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QUALITY ENGINEERING

QUALITY
Quality of a product is good when the product is able to
satisfy the needs of the consumer. So quality is defined
as customer satisfaction, or fulfilling customer
expectations.

Customer expectations are based on intended use and


selling price of the product.

Quality is also defined as conformance to specifications


or fitness for use.
QUALITY DEFINED
1) JOSEPH M. JURAN (1974)
Defined Quality as FITNESS FOR USE

2) PHILIP B. CROSBY (1979 )


Defined Quality as CONFORMANCE to
REQUIREMENTS or SPECIFICATIONS.
QUALITY DEFINED
The aggregate of properties of a product determining its
ability to satisfy the needs it was built to satisfy.
(Russian Encyclopedia)

The totality of features and characteristics of a product or


service that bear on its ability to satisfy a given need.
(European Organization for Quality Control Glossary, 1981)

The totality of features and characteristics of a product or


service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied
needs.
(ANSI/ASQC Standard A3-1987)
QUALITY: Essential Components

There are two important components which lead to


customer satisfaction:

1) PRODUCT FEATURES (or QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS)

2) FREEDOM FROM DEFICIENCES


PRODUCT FEATURES
The attributes/characteristics or properties of a product through which
the customer requirements are met.
Technological Characteristics
(Performance, properties viz Hardness, Strength, Fuel Consumption, Dimensions etc.)

Psychological Characteristics (Aesthetics, Esteem Value, Taste etc.)

Time-oriented Characteristics (Reliability, Maintainability etc.)

Ethical Characteristics
(Courtesy of sales persons, Honesty of service, Promptness of service, Timely delivery of product
at the promised date)

Contractual Characteristics (Guarantee Provisions, Warranty etc.)

Miscellaneous Characteristics
(Environmental Norms of Regulatory Bodies, Ergonomic considerations, Availability of Service Stations etc.)
FREEDOM FROM DEFECIENCIES
Freedom from deficiencies mean that the product should be free from defects, errors or problems.

DEFECT is a departure of a quality characteristic from its intended level or state that occurs with a
severity sufficient to cause an associated product or service not to satisfy intended normal or
reasonably foreseeable usage requirements.
(ANSI/ASQC Standard A3-1987)

DEFECTS or Product Deficiencies can take such forms as: FIELD FAILURES, FACTORY SCRAP and
REWORK, LATE DELIVERIES, ERRORS IN INVOICES etc. Each of these cause trouble to the customers
and hence Customer Dissatisfaction.

Customer Dissatisfaction can be in the form of COMPLAINTS, RETURNS and CLAIMS etc.

If the extent of Dissatisfaction is very high or the response by the manufacturer to the
dissatisfaction is inadequate, external customers may stop buying the product and go elsewhere.
This will lead to lower sales, higher costs and lower productivity. In case of internal customers,
dissatisfaction will lead to lack of cooperation between the departments, mutual blame and poor
morale.
Stages/ Phases of Building Quality
(Elements of Quality)
To incorporate quality into a product, there are three essential
elements:

Quality of Design (QOD)

Quality of Conformance (QOC)

Quality of Performance (QOP)


Stages/ Phases of Building Quality
(Elements of Quality)
Phase I: Quality of Design
Deals with the stringent conditions (specifications) that the product or
service must minimally possess to satisfy the requirements of the
customer.

Quality of Design depends upon first, collecting information on the


true needs and perceptions of the customers to set the objectives
for which the product is to be manufactured and second, converting
these objectives into specifications of the product i.e. design of the
product (drawings, dimensions, bill of materials etc.). In simple
words, QOD phase decides what product features are to be given in the
product and of what specifications.

QOD depends upon type/market/cost of product, profit policy of the


company, product safety etc. Products are segmented into different
grades based on QOD phase.

