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Content:
›Introduction

› Elevator
terminology and
components
›Types of elevators

›Safety features

›Types of
Emergencies

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` There are two types of Elevators:-
a xydraulic
a Rope-Geared
The hydraulic elevator consists of a cab
attached to the top of a hydraulic jack similar
to a jack used for a car lift in a service
station. The hydraulic jack assembly normally
extends below the lowest floor and is
operated by a hydraulic pump and reservoir,
both of which are usually located in a
separate room adjacent to the elevator shaft,
xydraulic elevators are the type generally
used in single-family residences
xydraulic
Found in two types:
Plunger type and Roped hydraulic

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xydraulic - Plunger type
This type is the most common and consists of
an elevator car mounted on top of a long
hydraulic piston. The piston is generally not
telescopic, so there must be a hole in the
ground as long as the distance the elevator
travels.

ë
xydraulic ± Roped hydraulic
.Otis¶ Roped xydraulic is a cost-effective,
environmentally safe elevator designed
for customers seeking an alternative to
traditional holed elevators. It¶s the right
solution for hazard-sensitive and
waterfront sites, and for existing
building.


The Otis Roped xydraulic has a
plunger (A) located on each side
of the car and a sheave (B)
controlled by a set of plunger
guides (C). Ropes (D) are
fastened to the top of jack stands
(E) and the bottom of the car
frame. The system has an
instantaneous safety (F) that is
activated by a traction governor
(G) and governor tension sheave
(x).
xydraulic ± Roped hydraulic

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` Two Disadvantages
a £ust xave Enough Room
a Energy Inefficient
` These are the most popular types of elevators.
` Rather than being pushed from below, these types
of elevators are moved using cables
` Rails are used to guide the elevator
` Keep elevator and counterweights steady.
` Rope-geared elevators are much more efficient and
safer.
uELEVATOR CAR
uxOISTWAY
u£ACxINE /DRIVE SYSTE£
uCONTROL SYSTE£
uSAFETY SYSTE£
Elevator car
The elevator car door travels through the
hoistway with the car.
A toe guard is present at the bottom of some
cars. This guard protects the passengers
from being exposed to the open hoistway
under the car if the doors are opened when it
is not at the landing. The guard is between
2 and 4ë long.


Cross head


Safety plank

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Elevator car-
contd.
The elevator car door travels through the
hoistway with the car.
A toe guard is present at the bottom of some
cars. This guard protects the passengers
from being exposed to the open hoistway
under the car if the doors are opened when it
is not at the landing. The guard is between
2 and 4ë long.

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Complements of The American Society of £echanical
Engineers
xoistway

The shaft that encompasses the elevator car.

Generally serving all floors of the building.

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In high-rise buildings hoistways may be banked. With
specific hoistways serving only the lower floors and
others serving only middle or upper floors while
traveling in a blind hoistway until reaching the floors
that it serves. A blind hoistway has no doors on the
floors that it does not serve.
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xorizontal operating hoistway doors are generally
hung from the top on rollers that run in a track,
with the bottom of the door running in a slot.
Forcing these doors at the middle or at the bottom will
cause damage to the doors and their mounting
hardware. The doors can also be knocked out of their
track and fall into the hoistway
` The hoistway door locking mechanism provides a means
to mechanically lock each hoistway door. They are also
interconnected electrically to prevent operation of the
elevator if any of the elevator¶s hoistway doors are open.
xoistway door
interlock
Interlock for freight
elevator

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Carried on trucks and the squad, permit the unlocking of
the hoistway door interlock.
The keyhole on the upper portion of a hoistway door that
accepts a hoistway emergency door key and permits
unlocking of the hoistway door locking mechanism.

These keyholes are usually located at the bottom and top


floors, but may also be on other selected floors or all floors
Escutcheo
n tube


Escutcheo
n tube
Photo-electric and infrared
sensors
A sensor between the hoistway and car doors
that detects objects in their path and prevents
the doors from closing.
Photo-electric eyes were problematic and are
being phased out.

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Infra-red sensor

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Roller guides
A set of three wheels that roll against the guide
rails.

Usually mounted to the safety plank and


crosshead. They keep the car in contact with
the guide rails and prevent sway.

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Roller guides
on
Cross head

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Roller guides
on Safety
plank

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Safeties
Emergency braking mechanism that stops the
car by wedging into the guide rails when over
speeding has occurred.

