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2

Topics:

• Introduction

• Main Principles of Statics

Stress

• Normal Stress

• Shear Stress

• Bearing Stress

• Thermal Stre

Mechanics : The study of how bodies react to forces acting on them

FLUIDS

(Things that do not change shape) (Things that do change shape)

in an equilibrium

Incompressible Compressible

Dynamics :

Mechanics of Materials :

1. Kinematics – concerned

The study of the relationships

with the geometric aspects

between the external loads

of the motion

applied to a deformable body and

2. Kinetics – concerned

the intensity of internal forces

with the forces causing the

acting within the body.

motion.

1.1 Introduction 4

External Loads

- developed when one body exerts a force on - caused by direct contact of one body with

another body without direct physical contact the surface of another.

between the bodies.

- e.g earth’s gravitation (weight)

concentrated force

Axial Load

Normal Stress

Shear Stress

Bearing Stress

Allowable Stress

Deformation of Structural under Axial Load

Statically indeterminate problem

Thermal Stress

Mechanics of material is a study of the

relationship between the external loads applied

to a deformable body and the intensity of

internal forces acting within the body.

specific plane (area) passing through a point.

length of line segments and the changes in the

angles between them

• Normal Stress : stress which acts perpendicular, or normal to, the

(σ) cross section of the load-carrying member.

: can be either compressive or tensile.

• Shear Stress : stress which acts tangent to the cross section of

(τ) the load-carrying member.

: refers to a cutting-like action.

1.1 Introduction 8

Normal Stress,

the intensity of force, or force per unit area, acting

normal to A

= P / A

(member in tension)

stress (member in compression)

(a)

(b)

•Unit: Nm -²

•N/mm2 or MPa

Stress ( ) = Force (P) N/m2 or Pa

Cross Section (A)

Assumptions :

1. Uniform deformation: Bar

remains straight before and

after load is applied, and

cross section remains flat or

plane during deformation

2. In order for uniform

deformation, force P be

applied along centroidal axis

of cross section C

11

FRz Fz ; dF dA

A

P A

P

A

σ = average normal stress at any point

on cross sectional area

P = internal resultant normal force

A = cross-sectional area of the bar

12

• Use equation of σ = P/A for cross-sectional area of a member when

section subjected to internal resultant force P

Internal Loading

• Section member perpendicular to its longitudinal axis at pt

where normal stress is to be determined

• Draw free-body diagram

• Use equation of force equilibrium to obtain internal axial

force P at the section

Average Normal Stress

• Determine member’s x-sectional area at the section

• Compute average normal stress σ = P/A

13

Example 1.1:

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded

together at B and loaded as shown. Knowing

that d1=30mm and d2=20mm, find average

normal stress at the midsection of (a) rod AB,

(b) rod BC.

Example 1.2

Two solid cylindrical roads AB and BC are welded

together at B and loaded as shown. Knowing

that d1 = 30 mm and d2 = 50 mm, find the

average normal stress in the mid section of (a)

rod AB, (b) rod BC.

Normal strain, is the elongation or

contraction of a line segment per unit of

length = L / Lo

L = elongation

Lo = length

normalst rain

L

* L=

Example 1.3:

Determine the corresponding strain for a bar of

length L=0.600m and uniform cross section

which undergoes a deformation =15010-6m.

6

150 10 m 6

250 10 m / m

L 0.600m

6

250 10 @ 250

1.4 A cable and strut assembly ABC supports a vertical load

P=12kN. The cable has an effective cross sectional area of

160mm², and the strut has an area of 340mm².

(a) Calculate the normal stresses in the cable and strut.

1.5 The bar shown has a square cross section

(20mm x 40mm) and length, L=2.8m. If an

axial force of 70kN is applied along the

centroidal axis of the bar cross sectional area,

determine the stress and strain if the bar end

up with 4m length.

70kN 70kN

2.8m

Tensile test is an experiment to determine

the load-deformation behavior of the

material.

Data from tensile test can be plot into stress

and strain diagram.

