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STRESS AND STRAIN

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Topics:

• Introduction
• Main Principles of Statics
Stress
• Normal Stress
• Shear Stress
• Bearing Stress
• Thermal Stre
Mechanics : The study of how bodies react to forces acting on them

RIGID BODIES DEFORMABLE BODIES


FLUIDS
(Things that do not change shape) (Things that do change shape)

Statics : The study of bodies


in an equilibrium
Incompressible Compressible

Dynamics :
Mechanics of Materials :
1. Kinematics – concerned
The study of the relationships
with the geometric aspects
between the external loads
of the motion
applied to a deformable body and
2. Kinetics – concerned
the intensity of internal forces
with the forces causing the
acting within the body.
motion.

1.1 Introduction 4
External Loads

Body Force Surface Forces


- developed when one body exerts a force on - caused by direct contact of one body with
another body without direct physical contact the surface of another.
between the bodies.
- e.g earth’s gravitation (weight)

concentrated force

linear distributed load, w(s)

1.2 Main Principles of Statics 5


 Axial Load
 Normal Stress
 Shear Stress
 Bearing Stress
 Allowable Stress
 Deformation of Structural under Axial Load
 Statically indeterminate problem
 Thermal Stress
 Mechanics of material is a study of the
relationship between the external loads applied
to a deformable body and the intensity of
internal forces acting within the body.

 Stress = the intensity of the internal force on a


specific plane (area) passing through a point.

 Strain = describe the deformation by changes in


length of line segments and the changes in the
angles between them
• Normal Stress : stress which acts perpendicular, or normal to, the
(σ) cross section of the load-carrying member.
: can be either compressive or tensile.
• Shear Stress : stress which acts tangent to the cross section of
(τ) the load-carrying member.
: refers to a cutting-like action.

1.1 Introduction 8
 Normal Stress, 
the intensity of force, or force per unit area, acting
normal to A
 = P / A

A positive sign will be used to indicate a tensile stress


(member in tension)

A negative sign will be used to indicate a compressive


stress (member in compression)
(a)

(b)

•Unit: Nm -²
•N/mm2 or MPa
Stress (  ) = Force (P) N/m2 or Pa
Cross Section (A)
Assumptions :
1. Uniform deformation: Bar
remains straight before and
after load is applied, and
cross section remains flat or
plane during deformation
2. In order for uniform
deformation, force P be
applied along centroidal axis
of cross section C

1.4 Axial Loading – Normal Stress


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  FRz  Fz ;  dF    dA
A

P  A
P

A
σ = average normal stress at any point
on cross sectional area
P = internal resultant normal force
A = cross-sectional area of the bar

1.4 Axial Loading – Normal Stress


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• Use equation of σ = P/A for cross-sectional area of a member when
section subjected to internal resultant force P
Internal Loading
• Section member perpendicular to its longitudinal axis at pt
where normal stress is to be determined
• Draw free-body diagram
• Use equation of force equilibrium to obtain internal axial
force P at the section
Average Normal Stress
• Determine member’s x-sectional area at the section
• Compute average normal stress σ = P/A

1.4 Axial Loading – Normal Stress


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Example 1.1:
Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded
together at B and loaded as shown. Knowing
that d1=30mm and d2=20mm, find average
normal stress at the midsection of (a) rod AB,
(b) rod BC.
Example 1.2
Two solid cylindrical roads AB and BC are welded
together at B and loaded as shown. Knowing
that d1 = 30 mm and d2 = 50 mm, find the
average normal stress in the mid section of (a)
rod AB, (b) rod BC.
 Normal strain,  is the elongation or
contraction of a line segment per unit of
length  = L / Lo

L = elongation
Lo = length


  normalst rain
L

* L= 
Example 1.3:
Determine the corresponding strain for a bar of
length L=0.600m and uniform cross section
which undergoes a deformation =15010-6m.

6
 150  10 m 6
   250  10 m / m
L 0.600m
6
 250  10 @ 250
1.4 A cable and strut assembly ABC supports a vertical load
P=12kN. The cable has an effective cross sectional area of
160mm², and the strut has an area of 340mm².
(a) Calculate the normal stresses in the cable and strut.

(b) If the cable elongates 1.1mm, what is the strain?

(c) If the strut shortens 0.37mm, what is the strain?


1.5 The bar shown has a square cross section
(20mm x 40mm) and length, L=2.8m. If an
axial force of 70kN is applied along the
centroidal axis of the bar cross sectional area,
determine the stress and strain if the bar end
up with 4m length.

