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RE-300-E1

ZXR10 Routing Technology

Basic Routing Principles


V1122

ZTE University

Data Communication Group


ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn
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Objectives

Router definition and function


Basic conception
Working principle of router
IP routing process

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Router definition(1)

RouterA kind of computer device used to


interconnect network

Router must have the following features:


Multiple three layer interfaces to interconnect
different networks
Implement the protocol up to the network layer
Have the function of storingforwardingpath-
finding

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Router functions(2)

The core function of router is interconnecting networks


and data forwarding.

routingbuilding route table and refreshing


switchingforwarding packet between networks.
Insulate broadcast packetsdefine access rule.
Connecting different kinds of networks.
Rate adapting between networks.

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Objectives

Router definition and function


Basic conception
Working principle of router
IP routing process

ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn


The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.
Basic concepts
routed protocol
routing protocol
routing table
metric
connected route
static route
dynamic route
default route
distance
the longest matching principle
Classful / classless routing
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Routing protocol and routed protocol

10.120.2.0 172.16.2.0

E0
S0

Network Destination Exit Interface 172.17.3.0


Protocol Network
Connected 10.120.2.0 fei_0/1
RIP 172.16.2.0 e1_1
OSPF 172.17.3.0 e1_2

Routed protocol: IP
Routing protocol: RIP, OSPF
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Route table

The information that router need to forward data is


stored in a table, called route table
Router check the destination address of the packet,and
choose the next hop based on the information in route
table.
Route table is stored in RAM

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Route table composition

Route table composition:


Destination address
Mask
Next hop address (Gateway)
Forwarding physical interface
Source of the information(Owner)
Route priority
metric

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Route table composition

Example
Dest Mask Gw Interface Owner pri metric

172.16.8.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.1.1 fei_0/1.1 static 1 0

172.16.8.0 -- Destination network address


255.255.255.0 -- Destination network mask
1.1.1.1 -- Next hop address
fei_0/1.1 -- Route learning interface and forwarding interface
static -- how does router learns this entry
1 -- route priority
0 -- Metric

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Route table establishing and refreshing

How is route established at the beginning?

How to maintain the route table after it is


established?

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Route Types

Directly
Default route
connected route

Static route Dynamic route

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Directly connected route
10.0.0.1/24 192.168.0.1/30

A 192.168.0.2/30 172.16.0.1/24
B
IPv4 Routing Table:
Dest Mask Gw Interface Owner pri metric

10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1 fei_0/1 direct 0 0


10.0.0.1 255.255.255.255 10.0.0.1 fei_0/1 address 0 0
192.168.0.0 255.255.255.252 192.168.0.1 e1_1 direct 0 0
192.168.0.1 255.255.255.255 192.168.0.1 e1_1 address 0 0
ZXR10#

Directly connected route


When network address is configured and the status of the interface is valid, the
network configured on this network will appear in the route table and associated
with this interfacethe route will change with the status of the interface.

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Static route configuration

Stub Network

172.16.1.0
SO
10.0.0.0
B A
B
Network 172.16.2.2 172.16.2.1

ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 172.16.2.2

This is a unidirectional route, there should be an opposite route


configured on the counterpart router.

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Default route configuration

Example Stub Network

172.16.1.0
SO
Network A BB
172.16.2.2 172.16.2.1

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.2.2

Default route is configured on the egress router in a


stub network.
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Dynamic route

OSPF RIP OSPF RIP

1.0.0.0/8 2.0.0.0/8 3.0.0.0/8

Routing protocol is a software process running on the


router. It will exchange routing information with other
routersstudying route information of network not
directly connected and adjusting the route information
when topology changes.

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Route priority

Select the route that has the highest priority to the route
table
RIP OSPF

10.0.0.0/16 fei_1/1 10.0.0.0/16 fei_1/3

10.0.0.0/16 fei_1/3
Notice the comparison of route Route table
priority must be between identical
routes.
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Default route priority

Route Source Default priority


Connected interface 0
Static route 1
External BGP 20
OSPF 110
IS-IS 115
RIP v1, v2 120
Internal BGP 200
Special (For inner process) 255

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Float static route

fei_1/1 e1_2/1.1
DDN

Network
serial_3/1
PSTN

How to configure static route when there are


redundant links?

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Float static route

fei_1/1 e1_2/1.1
DDN

Network
serial_3/1
PSTN

ZXR10(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 e1_2/1.1


ZXR10(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 serial_3/1 5

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Longest match principle
ZXR10#show ip route
IPv4 Routing Table:
Dest Mask Gw Interface Owner pri metric

1.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 1.1.1.1 fei_1/1.1 direct 0 0


1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 1.1.1.1 fei_1/1.1 address 0 0
2.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 2.1.1.1 fei_1/1.2 direct 0 0
2.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 2.1.1.1 fei_1/1.2 address 0 0
3.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 3.1.1.1 fei_1/1.3 direct 0 0
3.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 3.1.1.1 fei_1/1.3 address 0 0
10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 1.1.1.1 fei_1/1.1 ospf 110 10
10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 2.1.1.1 fei_1/1.2 static 1 0
10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 3.1.1.1 fei_1/1.3 rip 120 5
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.1 fei_1/1.1 static 0 0

10.1.1.1?
ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn
The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.
Objectives

Router definition and functions


Basic conception
Working principle of router
IP routing process

ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn


The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.
Router working principle

Routing function
Study and maintain the network topology,produce and maintain
route table

Forwarding function
Data transferring and processing procedure(Receiving data on one
interface,then choose an appropriate interface to send it out,
including the work of frame encapsulation and decapsulation)