Example of test specimen

- note the dog-bone geometry

28

Universal Testing Machine - equipment used

to subject a specimen to tension,

compression, bending, etc. loads and

measure its response

29

Stress-Strain Diagrams

properties of materials that can be deduced

from the stress-strain diagram are illustrated

in figure above.

30

Point O-A = linear relationship between stress

and strain

Point A = proportional limit (PL)

The ratio of stress to strain in this linear region

of stress-strain diagram is called Young Modulus

or the Modulus of Elasticity given

< PL

At point A-B, specimen begins yielding. Unit: MPa

Point B = yield point

Point B-C = specimen continues to elongate without any increase in

stress. Its refer as perfectly plastic zone

Point C = stress begins to increase

Point C-D = refer as the zone of strain hardening

Point D = ultimate stress/strength ; specimen

begins to neck-down

Point E = fracture stress

31

Point O to A

Point C to D

Point D to E

At point E

by dividing the applied load by the specimen

original cross sectional area.

True stress is calculated using the actual cross

sectional area at the instant the load is

measured.

31

Some of the materials like aluminum (ductile),

does not have clear yield point likes

structural steel. Therefore, stress value

called the offset yield stress, YL is used

in line of a yield point stress.

determine by;

Drawing a straight line that best fits the data in initial (linear)

portion of the stress-strain diagram

Second line is then drawn parallel to the original line but offset

by specified amount of strain

The intersection of this second line with

the stress-strain curve determine the

offset yield stress.

Commonly used offset value is 0.002/0.2%

32

Brittle material such as ceramic and glass

have low tensile stress value but high in

compressive stress. Stress-strain diagram for

brittle material.

Example 1.6

The 4 mm diameter cable BC is made of a steel

with E=200GPa. Knowing that the maximum

stress in the cable must not exceed 190MPa

and that the elongation of the cable must not

exceed 6mm, find the maximum load P that can

be applied as shown

33

Elasticity refers to the property of a material such that

it returns to its original dimensions after unloading .

Any material which deforms when subjected to load

and returns to its original dimensions when unloaded

is said to be elastic.

If the stress is proportional to the strain, the material

is said to be linear elastic, otherwise it is non-linear

elastic.

Beyond the elastic limit, some residual strain or

permanent strains will remain in the material upon

unloading .

The residual elongation corresponding to the

permanent strain is called the permanent set .

34

• The amount of strain which is recovered upon unloading is

called the elastic recovery.

35

When an elastic, homogenous and isotropic material

is subjected to uniform tension, it stretches axially

but contracts laterally along its entire length.

Similarly, if the material is subjected to axial

compression, it shortens axially but bulges out

laterally (sideways).

The ratio of lateral strain to axial strain is a constant

known as the Poisson's ratio,

v

la tera l

a xia l

L

paksi @ x

L

b d

sisi @ y 36

b d

Example 1.7

A prismatic bar of circular cross-section

is loaded by tensile forces P = 85 kN. The

bar has length of 3 m and diameter of 30

mm. It is made from aluminum with modulus

of elasticity of 70 GPa and poisson's ratio

= 1/3. Calculate the elongation and the

decrease in diameter d.

37

Example 1.8

A 10 cm diameter steel rod is loaded with 862 kN by

tensile forces. Knowing that the E=207 GPa and =

0.29, determine the deformation of rod diameter

after being loaded.

Solution

p 862 x103 N

in rod, =

1

109.7 MPa

A (0.1) m

2 2

4

109.7 MPa

a 0.00053

E 207 x10 3 MPa

Lateral strain,

l ( a ) o.29(0.00053)

0.000154

d l ( D) (0.000154)(0.1)

0.00154cm

38

Exercises 1

1. A steel pipe of length L=1.2 m, outside diameter d2=150mm and

inside diameter d1=110mm is compressed by an axial force P=

620kN.The material has modulus of elasticity E= 200GPa and

Poisson’s Ratio v = 0.30.Determine :

a) the shortening, δ ( ans :-0.455 mm)

b) the lateral strain,ε lateral (ans: 113.9x10-6)

c) the increase ∆d2 in the outer diameter and the increase ∆d1 in

the inner diameter

(ans: 0.0171 mm and 0.0125mm)

d) the increase ∆t in the wall thickness

(ans: 0.00228 mm)

