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PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE

MANAGEMENT
PRESENTATION OF CHAPTERS 9 and 10

MEHMET BOZKURT
501022001
CHAPTER 9
Design for Infrastructure Service Life
 PART 9.1. Introduction
 PART 9.2. Design Objectives and Constraints
 PART 9.3. Design Framework and Components
 PART 9.4. Design Effectiveness
 PART 9.5. Summary

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Introduction
 Design is a uniquely project-level activity of infrastructure
management, along with construction, maintenance, and
rehabilitation.
 Design is applicable to a specific unit of infrastructure or
project.
 For the infrastructure to function effectively, it must start
with good design.
 Each type of infrastructure has its own design
requirements and each agency has its own design
elements and approach.
PROCESS FLOW
DESIGN CONSTRUCTION MAINTENANCE REHABILITATION

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Reliability & Technology & Evolution
 Working stress and factor-of-safety methods are
outmoded for the modern design of infrastructure.
 Reliability concepts are far superior, and any
infrastructure engineer is urged to examine reliability-
based methods in detail for design.
 Modern technology and computer tools make it
completely possible for the designer to consider a fully
functional design process, and design education should be
broadened in this regard.
 The design process and methods have had a great
evolution over the years.
 The quality of design depends upon:
 the intuition
 knowledge
 hard work of the designer.

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Alternative Options,
Try Again

No
USE FACTORS
Loading,
Volume or Satisfies
Traffic Requirements ?
Set of Common Design
Alt. Designs Models
Yes

(Desired Path) Detailed ASPECTS NOT


Design ANALYZED
for Maintenance
Service Life Condition
Service
Practice
Environment
etc.
(Traditional Path)

Comprehension Adjust Other


Design Models Details as Needed
for the “Design”
Obtained
Available (Limited Options Considered)
Materials

Prepare Plans,
Specifications
and Contracts

Figure 9.1 Description of Most Design Practices

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Design Objectives & Constraints
 Infrastructure management helps the designer focus on
the basic function and constraints of the design process
 First activities that should be accomplished under the
systematic approach is to carefully define the objectives
and constraints of the problem.
OBJECTIVES
 Max. or reasonable economy
 Max. or adequate safety
 Max. or reasonable serviceability
 Max. or adequate capacity
 Min. or limited physical deterioration
 Min. or limited noise and air pollution
 Min. or limited disruption
 Max. or good aesthetics

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 CONSTRAINTS
 Availability of time and funds for conducting the
design and construction
 Min. level of serviceability allowed before rehabilitation
 Availability of materials
 Min. and / or max. dimensions allowed
 Min. time between successive rehabilitations
 Capabilities of construction and maintenance
personnel and equipment
 Testing capabilities
 Capabilities of the structural and economic models
available
 Quality and extent of design information available

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Design Framework & Components

In an IMS (infrastructure management system), the


design phase involves several activities broadly classified
as:
 Information needs related to inputs, objectives and
constraints
 Generation of alternative design strategies
 Analysis of structure, flow characteristics, and other
aspects of the facility, along with economic evaluation and
optimization of these strategies.

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Information Needs
 The information needs of good IMS is extensive. Much of
the needed information can be obtained from network-
level management activities prior to project-level design.
But the designer must not assume that the network-level
data quality is adequate for whole design process.
 Main categories of data needed are:
 Environmental data (weather, maps, sources...)
 Projected use, loading and traffic (sewage flow, water
consumption, average daily vehicular traffic...)
 Material characteristics (materials, elements...)

 Other information factors required (costs, estimated


service life, details of design method, inflation...)

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Generating Alternative Design Strategies
The design phase of IMS will only be adequate if it considers
alternatives. Thus, the process of generating alternatives
is critical to the process of optimum design.
Design strategies
 consist of:
 Combination of elements
 Setting up of configurations
 Future rehabilitation actions
 also include:
 Material types
 Sources
 Expected performance evaluation policies
 Quality control and assurance methodologies

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Analysis & Economic Evaluation & Optimization
 The first step in the analysis of any facility alternative is
the application of appropriate model.
 This model, to be analyzed, must be sufficiently
comprehensive to cover the needed areas of concern.
 The economical evaluation of a facility alternative should
involve the assignment of costs and benefits to the
predicted outputs. These variables are then incorporated
into an economic model to determine the total costs and
benefits strategy.
 When all alternative design strategies have been analyzed
and evaluated, optimization should be used to define the
best strategy for presentation to the decision-maker.