The design of the product should be simplest and least expensive


while still meeting the customer requirements.
Stages/ Phases of Building Quality
(Elements of Quality)
Phase II: Quality of Conformance

Quality of Conformance phase ensures that the manufactured product or the service
rendered meets the standards set in the Design Phase (QOD). This phase is concerned
with determining, how well the manufactured product conforms to the original design
requirements.

QOC involves designing the tools, equipment and operations such that the product
will meet the design specifications. If such a system of production can be achieved, the
conformance phase will be capable of meeting the requirements set during the first
phase. If not, the design phase will be affected and the design of the product will have
to be changed.

The next activity would be to control the quality right from procurement of material
to production, shipment, and storage of finished goods. This activity of Quality
Control consists of three main activities viz. defect finding, defect prevention, and
defect analysis and rectification.
QUALITY OF CONFORMANCE
This phase helps in clarifying the quality responsibilities of the workers
and supervisors.

Freedom from deficiencies is achieved through QOC.


Stages/ Phases of Building Quality
(Elements of Quality)
Phase III: Quality of Performance

Concerned with how well the product functions or service performs when in
use.

Measures the degree to which the product or service satisfies the customer.

QOP is a function of both Quality of Design and Quality of Conformance. When product is
put to use, performance of the product depends both on Product Features available (QOD)
and Freedom from Deficiencies (QOC). It can be the best design but poor quality control will
cause poor performance. Conversely the best quality control can not make the product
function to satisfaction if the design is not proper.

Ishikawas Quality Tools/ The Seven Basic Quality Tools
Dr Karou Ishikawa put forward seven basic visual tools of quality so that even
an average person (with little formal training in statistics) could analyze and
interpret data/troubleshooting issues related to quality. These tools are used
world wide by companies, managers, and employees at all levels.

The SEVEN QUALITY TOOLS are

i. Histograms
ii. Pareto Charts
iii. Cause and Effect Diagrams
iv. Run Charts
v. Scatter Diagrams
vi. Flow Diagrams
vii. Control Charts

Dr. Karou Ishikawa


1. HISTOGRAM
A histogram is a bar graph or a bar chart that shows frequency data (i.e. the
number of occurrences of some event). Bar Graph is used when we have distinct
categories and for each frequency is given. Histograms are essentially for
continuous data.
Histograms provide the easiest way to evaluate the distribution of data. It allows
for quick prioritization based on frequency.

Suggested Mean

5 10 15 20 25 Length
HISTOGRAM
2. PARETO ANALYSIS
Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923), an Italian economist stated 20% of the population has
80% of the wealth. Juran used the term vital few, trivial many. He noted that
20% of the quality problems caused 80% of the monetary loss. The 80/20 rule
states that approximately 80% of the problems are created by approximately 20%
of the causes.

A Pareto chart is usually used to identify the principle drivers to a problem. Pareto
charts are used to identify and prioritize problems to be solved. Pareto Charts are
used when products are suffering from different defects but only a few account for
most of the defects present, or different defects incur different costs. The
manufacturer could concentrate on reducing the defects which make up a bigger
percentage of all the defects or focus on eliminating the defect that causes monetary
loss.

A check sheet is used to count how often a particular item occurs usually as a cause
to a problem. The items are then charted by the percentage of the occurrences in
decreasing order. They are actually histograms aided by the 80/20 rule adapted by
Joseph Juran. The resulting chart shows which items have the most influence on the
problem. This goes along with the 80-20 rule.
3. RUN CHARTS (TIME SERIES PLOT)
Run charts examine the behavior of a variable over time. These charts are
the basis for Control Charts.
An example of using a Run Chart: An organizations desire is to have their product
arrive to their customers on time, but they have noticed that it doesnt take the
same amount of time each day of the week. They decided to monitor the amount
of time it takes to deliver their product over the next few weeks.
4. SCATTER DIAGRAMS
Scatter Diagrams depict the relationship between paired data (i.e. two process
parameters).

Scatter Diagrams are used to study and identify the possible relationship between the changes
observed in two different sets of variables.

