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INTRODUCTION

It is the first indigenous helicopter of growing Indian


aircraft industry. It is a multirole, multi-mission new
generation helicopter in the 5.5 tonne weight class
built to meet Federal Aviation Requirements (FAR).
It is designed to meet the requirements of both civil
and military operators.
Civil DHRUVs have been certified in both wheeled
and skid configurations.
DHRUV has been designed VIP/VVIP transport,
Search and Rescue, offshore operation, disaster
relief and Police roles.
DHRUV is ideally suited for rapid deployment due
to its high speed capability. Its large fuel capacity
enables long range and endurance.
HISTORY

Hindustans ADVANCED LIGHT HELICOPTER


(ALH) programme was first announced in
November 1984.
The first prototype flew in August 20 1992; the delay
was due to changing demands Indian military,
funding and contractual issues with MBB, which
was the consultant for design.
Further obstacles were created by the US sanctions
after Indian nuclear tests in 1998, which embargoed
the engine originally intended to power the
helicopter.
On 30 march 2002, the Defence Minister dedicated
the HAL-built DHRUV helicopter to the nation.
Sixty four DHRUVs were delivered to Indian armed
forces in 2006.
GENERAL PERFORMANCE DATA

Best range speed 220 kmph.


Max cruise speed 255 kmph.
Never exceed speed 295 kmph.
Max rate of climb 620 m/min.
Range (20 min reserve) 640 Km.
Endurance 3.7 hours.
Service ceiling 4500 m.
Hover OGE 2600 m.
Underslung load 1500 kg.
Empty weight 2580 kg.
Max take-off weight 5500 kg.
Fuel capacity 1075 kg.
DESIGN FEATURES

The DHRUV features a System Bolkow four-blade


hingeless main rotor with carbon fibre composite
blades.
The blades have advanced aerofoil profiles, swept
back tips for reduced noise, and feature a ballistic
tolerance against bullet hits of up to 12.7 mm
calibre.
The fibre elastomer rotor head holds the blade
between a pair of CFRP star-plates, with manual
blade folding and a rotor brake provided as
standard equipment.
DESIGN FEATURES (contd)

An integrated drive system comprises of the rotor


hub, main transmission, upper controls and main
rotor hydraulics.
The naval variant also has a retractable tricycle
gear, a folding tail boom, a harpoon deck-lock,
pressure refueling, fairings on fuselage sides to
house the main wheels, floatation gears and
batteries.
The DHRUV also features a four axis automatic
flight control system, with an integrated control and
stability control augmentation.
DESIGN FEATURES (contd)

The military variants include crashworthy fuel tanks,


frangible couplings and infrared suppressors for the
engines.
The helicopter design enables the crew to survive
vertical impacts of upto 30 feet per second, due to
the safety seats and a design of controlled
deformation of fuselage crumple zones.
Rearward sliding doors are featured on either end,
with large clamshell doors at the rear of the cabin.
The clamshell doors can be removed in exceptional
cases, to carry unusual and unwieldy loads.
SURVIVABILITY FEATURES

DHRUV is designed to provide a high degree of


survivability which Includes:
High redundancy characteristics.
Low external noise.
Ballistic tolerance.
Crashworthy structure.
Emergency floatation system permitting pitching
and floating in the sea upto sea state 5/6.
Fail safe design through multiple load paths.
All round agility.
Low signatures.
SURVIVABILITY FEATURES (contd)

Two engines widely spaced.


Gear box with dual lubrication system with dry run
capability.
Provision for rescue hoist.
Underslung load capability.
Alternative drive for accessories.
Damage tolerant drive shafts and control rods.
Self sealing crashworthy fuel tanks.
Dual flight controls.
Large cabin space with wide CG margins.
Crashworthy crew seats.
Application of composite in ALH

Composites are
extensively used in
ALH.
The primary
components which are
made of composites
are main rotor blades,
tail rotor blades, tail
boom, horizontal
stabilizer, fin and side
frames.
Application of composite in ALH

The cockpit frame is of single piece construction


using Carbon-Kevlar prepreg. Cabin structure
consists of composite side frames, side shells and
roof structures. The sliding door structure is made
up of composite Carbon-Kevlar prepregs.
The empennage consisting of vertical fin, horizontal
stabilizer and end plates are of composite
construction using Kevlar, Carbon and Glass.
Main rotor blade is made out of glass and carbon
composites while the main rotor hub is of carbon
composite. Kevlar and glass composites are used
in tail rotor blades.
Application of composite in ALH

All the structural


components have
been validated by
Finite element analysis
using NASTRAN FE
package and extensive
ground testing at room
temperature and
elevated temperature.
The test set ups for
trail boom and
fuselage is shown.
Advantage of using composite in
ALH

Utilization of composite materials in primary


structures and also in secondary structures has
made ALH lighter by 25%.
Number of parts count involved in fabrication of a
component is significantly reduced.
It was also possible to tailor the stiffness in the
desired direction by the use of composites in the
main and tail rotor blades.
Use of composites are improved surface finish and
ease of repair in case of any damage.
CRASHWORTHINESS

The sine web composite structures are designed to


avoid damage which would be located beneath the
cabin floor of rotorcraft.
The sine web material is made up of curved pieces
of a graphite resin composite.
The curves offer strength and resistance while
allowing the material to be completely stored.
When crushed at impact in an accident these sine
web material would absorb energy and reduce the
force felt in the passenger compartment. This is
referred as Crashworthiness.
CRASHWORTHINESS

It includes:
Crew protection.

Cockpit design.

Post crash fire.

Aramid construction proves viable cabin back wall


and floor, as well as the structures around fuel tank.
A panel of Aramid/epoxy skins and Nomex
honeycomb core for these components (cabin back
wall and floor). The Aramid/epoxy enhances the fire
protection, compared to aluminum panel and
frames used on earlier helicopters.
ADVANTAGES OF ALH

Excellent hover performance. Designed for high


rate of climb performance.
Ideal for operations from restricted places like off-
shore platforms, elevated platforms, ship decks and
on slopes up to 100.Capable of carrying bulky
underslung loads to relatively in accessible
locations.
Designed to perform cost effective operations due
to high fuel efficiency and low maintenance cost.
Ideally suited for rapid deployment due to its high
speed capability. Its large fuel capacity enables
large distances and endurance.
USES OF ALH

For rescue missions where it can hover above the


scene of disaster. A sling or harness can be lowered
from the craft to endangered people below. It
serves as flying ambulances which can land near
the crashed site and rush the injured to hospitals.
For aerial observations where it can patrol national
borders looking for smugglers and illegal
immigrants.
For transportation and construction where due to its
flexibility, security and speed of travel it is used to
transport VIPs .
For military missions where it carries artillery to key
battle position. It is also used in slithering operation.
CONCLUSIONS

ALH is a state-of-the-art twin engined new


generation helicopter in the 4.5 to 5.5 ton weight
class. It is a multi-role, multi-mission helicopter with
a wide range of military and civil applications, and is
presently in series production stage.
ALH is designed to fulfill roles like casualty
evacuation and aircrew rescue, communication
duties, reconnaissance, air observation post, off-
shore operations, training, search and rescue, anti-
pollution and anti-poaching, anti-tank, close air
support, air to air combat, scout, anti-submarine
warfare (ASW) and anti-surface vessel (ASV).
REFERENCE

Basic technology by HAL Training Department.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HAL-Dhruv.
http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=245.
http://www.bharat-
rakshak.com/IAF/info/Aircraft/ALH.html.
http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/NAVY/ALH.html.
www.helis.com.
www.altavista.com.
ISAMPE. (Indian society for Advancement of
materials and process engineering.)