70kN 70kN

2.8m
 Tensile test is an experiment to determine
the load-deformation behavior of the
material.
 Data from tensile test can be plot into stress
and strain diagram.
 Example of test specimen
- note the dog-bone geometry

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 Universal Testing Machine - equipment used
to subject a specimen to tension,
compression, bending, etc. loads and
measure its response

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Stress-Strain Diagrams

A number of important mechanical


properties of materials that can be deduced
from the stress-strain diagram are illustrated
in figure above.

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 Point O-A = linear relationship between stress
and strain
 Point A = proportional limit (PL)
The ratio of stress to strain in this linear region
of stress-strain diagram is called Young Modulus
or the Modulus of Elasticity given

 
  < PL
At point A-B, specimen begins yielding. Unit: MPa
 Point B = yield point
 Point B-C = specimen continues to elongate without any increase in
stress. Its refer as perfectly plastic zone
 Point C = stress begins to increase
 Point C-D = refer as the zone of strain hardening
 Point D = ultimate stress/strength ; specimen
begins to neck-down
 Point E = fracture stress

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Point O to A

Point C to D

Point D to E

At point E

Normal or engineering stress can be determined


by dividing the applied load by the specimen
original cross sectional area.
True stress is calculated using the actual cross
sectional area at the instant the load is
measured.

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Some of the materials like aluminum (ductile),
does not have clear yield point likes
structural steel. Therefore, stress value
called the offset yield stress, YL is used
in line of a yield point stress.

As illustrated, the offset yield stress is


determine by;
 Drawing a straight line that best fits the data in initial (linear)
portion of the stress-strain diagram
 Second line is then drawn parallel to the original line but offset
by specified amount of strain
 The intersection of this second line with
the stress-strain curve determine the
offset yield stress.
 Commonly used offset value is 0.002/0.2%

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Brittle material such as ceramic and glass
have low tensile stress value but high in
compressive stress. Stress-strain diagram for
brittle material.

Example 1.6
The 4 mm diameter cable BC is made of a steel
with E=200GPa. Knowing that the maximum
stress in the cable must not exceed 190MPa
and that the elongation of the cable must not
exceed 6mm, find the maximum load P that can
be applied as shown

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 Elasticity refers to the property of a material such that
it returns to its original dimensions after unloading .
 Any material which deforms when subjected to load
and returns to its original dimensions when unloaded
is said to be elastic.
 If the stress is proportional to the strain, the material
is said to be linear elastic, otherwise it is non-linear
elastic.
 Beyond the elastic limit, some residual strain or
permanent strains will remain in the material upon
unloading .
 The residual elongation corresponding to the
permanent strain is called the permanent set .

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• The amount of strain which is recovered upon unloading is
called the elastic recovery.

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 When an elastic, homogenous and isotropic material
is subjected to uniform tension, it stretches axially
but contracts laterally along its entire length.
 Similarly, if the material is subjected to axial
compression, it shortens axially but bulges out
laterally (sideways).
 The ratio of lateral strain to axial strain is a constant
known as the Poisson's ratio,

v
la tera l

 a xia l

where the strains are caused by uniaxial stress only

L
 paksi @  x 
L
b d
sisi @  y    36
b d
Example 1.7
A prismatic bar of circular cross-section
is loaded by tensile forces P = 85 kN. The
bar has length of 3 m and diameter of 30
mm. It is made from aluminum with modulus
of elasticity of 70 GPa and poisson's ratio
= 1/3. Calculate the elongation and the
decrease in diameter d.

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Example 1.8
A 10 cm diameter steel rod is loaded with 862 kN by
tensile forces. Knowing that the E=207 GPa and =
0.29, determine the deformation of rod diameter
after being loaded.
Solution
p 862 x103 N
 in rod,  = 
1
 109.7 MPa
A  (0.1) m
2 2

4
 109.7 MPa
a    0.00053
E 207 x10 3 MPa
Lateral strain,

 l   ( a )  o.29(0.00053)