Constructing a Scatter Diagram

i. First, collect two pieces of data and create a summary table of the data.
ii. Draw a diagram labeling the horizontal and vertical axes.
iii. It is common that the cause variable be labeled on the X axis and the effect
variable be labeled on the Y axis.
iv. Plot the data pairs on the diagram.
v. Interpret the scatter diagram for direction and strength.

An Example of use of Scatter Diagram: A scatter diagram can be used to identify the
relationship between the production speed of an operation and the number of
defective parts made. Displaying the direction of the relationship will determine
whether increasing the assembly line speed will increase or decrease the number of
defective parts made. Also, the strength of the relationship between the assembly line
speed and the number of defective parts produced is determined.
SCATTER DIAGRAMS

A cluster of points resembling a straight line indicates the strongest correlation between
the variables. In this graph, there is a strong positive correlation between Variable 1
and Variable 2.
5. FLOW CHARTS/FLOW DIAGRAM
Flow Charts Defined
A flow chart is a pictorial representation showing all of the steps of a process. It is a
graphical description of how work is done.

Used to describe processes that are to be improved.

Creating a Flow Chart


First, familiarize the participants with the flow chart symbols.
Draw the process flow chart and fill it out in detail about each element.
Analyze the flow chart. Determine which steps add value and which dont in the
process of simplifying the work.
FLOWCHARTS/FLOW DIAGRAM

Activity Decision Yes Start or Stop

No
FLOW CHARTS / FLOW DIAGRAM
FLOWCHART
An Example: Statistical Process Control Steps

Produce Good
Start
Provide Service
No
Assign.
Take Sample Causes?
Yes
Inspect Sample Stop Process

Create
Find Out Why
Control Chart
5*. Process Chart Symbols

Operations
Inspection

Transportation

Delay

Storage
Location: Kullu Mountain
Process Chart
Date: 03-09-08 Process: Apple Sauce

Description

Distance
Operation
Transport

Storage

(min)

(feet)
Time
Inspect

of
Delay
Step

process

1 Unload apples from truck 20


2 Move to inspection station 100 ft

3 Weigh, inspect, sort 30

4 Move to storage 50 ft

5 Wait until needed 360

6 Move to peeler 20 ft

7 Apples peeled and cored 15

8 Soak in water until needed 20

9 Place in conveyor 5

10 Move to mixing area 20 ft

11 Weigh, inspect, sort 30

Total 480 190 ft


6. Control Charts
Control charts are used to determine whether a process will produce a product
or service with consistent measurable properties. It tells whether the process is
in control or going out of control.
Steps Used in Developing Process Control Charts
Identify critical operations in the process where inspection might be needed.
Identify critical product characteristics.
Determine whether the critical product characteristic is a variable or an
attribute.
Select the appropriate process control chart.
Establish the control limits and use the chart to monitor and improve.
Update the limits.
7. Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone Diagram or Ishikawa
Diagram)
Cause and Effect diagrams were developed by Dr. Karou Ishikiwi in 1963. These diagrams when
made resemble the bones of a fish skeleton and so are referred to as Fishbone diagrams.
Purpose and Definition:
Cause and Effect diagrams are used to find the possible causes of an effect i.e. problem. If a
company is facing quality relating problem, it can use this quality tool to identify the various
probable reasons or causes creating that problem. Thus CAUSE AND EFFECT diagram gives the
relationship between the PROBLEM and its POSSIBLE CAUSES.
Definitions:
1. It is a graphical representation of different factors (causes) that contribute to an effect. The effect
is usually a problem to be resolved.
2. It is a problem analysis technique which attempts to identify the root causes for a problem
thereby allowing a group to work towards solving the real problems and not just symptoms.
3. This diagram represents the relationship between some effect and all the possible causes. For
every effect, there are likely to be several major causes. These major causes might be
summarized under men, method, machine and material.
4. A graphical method to record and classify a chain of causes and effects in order to resolve a
quality problem.
Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone Diagram
or Ishikawa Diagram)

Procedure to draw the Fishbone Diagram

1. The problem to be solved is stated clearly. The problem


statement should be well defined and agreed upon by
all group members. The problem should have a narrow
focus, otherwise the diagram would become too large.
If possible a numerical measurement should be
established for the problem against which subsequent
improvement can be measured.
A line is drawn in the middle of a sheet of paper to a
box on the right hand side. In this box, the problem
statement is written. The line can be called as the
backbone of the fish and the box, the head of the fish.
STEPS TO CONSTRUCT C&E DIAGRAM

Quality Problem
(Backbone or Spine) (Problem Statement)

(Fish Head)
STEPS TO CONSTRUCT C&E DIAGRAM
2. In this step, a brainstorming session of the group
members is held to identify the broad areas of the
problem i.e. the major categories of the causes are
identified. Generally these Broad Areas/ Major
Categories are:

For Manufacturing: MEN, MACHINES, METHODS and


MATERIALS
For Services: MEN, MACHINES, PROCEDURES and POLICIES

These Broad Areas/ Major Categories are represented


in boxes as the main bones of the fish skeleton. They
are joined to the backbone of the fish skeleton through
lines sloping towards the left as shown in the figure.
Major Cause/ Major Cause/
Major Category/ Major Category/
Broad Area 1 Broad Area 2

Main Bones

Problem
Statement

Backbone or Spine

Fish Head

Major Cause/ Major Cause/


Major Category/ Major Category/
Broad Area 3 Broad Area 4
MEN MACHINERY

Problem
Statement related
to Manufacturing
Industry

METHOD MATERIAL
MEN MACHINERY

Problem
Statement related
to Service
Industry

PROCEDURES POLICIES
STEPS TO CONSTRUCT C&E DIAGRAM
3. In this step, again a brainstorming session of the group
members is held to identify the causes/ issues under each problem
area/ major categories of cause. For this, under each category, look
for the things that have changed, deviations from norms or patterns.
For each problem area, ask, why does it happen? List the responses
as branches off the main bones i.e. major causes. The causes
identified for each main cause is called Level 1 cause. Similarly Level
1 causes are found for each main cause.

In the next stage, for each level 1 cause, find the possible sub-causes
which would be called Level 2 causes. For each level 2 cause, find
the possible sub-causes which would be called Level 3 causes. One
can go up to Level 4 or 5.

The resulting structure after completion looks like a tree or a fish


skeleton and hence the name Fishbone Diagram.
Major Cause 1 Major Cause 2 Level 2 Cause

Level 3

Level 1 Cause
Level 1 Cause
Supporting
Ideas Why
students
earn poor
grades?
AVGP
decreased
to 6.0

Major Cause 3 Major Cause 4


Cause-and-Effect Chart for Flight Departure Delay (Fishbone Chart)

Equipment Personnel

Gate agents cannot process passengers quickly enough


Too few agents
Aircraft late to gate Agents undertrained
Late arrival Agents undermotivated
Gate occupied Agents arrive at gate late
Other Mechanical failures Late cabin cleaners Delayed
Late pushback tug
Weather Late or unavailable cabin crews Flight
Air traffic Late or unavailable cockpit crews
Departure, on
average
Poor announcement of departures
Weight an balance sheet late
by 10 min
Delayed checkin procedure
Late baggage to aircraft Confused seat selection
Late fuel Passengers bypass checkin counter
Late food service Checking oversize baggage
Issuance of boarding pass

Acceptance of late passengers


Cutoff too close to departure time
Desire to protect late passengers
Material Desire to help companys income
Poor gate locations

Procedure
Cause-and-Effect Chart
4. In this step, the different causes are quantified i.e. data
is collected to show that the causes being shown on
the diagram are real. The quantification is represented
with the help of Pareto or any other tool, to fix the
priority in which different causes would be eliminated.

5. Implement appropriate solutions to eliminate or reduce


the causes of problems. Measure the Improvement
level.