39

2. A hollow circular post ABC as shown in Figure 2 supports a load

P1=7.5 kN acting at the top. A second load P2 is uniformly

distributed around the cap plate at B. The diameters and

thicknesses of the upper and lower parts of the post are dAB=32

mm, tAB= 12mm, dBC 57 mm and tBC=9mm, respectively.

a) Calculate the normal stress, σAB in the upper part

of the post. (ans: 9.95 MPa)

b) If it is desired that the lower part of the post

have the same compressive stress as the upper

part, what should be the magnitude of the load P2?

(ans : P2=6kN)

40

3. A standard tension test is used to determine the

properties of an experimental plastic. The test

specimen is a 15 mm diameter rod and it is

subjected to a 3.5 kN tensile force. Knowing that an

elongation of 11 mm and a decrease in diameter of

0.62 mm are observed in a 120 mm gage length.

Determine the modulus of elasticy, the modulus of

rigidity, and Poisson’s ratio of the material.

49

A force acting parallel or tangential to a section taken

through a material (i.e. in the plane of the material) is called a

shear force

The shear force intensity, i.e. shear force divided by the area

over which it acts, is called the average shear stress,

= shear stress

V

V = shear force

A

A = cross-sectional area

Shear stress arises as a result of the direct action of forces

trying to cut through a material, it is known as direct shear

force

torsion or bending of a member.

41

Depending on the type of connection, a connecting

element (bolt, rivet, pin) may be subjected to single

shear or double shear as shown.

V P

A d2

4

42

Rivet in Double Shear

V P 2P

2

A d 2

d

2( )

4

Example 1.9

For the 12 mm diameter bolt shown in the bolted joint below,

determine the average shearing stress in the bolt.

43

Double Shear

Single Shear

P F

ave

A A P F

ave

A 2A

The effect of shear stress is to distort the shape of a

body by inducing shear strains

The shear strain, is a measure of the angular

distortion of the body.

x V

L

x

L

(units: degrees, radians)

44

Bearing stress is also known as a contact stress

Bearing stress in shaft key;

P M r 2M

b

Ab (h 2) L rhL

P

b

td

45

Example 2.0

A punch for making holes in steel plates is shown in

the figure. Assume that a punch having diameter

d=20 mm is used to punch a hole in an 8 mm

plates, what is the average shear stress in the plate

and the average compressive stress in the punch if

the required force to create the hole is P = 110kN.

. P

20 mm

8 mm

46

It also known as Shear Modulus of Elasticity or the

Modulus of Rigidity.

Value of shear modulus can be obtained from the linear

region of shear stress-strain diagram.

G Unit : Pa

modulus of rigidity (G) can be related as

E

G

2(1 )

48

Because of the change in the dimensions of a body as

a result of tension or compression, the volume of the

body also changes within the elastic limit.

Consider a rectangular parallel piped having sides a,

b and c in the x, y and z directions, respectively.

58

The tensile force P causes an axial elongation of a

and lateral contractions of b and c in the x, y, and

z directions respectively. Hence,

Initial

body

Final volume, Vf = (a + a)(b - b)(c - c)

= abc(1 + )(1 - )2

59

Expanding and neglecting higher orders of (since is

very small),

Change in volume,

V = Final Volume - Initial Volume

= abc(1 + - 2 ) - abc

= abc(1 + - 2 - 1)

= abc( - 2 )

= Vo (1 - 2 )

Hence,

V

(1 2 )

Vo

(1 2 )

E

60

Isotropic material is subjected to general triaxial

stress x, y and z.

Since all strain satisfy << 1, so v = x + y + z

x =

1

E

x ( y z )

y = 1

y ( x z )

E

z = 1

z ( x y )

E

1 2

v ( x y z )

E

61

Example 2.1

A titanium alloy bar has the following original dimensions: x =

10cm; y = 4cm; and z = 2cm. The bar is subjected to stresses x

= 14 N and y = - 6 N, as indicated in figure below. The

remaining stresses (z, xy, xz and yz) are all zero. Let E = 16

kN and = 0.33 for the titanium alloy.

(a)Determine the changes in the length for

x, y and z.

(b) Determine the dilatation, v.

y 6N

14 N 14 N

x

z 6N

62

Applied load that is less than the load the member can fully support.

(maximum load)

analysis of a member is use a number called the Factor of Safety (FS).

F f ai l

FS

Fa l l o w

allow

yield

or allow

yield

FS FS

63

If a bar is fixed at both ends, as shown in

fig. (a), two unknown axial reactions

occurs, and the force equilibrium equation

becomes;

Fy 0;

FB FA P 0

• In this case, the bar is called statically

indeterminate, since the equilibrium

equation are not sufficient to determine

the reactions.

• the relative displacement of one end of the bar

with respect to the other end is equal to zero

since the ends supports are fixed. Hence; A / B 0

the bar and its changes in length are known as

force-displacement relations

PL

A / B 0, A B 0 FB FA P 0, FA P FB

AE

• Realizing that the internal force in segment AC is +FA, and in segment CB,

the internal force is –FB. Therefore, the equation can be written as;

FA L AC FBLCB

0 F L L L

AE AE P FB B CB P FB CB AC

L AC L AC L AC

FA L AC FBLCB L L AC

F L

P B CB FB

AE AE P FB CB

L AC

F L AE L AC

FA B CB L

AE L AC P FB CB 1 L

P FB

F L L AC AC

L

FA B CB

L AC L

FB P AC

L

Example 2.2:

FX 0, FA FB 20(103 )N 0................(1)

FB 20(103 ) FA

B / A 0.001m

A B 0.001m

FA L AC FB L CB

0.001m

AE AE

FA (0.4m ) FB(0.8m )

0.001m

0.0025m 2 200 109 Nm 2 0.0025m 2 200 109 Nm 2

or

FA (0.4m ) FB (0.8m ) 3927.0N................( 2)

Substitute eq (1)int o eq ( 2)

FA (0.4m ) ( 20, 000N FA )(0.8m) 3927.0N

FA 16.6kN

FB 3.39kN

Example 2.3:

Solution: Fy 0, FA FC FE 15(103 )N 0................(1)

CCW M C 0

FA ( 0.4) 15(103 )( 0.2) FE ( 0.4) 0 ...........( 2)

ACE move to inclined line A’C’E’

A E E

C

0.8 0.4

C E A E

0.4 0.8

E

C E A 0. 4

0.8

0.4 A 0.4 E

C E

0.8

C 0.5 A 0.5E

FC LCD FA L AB FE L EF

0.5 0 .5

1.5 105 E st 5

2.5 10 E st

5

2.5 10 E st

FC (0.5) FA (0.5) FE (0.5)

0. 5 0 . 5

1.5 105 E st 5

2.5 10 E st

5

2.5 10 E st

33.33 103 FC 10 103 FA 10 103 FE

10 103 FA 10 103 FE

FC

33.33 103

FC 0.3FA 0.3FE .................eq(3)

Fy 0, FA FC FE 15(103 )N 0................(1)

CCW M C 0

FA (0.4) 15(103 )(0.2) FE (0.4) 0 ...........( 2)

FC 0.3FA 0.3FE .................eq(3)

Substitute eq ( 4) int o eq( 2)

FA (0.4) 15(103 )(0.2) FE (0.4) 0

Substitute eq (3) int o eq(1)

FA (0.4) 3(103 ) ( 0.4) 11.538(103 ) FA 0

FA FC FE 15(10 )N 0................(1)

3

FA (0.4) 3(103 ) 4.615(103 ) 0.4FA 0

FA (0.3FA 0.3FE )FE 15(10 ) 0

3

7.615103

1.3FA 1.3FE 15(10 ) 3 FA

0.8

15(103 ) 1.3FA 9.519(103 )

FE

1. 3 9.52kN

FE 11.538(103 ) FA .......................eq( 4)

Re place FA 9.52kN int o eq ( 4)

9.52kN

FE 11.538(103 ) FA

11.538(103 ) 9.52(103 )

2.02 kN

Re place FE 2.02 kN int o eq(3)

FC 0.3FA 0.3FE

0.3(9.519(103 ) 0.3( 2.02 103 )

3.462 kN

A change in temperature can cause material to change its

dimensions.