 0.000154
d   l ( D)  (0.000154)(0.1)
 0.00154cm

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Exercises 1
1. A steel pipe of length L=1.2 m, outside diameter d2=150mm and
inside diameter d1=110mm is compressed by an axial force P=
620kN.The material has modulus of elasticity E= 200GPa and
Poisson’s Ratio v = 0.30.Determine :
a) the shortening, δ ( ans :-0.455 mm)
b) the lateral strain,ε lateral (ans: 113.9x10-6)
c) the increase ∆d2 in the outer diameter and the increase ∆d1 in
the inner diameter
(ans: 0.0171 mm and 0.0125mm)
d) the increase ∆t in the wall thickness
(ans: 0.00228 mm)

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2. A hollow circular post ABC as shown in Figure 2 supports a load
P1=7.5 kN acting at the top. A second load P2 is uniformly
distributed around the cap plate at B. The diameters and
thicknesses of the upper and lower parts of the post are dAB=32
mm, tAB= 12mm, dBC 57 mm and tBC=9mm, respectively.
a) Calculate the normal stress, σAB in the upper part
of the post. (ans: 9.95 MPa)
b) If it is desired that the lower part of the post
have the same compressive stress as the upper
part, what should be the magnitude of the load P2?
(ans : P2=6kN)

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3. A standard tension test is used to determine the
properties of an experimental plastic. The test
specimen is a 15 mm diameter rod and it is
subjected to a 3.5 kN tensile force. Knowing that an
elongation of 11 mm and a decrease in diameter of
0.62 mm are observed in a 120 mm gage length.
Determine the modulus of elasticy, the modulus of
rigidity, and Poisson’s ratio of the material.

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A force acting parallel or tangential to a section taken
through a material (i.e. in the plane of the material) is called a
shear force
The shear force intensity, i.e. shear force divided by the area
over which it acts, is called the average shear stress, 
 = shear stress
  V
V = shear force
A
A = cross-sectional area
 Shear stress arises as a result of the direct action of forces
trying to cut through a material, it is known as direct shear
force

Shear stresses can also arise indirectly as a result of tension,


torsion or bending of a member.

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 Depending on the type of connection, a connecting
element (bolt, rivet, pin) may be subjected to single
shear or double shear as shown.

Rivet in Single Shear

V P
 
A d2

4

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Rivet in Double Shear
V P 2P
   2
A d 2
d
2( )
4
Example 1.9
For the 12 mm diameter bolt shown in the bolted joint below,
determine the average shearing stress in the bolt.

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Double Shear
Single Shear

P F
 ave  
A A P F
 ave  
A 2A
 The effect of shear stress is to distort the shape of a
body by inducing shear strains
 The shear strain,  is a measure of the angular
distortion of the body.

x V

L 

x
 
L
(units: degrees, radians)

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 Bearing stress is also known as a contact stress
Bearing stress in shaft key;

P M r 2M
b   
Ab (h 2) L rhL

Bearing stress in rivet and plat;

P
b 
td

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Example 2.0
A punch for making holes in steel plates is shown in
the figure. Assume that a punch having diameter
d=20 mm is used to punch a hole in an 8 mm
plates, what is the average shear stress in the plate
and the average compressive stress in the punch if
the required force to create the hole is P = 110kN.
. P

20 mm

8 mm

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 It also known as Shear Modulus of Elasticity or the
Modulus of Rigidity.
 Value of shear modulus can be obtained from the linear
region of shear stress-strain diagram.

  G Unit : Pa

 The modulus young (E), poisson’s ratio() and the


modulus of rigidity (G) can be related as

E
G 
2(1   )

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 Because of the change in the dimensions of a body as
a result of tension or compression, the volume of the
body also changes within the elastic limit.
 Consider a rectangular parallel piped having sides a,
b and c in the x, y and z directions, respectively.

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 The tensile force P causes an axial elongation of a
and lateral contractions of b and c in the x, y, and
z directions respectively. Hence,

Initial
body

Initial volume of body, Vo = abc


Final volume, Vf = (a + a)(b - b)(c - c)
= abc(1 + )(1 - )2

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Expanding and neglecting higher orders of  (since  is
very small),

Final volume, Vf = abc(1 +  - 2)

Change in volume,
V = Final Volume - Initial Volume
= abc(1 +  - 2 ) - abc
= abc(1 +  - 2  - 1)
= abc( - 2 )
= Vo (1 - 2 )
Hence,

V
  (1  2 )
Vo

 
 (1  2 )
E

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 Isotropic material is subjected to general triaxial
stress x, y and z.
 Since all strain satisfy  << 1, so v = x + y + z
x =
1
E

 x  ( y   z ) 

y = 1

 y  ( x   z ) 
E

z = 1

 z  ( x   y ) 
E

1  2
v  ( x  y  z )
E
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Example 2.1
A titanium alloy bar has the following original dimensions: x =
10cm; y = 4cm; and z = 2cm. The bar is subjected to stresses x
= 14 N and y = - 6 N, as indicated in figure below. The
remaining stresses (z, xy, xz and yz) are all zero. Let E = 16
kN and  = 0.33 for the titanium alloy.
(a)Determine the changes in the length for
x, y and z.
(b) Determine the dilatation, v.

y 6N

14 N 14 N
x

z 6N

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 Applied load that is less than the load the member can fully support.
(maximum load)

 One method of specifying the allowable load for the design or


analysis of a member is use a number called the Factor of Safety (FS).

F f ai l
FS 
Fa l l o w

Allowable-Stress Design FS > 1

 
 allow 
yield
or allow 
yield

FS FS

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 If a bar is fixed at both ends, as shown in
fig. (a), two unknown axial reactions
occurs, and the force equilibrium equation
becomes;
 Fy  0;
FB  FA  P  0
• In this case, the bar is called statically
indeterminate, since the equilibrium
equation are not sufficient to determine
the reactions.
• the relative displacement of one end of the bar
with respect to the other end is equal to zero
since the ends supports are fixed. Hence; A / B 0

• the relationship between the forces acting on


the bar and its changes in length are known as
force-displacement relations
PL
A / B  0,  A  B  0 FB  FA  P  0, FA  P  FB
AE
• Realizing that the internal force in segment AC is +FA, and in segment CB,
the internal force is –FB. Therefore, the equation can be written as;
FA L AC FBLCB
 0 F L L L 
AE AE P  FB  B CB P  FB  CB  AC 
L AC  L AC L AC 
FA L AC FBLCB  L  L AC 
 F L
P  B CB  FB
AE AE P  FB  CB 

L AC
F L AE  L AC 
FA  B CB  L 
AE L AC P  FB  CB  1  L 
P  FB  

F L  L AC   AC 
L
FA  B CB
L AC L 
FB  P AC 
 L 
Example 2.2:
  FX  0,  FA  FB  20(103 )N  0................(1)
FB  20(103 )  FA

B / A  0.001m
A  B  0.001m
FA L AC FB L CB
  0.001m
AE AE
FA (0.4m ) FB(0.8m )
  0.001m
   0.0025m 2   200  109 Nm 2     0.0025m 2   200  109 Nm 2 
       
or
FA (0.4m )  FB (0.8m )  3927.0N................( 2)
Substitute eq (1)int o eq ( 2)
FA (0.4m )  ( 20, 000N  FA )(0.8m)  3927.0N
FA  16.6kN
FB  3.39kN
Example 2.3:
Solution:   Fy  0, FA  FC  FE  15(103 )N  0................(1)
CCW   M C  0
 FA ( 0.4)  15(103 )( 0.2)  FE ( 0.4)  0 ...........( 2)

The applied load will cause the horizontal line


ACE move to inclined line A’C’E’
A  E   E
 C
0.8 0.4
C   E  A   E

0.4 0.8
  E
C   E  A  0. 4
0.8
0.4 A  0.4 E
C   E
0.8
C  0.5 A  0.5E
FC LCD  FA L AB   FE L EF 
 0.5    0 .5  
1.5  105 E st 5
 2.5  10 E st 
5
 2.5  10 E st 
FC (0.5)  FA (0.5)   FE (0.5) 
 0. 5    0 . 5  
1.5  105 E st 5
 2.5  10 E st 
5
 2.5  10 E st 
33.33  103 FC  10  103 FA  10  103 FE
10  103 FA  10  103 FE
FC 
33.33  103
FC  0.3FA  0.3FE .................eq(3)
  Fy  0, FA  FC  FE  15(103 )N  0................(1)
CCW   M C  0
 FA (0.4)  15(103 )(0.2)  FE (0.4)  0 ...........( 2)
FC  0.3FA  0.3FE .................eq(3)
Substitute eq ( 4) int o eq( 2)
 FA (0.4)  15(103 )(0.2)  FE (0.4)  0
Substitute eq (3) int o eq(1)
 FA (0.4)  3(103 )  ( 0.4) 11.538(103 )  FA   0
FA  FC  FE  15(10 )N  0................(1)
3  
 FA (0.4)  3(103 )  4.615(103 )  0.4FA  0
FA  (0.3FA  0.3FE )FE  15(10 )  0
3

7.615103
1.3FA  1.3FE  15(10 ) 3 FA 
0.8
15(103 )  1.3FA  9.519(103 )
FE 
1. 3  9.52kN
FE 11.538(103 )  FA .......................eq( 4)
Re place FA  9.52kN int o eq ( 4)
 9.52kN
FE 11.538(103 )  FA
11.538(103 )  9.52(103 )
 2.02 kN
Re place FE  2.02 kN int o eq(3)
FC  0.3FA  0.3FE
 0.3(9.519(103 )  0.3( 2.02  103 )
 3.462 kN
 A change in temperature can cause material to change its
dimensions.
 If the temperature increases, generally a material expands,
whereas if the temperature decreases, the material will
contract.
 If this is the case, and the material is homogenous and
isotropic, it has been found from experiment that the
deformation of a member having a length L can be calculated
using the formula;
T=TL
Where
=linear coefficient of thermal expansion (unit:
1/C)
T=change in temperature
L=original length of the member
T=change in length of the member
Example 2.4:

Given: =12x10-6/C
Solution:
  FY  0
FA  FB  F

AB  0 The change in length of the bar


is zero (because the supports do
not move)
To determine the change in
length, remove the upper support
of the bar and obtain a bar is
fixed at the base and free to
displace at the upper end.
(  ) AB  T   F So the bar will elongate by an
amount δT when only
temperature change is acting
And the bar shortens by an
amount δF when only the reaction
is acting
(  ) AB  T   F
T   F  0
FL
TL  0
AE
F(1)
12  106 (60  30)(1)  0
0.01 ( 200  10 )
2 9

F(1)
3.6  104 
0.012 ( 200  109 )
F  3.6  104  0.012 ( 200  109 )
 7.2kN

Average normal thermal stress:

F 7.2kN
 ;  72 MPa
A 0.012
Example 2.5

Given:

st  12  106 / C
 al  23  106 / C
Est  200  109 Pa
E al  73.1  109 Pa
  Fy  0, 2Fst  Fal  90(103 )N  0.........eq(1)
st  al ...............................eq (2)
(  ) st  (st )T  (st )F
al  (al )T  (al )F
(st )T  (st )F  (al )T  (al )F
Fst L F L
TL   TL  al
Ast E A al E
Fst (0.25)
12  106 (80  20)(0.25)  
(0.02) ( 200  10 )
2 9

Fal (0.25)
23  106 (80  20)(0.25) 
(0.03)2 (73.1  109 )
Fst (0.25) Fal (0.25)
1.8  104   3.45  104 
251.327  106 ) ( 206.685  106 )
1.8  104  9.947  1010 Fst  3.45  104  1.21  109 Fal
 9.947  1010 Fst  3.45  104  1.21  109 Fal  1.8  104
1.65  104  1.21  109 Fal
Fst 
 9.947  1010
  165.88  103  1.216Fal ...............eq (3)
Substitute eq (3)int o eq(1)
2Fst  Fal  90(103 )N  0
2( 165.88  103  1.216Fal )  Fal  90(103 )N  0
 331.76  103  2.432Fal  Fal  90(103 )N  0
3.432Fal  421.76  103
Fal  122.89 kN
Substitute Fal  122.89 kN int o eq (3)
Fst   165.88  103  1.216Fal
  165.88  103  1.216(122.89  103 )
  16.445 kN

The negative value for F steel indicates that the


force acts opposite to arrow shown.
THE STEEL POSTS ARE IN TENSION and
ALUMINIUM POSTS IS IN COMPRESSION
TUTORIAL 1
Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel bar
and loading shown, assuming a close fit at both
supports before the loads are applied.

Answer, RA= 323 kN, Rb= 577kN

66
TUTORIAL 2
Two cylindrical rods, CD made of steel (E=200 GPa) and
AC made of aluminum (E=72 GPa), are joined at C and
restrained by rigid supports at A and D. Determine
(a) the reactions at A and D (RA=52.9kN, RD= 87.1 kN)
(b) The deflection of point C (0.086 mm)

67
TUTORIAL 3
At room temperature (21oC) a 0.5 mm gap exists
between the ends of the rods shown. At a later time when
the temperature has reached 1600C, determine
(a)The normal stress in the aluminum rod (σa =-150.6
MPa)
(b)The change in length of the aluminum rod (δa= 0.369
mm)

69