybrid ring

Phase cancellation occurs only at designated frequency


for an ideal hybrid ring.
In actual hybrid rings there are small leakage couplings,
and hence the zero elements in the matrix above are not
quite equal to zero.
Waveguide Corners, Bends, and Twists

E plane Corner

H-plane corner
Waveguide Corners, Bends, and Twists

Bend

Continuous twist
Waveguide Corners, Bends, and Twists
These waveguide components are normally used to
change the direction of the guide through an
arbitrary angle.
In order to minimize reflections from the
discontinuities, it is desirable to have the mean
length L between continuities equal to an odd
number of quarter wavelengths.
i.e
Waveguide Corners, Bends, and Twists
If the mean length L is an odd number of quarter
wavelengths, the reflected waves from both ends of
the waveguide section are completely cancelled.
For the waveguide bend, the minimum radius of
curvature for a small reflection is given by

Where a and b are the dimensions of the bend.


Power Dividers and Couplers
In low frequency design, it is common to sum signals by
adding their currents or voltages.

In high frequency design direct summation is not used.


Instead there is a class of circuits used to sum or split
power.

Power Splitter
Power Combiner
Power Dividers and Couplers
Two basic types of these circuits are:
Power Divider and Power Combiner.

 1

Three port networks are shown here, but both dividers


and combiners can be multi-port networks. The most
common value for  in splitter is –3 dB (when P2 = P3 ).
The power ratio in splitter can range up to –40 dB for one
path.
Directional Coupler

This is a four port device that samples the power flowing


into port 1 coupled in to port 3 (the coupled port) with the
remainder of the power delivered to port 2 (the through
port) and no power delivered to the isolated port.
Directional Coupler
Usually the isolated port is terminated within the coupler
casing. In such case, the coupler appears to be a three
port device. In ideal case no power is delivered to port 4
(the isolated port).
Hybrid Couplers
• Hybrid couplers are special cases of
directional couplers, where the coupling
factor is 3 dB.
• There are two types of hybrids. 0 1 j 0 
 
1) The quadrature hybrid has a 90 S   1 1 0 0 j 
degree phase shift between port 2 and 2  j 0 0 1
 
3 when fed from port 1, with the 0 j 1 0 

following [S] matrix.

2) The magic-T hybrid or rat-race hybrid 0 1



1 0
has a 180 degree phase shift between 1 1 0 0  1
S  
2 1 0 0 1
port 2 and 3 when fed from port 4, with 
0  1 1 0

the following [S] matrix:
The Lossless T Junction
The simplest type of power divider is the T junction. T
junction can be implemented using virtually any type of
transmission line. However, the T junction is very simple
to implement, it must be treated with care because it
does not offer any isolation between its ports.

Matching requirement for the


T junction input:
1 1 1
 
Z 2 Z 3 Z1
The Lossless T Junction
In order for the input port to be matched, the output lines
must be matched (terminated in their characteristic
impedance).
The power dividing ratio can be selected by using different
values of characteristic impedance for ports 2 and 3.

P1  P2  P3  P1  P1    1
1 Vo2 1 Vo2 Z1
P2   P1    
2 Z2 2 Z1 Z2

1 Vo2 1 Vo2 Z1
P3   P1    
2 Z3 2 Z1 Z3
The Lossless T Junction

Input matching requirement:


Z L  Z1 Z 2 || Z 3   Z1 Z 2 Z 3  Z1Z 2  Z1Z 3
1    0
Z L  Z1 Z 2 || Z 3   Z1 Z 2 Z 3  Z1Z 2  Z1Z 3
Z 2 Z3
Z 2 Z 3  Z1 ( Z 2  Z 3 )  Z1 
Z 2  Z3
Therefore, the input to the T junction can be matched
through the correct choice of impedances in port 2 and 3.
What about matching of port 2 and 3?
The Lossless T Junction
Now lets consider matching of port 2.
Z L  Z 2 Z1 || Z 3   Z 2 Z 2 Z 3  Z1Z 2  Z 2 Z 3
2   
Z L  Z 2 Z1 || Z 3   Z 2 Z 2 Z 3  Z1Z 2  Z 2 Z 3

If port 2 is matched, then 2 = 0 and we will have:


Z1 Z 3
Z1 Z 3  Z 2 ( Z1  Z 3 )  0  Z2 
Z1  Z 3

Z 2 Z3
Substitution of Z1  yields Z2 = 0.
Z 2  Z3

Which shows that the lossless T junction cannot be


matched at all three ports simultaneously.
Ferrite Devices(1)
A FERRITE is a device that is composed of material that causes it to
have useful magnetic properties and, at the same time, high
resistance to current flow.

The primary material used in the construction of ferrites is


normally a compound of iron oxide with impurities of other oxides
added.

The compound of iron oxide retains the properties of the


ferromagnetic atoms, and the impurities of the other oxides
increase the resistance to current flow.
Ferrite Devices(2)
This combination of properties is not found in conventional
magnetic materials

Iron, for example, has good magnetic properties but a relatively


low resistance to current flow

Ferrites, on the other hand, have sufficient resistance to be


classified as semiconductors.

As in the construction of transistors, a wide range of magnetic and


electrical properties can be produced by the proper choice of
atoms in the right proportions
“F” Devices that are of interest
ISOLATOR

ATTENUATOR

CIRCULATOR

GYRATOR
Faraday Rotation
A Circularly polarized wave is made to pass through a ferrite
rod, which has been excited by an axial magnetic field B, the
axis of polarization gets tilted in clock wise direction and
the amount of tilt depends upon the strength of the
magnetic field and geometry of the ferrite rod
Circulator
A microwave circulator is a multiport device in which the power
is circulated from nth port to its (n+1)th port only in one
direction

A four port circulator is commonly used

The ferrite in circulator provides a 450 rotation in clock wise


direction
A four port circulator has s-matrix
Isolator
An isolator is a two-port device that
transmits microwave power in one
direction only.

An ideal isolator transmits all the power


entering port 1 to port 2, while absorbing
all the power entering port 2

Its S-matrix is
Faraday rotation Isolator
A faraday rotation isolator is a circular wave guide section
axially loaded with a ferrite rod of smaller diameter

Provides 1dB insertion loss in forward


transmission and about 20 to 30dB
isolation in reverse direction
Gyrator
Gyrator is a non reciprocal two
port device with relative phase
shift of 1800 in forward direction
and 00 in reverse direction

the s-matrix for the gyrator is


Attenuator
An attenuator is an electronic device that reduces the power
of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform