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Urban Housing

Unit 1: Housing Issues Indian Context

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 1: Housing squeeze in India Production of 20 million houses by 2022
Image Courtesy: livemint.com

Can affordable housing be achieved only by building new houses


Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 2: Housing demand in India Estimated demand of 6.79 million by 2012-13
Image Courtesy: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/24116412_A_Study_of_Residential_Housing_Demand_in_India

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Market Quality of
commodity life

Housing ??

Changes in
social and Process
physical
pattern Figure 3: Illustration of housing as a process

Housing can be defined as a process that improves ones quality of life taking in to
account ones socio economic aspect resulting in changes of social and physical pattern of
the site, hence proven to be a market commodity

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
There are no easy solutions to the Third World's diverse housing problems because a
lack of adequate shelter is merely one manifestation of generalized poverty. Decent
shelter for all can never be guaranteed so long as there is widespread poverty. At the
same time, sensible policies can help mitigate shelter problems.

Housing a need third world example

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 4: Housing need vs eviction in third world
Image courtesy: http://memegenerator.net

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Meaning, morality, and truth do not exist objectively. They are constructed by society.

Figure 5: Housing squeeze in India Production of 20 million houses by 2022


Image Courtesy: bryanridgley.com

Reality can be so complex that equally valid observations from differing perspectives can
appear to be contradictory.
Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 6: Rethinking concept of Housing
Image Courtesy: http://sputniknews.com/

Jordan shelters 115,000 frustrated Syrian refugees who live in plastic and aluminium houses.
Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 7: The Zaatari camp was opened just a year ago as Jordan faced the nightmarish task of caring for and sheltering an exodus of people from Syria
Image Courtesy: http://sputniknews.com/

More than 1.8 million Syrians have officially registered as refugees since the start of the
conflict in March 2011
Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Concept of Housing an environment in conjunction with infrastructure, fresh air,
water, food, sanitation and recreation.

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 8: According to estimates of the Technical Group constituted by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MHUPA), the urban housing shortage in the
country at the end of the 10th Five-Year Plan was estimated to be 24.71 million for 66.30 million households
Image Source: http://www.joneslanglasalle.co.in

In India, private developers primarily target luxury, high-end and upper-mid housing
segment, since it fetches a premium over low- income housing.
Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Present
Growth in household
household conditions

Housing need

Rise in
Standard of
living Migration

Figure 9: Illustration of housing need

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Ability
Inaccessibility Of
To housing houses

Housing
demand

Dictated by
Affordability
Purchasing
power Of houses

Figure 10: Illustration of housing demand

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Housing Additions
stock Alterations

Housing supply

Extensions Up gradations

Figure 11: Illustration of housing supply

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Urban Housing Scenario in India
Access to Housing 2001

Household having: Percentage of Households

No Exclusive Room 2.3

One Room 35.1

Two Rooms 29.5

More than two Rooms 33.1

Figure 12: The accessibility to housing and the urban housing scenario in India as per 2011 census
Quality of Housing Stock

50 47.49
Pucca 41.17
45
Semi-Pucca
40
Kutcha
No of Houses (in Million)

35 29.79
30
25
18.09
20
15 11.8
8.08 9.16
6.8 6.21
10 4.35
2.35 3.11 3.3 2.7 2.18
5
0
1971 1981 1991 2001 2007 *
(18.5) (28) (39.3) (52.06) (58.83)

Year
Figure 13: The figure in Parenthesis is the total housing stock (in Million)
Image Source L Technical Group on Estimation of Urban Housing Shortage, NBO, MoHUPA
Growth of Slums

61.8

46

28

Figure 14: According to estimates of the Technical Group constituted by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MHUPA), the urban growth of slums is
estimated to be 61.8 million
Image Source: http://www.joneslanglasalle.co.in

90% belong to informal sector with no assurance of a steady income.


Housing Shortage and Requirement

Estimation by Technical Group

Housing shortage at the beginning of 11th Five 24.71 million dwelling


Year Plan (1.4.2007) units

Additional Housing Requirement for the 11th 1.82 million dwelling


Plan (2007-2012) units

Total housing requirement during 11th Plan 26.53 million dwelling


Period including the carried over housing units
shortage
Figure 15: According to estimates of the Technical Group constituted by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MHUPA), the urban growth of slums is
estimated to be 61.8 million
Image Source: http://www.ewn.co.za

Global policy by UN in 1988 calls upon different governments to set goals and intentions
Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 16: Housing policies gaining confidence in changing the scenario in new urban areas
Image Source: http://www.ewn.co.za

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 17: Clever intervention of Public private partnership model to produce housing
Image Source: http://www.ewn.co.za

Policies does it support the PPP model ???


Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Objectives of National Housing Policy, 1988 (1994/1998)

Invest in Housing

Housing as a strategy

Encourage private sector

Strengthen Public housing Agencies

To divert agencies on improving conditions

To utilize science and technology (building materials, training for upgrading skills,
appropriate technologies, co-op and group housing, modifying laws and regulations)

To arrest rents and land values

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
The Five Year Plans

1951-56 1956-61 1961-66 1966-69 1969-74 1974-79

1997-
1978-80 1980-85 1985-90 1992-97 2002-07
2002

2002
-
2012
Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 1: Housing squeeze in India Production of 20 million houses by 2022
Image Courtesy: livemint.com

Can affordable housing be achieved only by building new houses


Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Public Housing Agencies

National Housing policy


1988 - Series of developments
- Public sector interventions

National Housing and Habitat Policy


- Government as facilitator, Multiple stakeholders
1998
- Involvement of private sector, decentralization

National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy


2007 - Facilitate Land and Housing, promote subsidies, forging partnerships
- Challenges of shelter and issues of slums

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Public Housing Agencies

Basic services for JNNURM Affordable Housing


Urban Poor in partnership

Urban reform Part of JNNURM


and construct 1.5 to forge
To provide
million homes in partnerships
entitlements,
65 cities between public,
affordability,
private, ULB,
education,
Finance and
health,
State authorities
sanitation,
security of
tenure, water
and social
security

RAY IHSDP

Housing and infrastructure


Basic services Eradicating the
conditions of poor
Communal facilities
Affordable housing including
rental housing

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Key players playing a pivotal role in housing developments and agencies

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Role of Public sector in Housing Developments

Case study of Singapore

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Financial players and their role in housing developments

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Financial players and their role in housing developments

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Role of Public sector in Housing Developments

Case study of Singapore

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Singapore: a city - state is one of the celebrated examples of planned urbanization
strategy for economic development. Its successful strategy involves the comprehensive
provision of housing for all by the state, which provides home for almost 83% of the
population (HDB Info Web).
Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Housing Deficit and Urban Agencies Involved

The housing deficit in the country during the time of its independence was around a
million.

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Public Housing Agencies

Strictly speaking the comprehensive mode of provision is primarily the monopolization


of the supply of housing by the state to the entire population. Perhaps, this can be
justified in terms of ensuring affordability to at least the first home to a family.
Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Social Housing developments in the UK

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Role of Private sector in Housing Developments

Case study of MCMV

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Role of Private sector in Housing Developments
Case study of MCMV

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Urban Housing

Unit 2: Socio economic aspects and housing standards

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 9: Illustration of social factors influencing housing design

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Figure 9: Illustration of economic factors influencing housing design

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Economic factors and housing design

Design of EWS houses and example

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Economic factors and housing design

Design of Slum up gradation houses and example - Mumbai

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Economic factors and housing design

Design of Low income affordable houses Tata Housing

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Economic factors and housing design

Design of Single, Double and Triple BHK houses private developments

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Economic factors and housing design

Luxury houses and Villa/Condominiums

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Slums / Informality ??

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Infotopia A city within a city

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Strategies of government to clear, evict, upgrade and demolish ??

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Humanistic strategy to work with it ??

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Examples of Slum up gradation projects in India

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Sites and Services program ??

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University
Examples pertaining to Sites and Services in Chennai and other cities

Ar. Karthik Nachiappan, B.Arch.,M.A(Housing&Urbanism - AA, London) Assistant Professor- Sathyabama University