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 Phase I: Application of
MODEL structural and / or use
model

 Phase II: Analysis of model


ANALYSIS in deep

 Phase III: Economic


Evaluation
 Materials
ECONOMIC  Construction
EVALUATION  Maintenance
 Rehabilitation

 Phase IV: Definition of the


best strategy by using
OPTIMIZATION
optimization
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Design Effectiveness
The Construction Industry Institute has developed a method
for systematically evaluating the effectiveness of a design
project [CII 86]. This method has the flexibility to be
useful in a wide variety of circumstances, including:
 Widely differing types of projects
 Mixtures of objective and subjective measurements of
design effectiveness
 Differing objectives and criteria for design effectiveness
 Measurement of overall design effectiveness regardless of
influence source, or measurement of designer
performance when influences of designer and owner can
be separately identified

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Design Evaluation
TABLE 9.1 Initial Design Evaluation Criteria
CRITERIA QUANTITATIVE SUBJECTIVE

Accuracy of Design Documents x


Usability of Design Documents x
Cost of Design Effort x
Constructability of Design x
Economy of Design x
Performance Against Schedule x
Ease of Start-Up x

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The method for evaluating design effectiveness can
be used to:
 Develop a common understanding among the owner,
designer, and constructor concerning the criteria by which
design effectiveness on a given project will be measured
 Compare design effectiveness of similar projects in a
systematic and reasonably quantitative manner,
highlighting performance trends
 Identify opportunities to improve the effectiveness of the
entire design process and contributions to the ultimate
result of all participants

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CHAPTER 10
Construction
 PART 10.1. Introduction
 PART 10.2. Construction as Related to Other
Phases of Management
 PART 10.3. Constructability
 PART 10.4. Construction Quality Control and
Quality Assurance
 PART 10.5. Summary

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Introduction
 To fulfill its purpose, an infrastructural management
system (IMS) must follow through from:
 the design phase
 to the implementation phases of:
 construction
 maintenance
 rehabilitation
 data feedback.
 Construction converts a design recommendation into a
physical reality.
 Successful construction meets the planning and design
objectives within budget and time constraints.

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 Attention in this chapter is focused on:
 interrelationships of construction with other phases of
infrastructural management
 constructability of the project
 construction quality assurance
 documentation or data that construction should
produce.
 If these functions are carried out systematically, then the
normal and expected variations in:
 construction methods
 equipment
 materials
 environment
can be taken into account properly.
 The documents of design and construction are:
 a set of drawings
 a set of specifications
 a set of standards

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Construction Management
 Construction management involves the use of
 physical
 financial
 personnel
resources to convert designs to physical reality.
 The process of construction management contains:
 estimation
 designation
 scheduling
 organizational and personnel aspects
 legal aspects
 finance
 cost control
 keeping of records

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Construction as Related to Other Phases
of Management
 Planning and Construction
This phase provides “what, when and where” type of
information.
 Design and Construction
This phase provides direct design input
 Evaluation and Construction
This phase also provides various direct input
 Maintenance, Rehabilitation and Construction
This phase provides feedback
 Also the input from construction to above phases is
vitally important.

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Figure 10.1 Information provided by construction for potential use by other management phases.
Constructability
What is constructability?
3 definitions from different views of look:
 To the project owner, constructability affords the
opportunity on construction projects to achieve greater
efficiency, with resulting lower cost, shortened schedule,
or improved quality.
 To the designer, it is an understanding of the methods and
constraints of the actual construction required to execute
the design being made.
 To the contractor, it is a combination of the effort required
to implement the design efficiently and the opportunity to
minimize his or her effort and resource expenditure.