It is activated by the speed governor sensing


over speeding of the elevator car.

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Safeties

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Safeti
es

Governor
rope

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xoisting cables (or ropes)
Used on traction type elevators, usually
attached to the crosshead and extending up into
the machine room looping over the sheave on
the motor and then down to the counter weights.

xoisting cable are generally 3 to 6 in number.


They are steel with a hemp core to keep them
pliable and lubricated.

xoisting cables (or ropes)
These cables are usually /2or 5/ë in diameter.
The /2cables have a breaking strength of
4,5 lbs and the 5/ë 23, lbs each.

xowever, at  degrees the wire steel rope


contains only about 3% of its original tensile
strength.


Nickel Babbitt

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xoisting
cables

Wedge clamp

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Guide rails
Tracks in the form of a ³T that run the length of
the hoistway, that guide the elevator car.

Usually mounted to the sides of the hoistway, at


the middle of the elevator car.

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Guide rail Guide rail

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Governor sheave
Provided to detect over speeding of the car.
Usually a cable is attached to the safeties on the
under side of the car, called the governor rope.
This rope runs down through a pulley at the
bottom of the shaft and back up to the machine
room and around the governor sheave.

When over-speeding is detected, the governor


grips the cable which applies the safeties that
wedge against the guide rails and stops the car.
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Governor
sheave

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Governor
rope

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Governor
rope


Car emergency exit
Usually located at the top of the elevator cars,
sometimes on the side, other times not present.

Top exits open from outside the car.


Side exits are extremely dangerous to use and
are no longer being installed. Existing side exits
have been disabled by being permanently
bolted shut.


Top
emergency
exit

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£achine room
For hydraulic plunger type
Usually located in the basement or first floor, but
could be anywhere.

Generally containing the electric motors, pumps,


oil reservoirs, controllers and electrical
disconnect to the elevators.

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` £ore ropes than needed
` Built-in brake systems
` Governor prevents the elevator from falling to the bottom of
the shaft.
Centrifugal force causes a brake system to activate.
` Also has an electromagnetic brake that is activated if the
elevator loses power.
` Automated Brake System at the top and bottom of the shaft.
Safety features
Safeties ± a stopping mechanism for an over
speeding car.

Interlocks ± Cuts power to the car if this


electrical/mechanical interconnection is broken.

Emergency stop switch ± The red switch inside


some cars that cuts off the power to the car
except for the lights, alarm and communication
system.
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Safety features
Seismic switch - A motion sensing device on
some elevators installations. If it is activated the
elevator will move away from the counter
weights to the next landing with its doors open
and inoperable.
This device overrides phase I and phase II
operation unless phase II operation is already in
effect.

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Safety features
If this device has been activated it can mean
that an unsafe structural condition exists.

This device is located in the machine room.

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Safety features
Seismic valve for hydraulic elevators - A valve
located in the pit close to the jack that is
designed to hold pressure if the hydraulic line is
broken due to seismic activity.


Seismic valve

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Elevator emergencies
In many cases an elevator technician can
correct a problem faster than we can initiate a
rescue.
Elevator technicians are on call 24hrs a day and
can usually respond within an hour.
When dispatched on a elevator emergency,
verify that an elevator technician has been
notified.

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Types of emergencies
‡Person trapped in elevator car

The 3 most common reasons:

± Power failure
± £alfunction of control components
± Activation of safety equipment

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- Power failure

If it¶s going to be short term, its best not to


attempt a rescue. Explain the situation to the
occupant. Calm and reassure them and let
them know that they are not in danger and steps
are being taken to remove them safely.

If emergency power is available, it can be used.

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- Power failure

Some newer elevators will return to the lobby


one at a time where the doors will open
automatically.

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- £alfunction of control components

Shut off the power to the elevator in the machine


room.
This will prevent any unexpected movement of
the car when the power is restored.

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- Activation of safety equipment.
If one of the elevator¶s safety devices has been
activated, it is often indicating a serious
malfunction in the hoistway or operating
machinery.

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- Activation of safety equipment.
In this situation we should wait for an elevator
technician. Leave the power on to the elevator.
This will help the technician in determining the
problem.
xowever, if we have to perform a rescue, turn
off the main power to the elevator in the
machine room.

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