If the temperature increases, generally a material expands,

whereas if the temperature decreases, the material will

contract.

If this is the case, and the material is homogenous and

isotropic, it has been found from experiment that the

deformation of a member having a length L can be calculated

using the formula;

T=TL

Where

=linear coefficient of thermal expansion (unit:

1/C)

T=change in temperature

L=original length of the member

T=change in length of the member

Example 2.4:

Given: =12x10-6/C

Solution:

FY 0

FA FB F

is zero (because the supports do

not move)

To determine the change in

length, remove the upper support

of the bar and obtain a bar is

fixed at the base and free to

displace at the upper end.

( ) AB T F So the bar will elongate by an

amount δT when only

temperature change is acting

And the bar shortens by an

amount δF when only the reaction

is acting

( ) AB T F

T F 0

FL

TL 0

AE

F(1)

12 106 (60 30)(1) 0

0.01 ( 200 10 )

2 9

F(1)

3.6 104

0.012 ( 200 109 )

F 3.6 104 0.012 ( 200 109 )

7.2kN

F 7.2kN

; 72 MPa

A 0.012

Example 2.5

Given:

st 12 106 / C

al 23 106 / C

Est 200 109 Pa

E al 73.1 109 Pa

Fy 0, 2Fst Fal 90(103 )N 0.........eq(1)

st al ...............................eq (2)

( ) st (st )T (st )F

al (al )T (al )F

(st )T (st )F (al )T (al )F

Fst L F L

TL TL al

Ast E A al E

Fst (0.25)

12 106 (80 20)(0.25)

(0.02) ( 200 10 )

2 9

Fal (0.25)

23 106 (80 20)(0.25)

(0.03)2 (73.1 109 )

Fst (0.25) Fal (0.25)

1.8 104 3.45 104

251.327 106 ) ( 206.685 106 )

1.8 104 9.947 1010 Fst 3.45 104 1.21 109 Fal

9.947 1010 Fst 3.45 104 1.21 109 Fal 1.8 104

1.65 104 1.21 109 Fal

Fst

9.947 1010

165.88 103 1.216Fal ...............eq (3)

Substitute eq (3)int o eq(1)

2Fst Fal 90(103 )N 0

2( 165.88 103 1.216Fal ) Fal 90(103 )N 0

331.76 103 2.432Fal Fal 90(103 )N 0

3.432Fal 421.76 103

Fal 122.89 kN

Substitute Fal 122.89 kN int o eq (3)

Fst 165.88 103 1.216Fal

165.88 103 1.216(122.89 103 )

16.445 kN

force acts opposite to arrow shown.

THE STEEL POSTS ARE IN TENSION and

ALUMINIUM POSTS IS IN COMPRESSION

TUTORIAL 1

Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel bar

and loading shown, assuming a close fit at both

supports before the loads are applied.

66

TUTORIAL 2

Two cylindrical rods, CD made of steel (E=200 GPa) and

AC made of aluminum (E=72 GPa), are joined at C and

restrained by rigid supports at A and D. Determine

(a) the reactions at A and D (RA=52.9kN, RD= 87.1 kN)

(b) The deflection of point C (0.086 mm)

67

TUTORIAL 3

At room temperature (21oC) a 0.5 mm gap exists

between the ends of the rods shown. At a later time when

the temperature has reached 1600C, determine

(a)The normal stress in the aluminum rod (σa =-150.6

MPa)

(b)The change in length of the aluminum rod (δa= 0.369

mm)

69

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