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The Construction Industry Institute (CII) has identified a
number of constructability concepts applicable to the
different phases of a project. Briefly, these concepts
address:
 project execution planning,
 conceptual project planning,
 specifications,
 contracting strategies,
 schedules,

 and construction methods, including those concerning


 pre-assembly,
 site layouts,
 design configurations,
 accessibility,
 and adverse weather [CII 86].

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Constructability & Value Engineering &
Productivity
 Value engineering (VE), has similarities to constructability.
and the differences may not be apparent at first. Innovative
construction practices, leading to cost reductions, can be
attributed to both constructability and VE
 Value engineering is denned as a disciplined procedure for
analyzing the functional requirements of a product or
service for the purpose of achieving the essential functions
of the product or service at the lowest total cost.
 Total cost, in this case, takes into account the owner's cost
of planning, design, procurement and contracting,
construction, and maintenance over the life cycle of the
product or service and may also consider user cost.

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Construction
Productivity
Improvement

Constructability

Enhancement

Construction Industry

Cost Effectiveness

Figure 10.2 Construction industry cost-effectiveness relationships.

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The relationships among productivity, value
engineering, and constructability, all of which are
important to effective infrastructure management,
are as follows:
 Productivity is a measure of the output/input ratio in
constructing a facility.
 Value engineering is concerned with providing the
required functions of the facility at the least cost.
 Constructability is a measure of ease or expediency of
construction.
Once the project advances beyond these phases,
investment and other commitments generally
accumulate at rates depicted by the well-known S-
curve.
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Preliminary Construction Plans
Engineering Preparation Construction
Phase Phase Phase

Difficulty in
Implementing
Changes

Time
Project Development
Figure 10.3 Significance of early decisions. (Adapted from [Azud 69, CTB/CII 89]).

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Constructability Enhancement Programs
 To enhance constructability, good objectives must be
established. Typically, they are:

 Increase productivity
 Reduce project costs
 Reduce project duration
 Reduce delays/meet schedules
 Eliminate unnecessary activity
 Reduce physical job stress
 Promote safety on construction sites
 Reduce conflict
 Increase quality
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Program Implementation:
Recommendations & Barriers
Recommendations I:
 The commitment of senior management to
constructability must be obtained.
 A strong approach to project management with a single
point of responsibility should be pursued.
 Project-execution plans should be developed for large
complex projects during a project-concept conference.
Additional planning meetings and design reviews should
involve greater participation of involved parties.
 A proactive approach to constructability needs to be
taken. Over-reliance on late, reactive design reviews
should be avoided.

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Recommendations II:
 Feedback from the field, if not forthcoming, should be
solicited on a periodic basis, prior to, during, and after
construction. This feedback should involve department
personnel, contractors, and suppliers.
 Post-mortems should be conducted upon completion of all
projects. These should be attended by representatives
from the owner and the contractor.
 Management training programs that promote
communication and integration between design and
construction should be conducted.
 An accessible and current knowledge base of "lessons
learned" should be maintained. Advanced, computerized
systems are being developed for storing and retrieving the
information.

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TABLE 10.3 Barriers to Program Implementation

Barriers to
Barriers to utilization of advanced
communication and design-construct Barriers to innovation
construction technologies
integration

Lack of awareness of techno- Discouragement of personal initiative,


Contract time
logies/inadequate communi-cation and perceived lack of freedom

Lack of time Lack of necessary training Failure to recognize opportu-nities

Lack of personal creative


Lack of field feedback Regulatory inhibitors ability

Institutional and individual resistance


Failure to document and communicate
to change Lack of tools
"lessons learned"

Reluctance to deviate from current and


Lack of construction experience Lack of senior support of champions
proven standard operations

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Construction Quality Control & Assurance
 Construction quality assurance is a complex and detailed
process to guarantee that the finished facility is built to
the standards desired by the owner as defined in the
design documents.
 No matter what type of quality assurance is undertaken,
all of them start with specifications.
 There are several types of specifications used in the
construction of infrastructure. These are:
 Methods and materials specifications
 Recipe specifications
 End-result or end-product specifications
 Performance-based specifications
 Guarantee or warranty specifications for a specified
time or utilization period

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Figure 10.4 Improving constructability.
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THANK YOU

MEHMET BOZKURT
501022001