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Route function

Study and maintain the network topology mechanism is


regarded as the function of routing.It requires several
basic information

What kind of protocols to route


Is the destination network address in the route table?
Which interface to send out the packet
What is the next hop address

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Forwarding Function

Frame checking and cache the Coming


packet interface

Associate destination address with Route


Maintained by routing protocol
the next hop interface table

Create the frame head with the ARP cache Maintained by


physical address LAN Mapping list
WAN ARP or RARP
process
Packet encapsulation and Out interface
forwarding

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Route working process summary

Add route based on route priority Search entry in route table


Based on destination address
Routing
Routing
Routing
process
Routing
process
process Route Forwarding
process table process
Longest match
principles
Routing protocol study
possible route,select the
best route based on metric

ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn


The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.
Objectives

Router definition and functions


Basic conception
Working principle of router
IP routing process

ZTE University univ.zte.com.cn


The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.
Communication in the same
network

To router1
Network
Hub/switch
A

Communication
requirement

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Communication process
A B
Network
IP address192.168.1.1 IP address192.168.1.2
MAC address00:20:AF:00:00:01 MAC address00:20:AF:00:00:02

No need to consider
higher layer protocols
Encapsulate IP decapsulate
address in IP packet
Protocol IP layer packet and send Receiving IP layer
layer to 192.168.1.2 IP packet

ARP

Ethernet Encapsulate MAC Decapsulate Ethernet


address in frame MAC frame
and send to MAC Receiving
address MAC frame
00:20:AF:00:00:02

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Communication between different
network

Router Router
DDN
PPP
Network A Network B

Ethernet Ethernet
Communication
requirements

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Communication between different
network
Network
PPP
Ethernet Ethernet
fei-1/1 e1_2/1.1 e1_2/1.1 fei-1/1
HOST A HOST B
No need to consider No need to consider
Protocol higher layer protocols higher layer protocols

IP IP IP IP IP IP
IP layer IP layer IP layer IP layer
packet packet packet packet packet packet

Ethernet Serial Serial Ethernet


Ethernet Ethernet
interface interface interface interface
MAC PPP MAC
frame frame frame
Send host router router Receiving
A host B
PPP
packet
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Communication process

Get peer IP address

Whether in the same YES YES


Is the peer MAC Data link layer
network
address in ARP table? encapsulation
with peer

NO NO

Get peer MAC


Address by ARP Send data at
physical layer

YES
Is gateway YES Is the gateway MAC Data link layer
configured address in ARP? encapsulation

NO NO
End
Get gateway MAC
Send error message
address by ARP

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IP communication process

IP communication process basic conception:


IP communication is hop by hop communication
Source IP and destination IP address is unchanged
Every time the packet passed a data link layer,there
will be a new encapsulation of the packet
The return path is not related to the forwarding
path

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Network protocol layer process

X
C Y
A

B
X Y
Application Application
Presentation Presentation
Session A B C Session
Transport Transport
Network Network Network Network Network
Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link Data Link
Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical

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Routing process example
R1 route table
192.168.4.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.1 e1_1/1.1 direct 0 0
192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.1 fei_1/1 direct 0 0
192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.2 e1_1/1.1 rip 120 1
192.168.6.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.2 e1_1/1.1 rip 120 1
192.168.1.0 /24 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.2 e1_1/1.1 rip 120 2
fei_1/1
R2
e1_1/1.1 e1_2/1.1
192.168.6.0 /24
192.168.4.0 /24

e1_1/1.1
e1_1/1.1
R3
R1
fei_1/1
fei_1/1 Destination address:
192.168.3.3 192.168.3.0 /24
192.168.2.0 /24

192.168.2.3 A B
192.168.3.3
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Routing process example
R2 route table
192.168.4.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.2 e1_1/1.1 direct 0 0
192.168.6.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.6.1 e1_2/1.1 direct 0 0
192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1 fei_1/1 direct 0 0
192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.4.1 e1_1/1.1 rip 120 1
192.168.1.0 /24 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.6.2 e1_1/1.1 rip 120 1
fei_1/1
R2
e1_1/1.1 e1_2/1.1

192.168.4.0 /24 192.168.6.0 /24

Destination Address: e1_1/1.1


e1_1/1.1 192.168.3.3
R3
R1
fei_1/1
fei_1/1
192.168.2.0 /24 192.168.3.0 /24

192.168.2.3 1.Destination address:192.168.3.3

192.168.3.3
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Routing process example
R3 route table
192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.3.1 fei_1/1 direct 0 0
192.168.6.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.6.2 e1_1/1.1 direct 0 0
192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.6.1 e1_1/1.1 rip 120 1
192.168.1.0 /24 192.168.4.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.6.1 e1_1/1.1 rip 120 1
fei_1/1 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.6.1 e1_1/1.1 rip 120 2
R2
e1_1/1.1 e1_2/1.1

192.168.4.0 /24 192.168.6.0 /24

Destination address: e1_1/1.1


e1_1/1.1 192.168.3.3
R3 Return path
R1
fei_1/1
fei_1/1
192.168.2.0 /24 192.168.3.0 /24

192.168.2.3 192.168.3.3
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Review

Definition of router
Router functions
Basic conceptions in routing
IP routing process within the same subnet
IP routing process between different subnet

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Questions

Whats the two main functions of router?


How is the route table established?
What is the standard when a router is selecting the
route to route table?
When forwarding IP packet, If there are many
matches, what will router do?
Describe the encapsulation and decapsulation
during the process of IP routing .

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