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number (0,1, n-1 e.g., for 2 e-: L = l1+l2, l1+l2 -1, l1+l2 -2, ,| l1-l2 |

where 0=s, 1=p, 2=d, 3=f) 0 = S, 1 = P, 2 = D, 3 = F

ml: orbital magnetic quantum number ML: orbital magnetic quantum number (Sml)

(l, l-1, , 0, , -l ) 2L+1 possible values

S = s1+s2, s1+s2 -1, ,| s1-s2 |

S = 0 singlet, S = 1 doublet, S = 2 triplet

ms: spin magnetic quantum number MS: spin magnetic quantum number (Sms)

(+1/2, -1/2) 2S+1 possible values

J = L+S, L+S-1, , | L-S|

Spectroscopic Description of

Atomic Electronic States Term Symbols

Multiplicity (2S +1) describes the number of possible orientations of total

spin angular momentum where S is the resultant spin quantum

number (1/2 x # unpaired electrons)

angular momenta of each electron (add the mL values for each

electron)

intrinsic angular momentum (i.e., spin).

To Assign J Value:

if less than half of the subshell is occupied, take the minimum value J

=|LS|;

if more than half-filled, take the maximum value J = L + S;

if the subshell is half-filled, L = 0 and then J = S.

Spectroscopic Description of

Ground Electronic States Term Symbols

Term Symbol Form: 2S+1{L}

J

2S+1 multiplicity

L resultant angular momentum quantum number

J total angular momentum quantum number

Consider only the one valence electron (3s1)

L = l = 0,

S = s = ,

J=L+S=

so, the term symbol is 2S

Are you getting the concept?

Write the ground state term symbol for fluorine.

Spectroscopic Description of

All Possible Electronic States Term Symbols

C 1s22s22p2

Step 1:Consider two valence p electrons

1st 2p electron has n = 2, l = 1, ml = 0, 1, ms = 6 possible sets of quantum

numbers

2nd 2p electron has 5 possible sets of quantum numbers (Pauli Exclusion

Principle)

For both electrons, (6x5)/2 = 15 possible assignments since the electrons are

indistinguishable

Calculate ML and MS for each state.

Step 2: Draw all possible

microstates. Calculate ML

and MS for each state.

Spectroscopic Description of

All Possible Electronic States Term Symbols

C 1s22s22p2

Step 3: Count the number of microstates for each MLMS possible combination

Spectroscopic Description of

All Possible Electronic States Term Symbols

C 1s22s22p2

Step 5: Use Hunds Rules to determine the relative energies of all possible states.

1. The highest multiplicity term within a configuration is of lowest energy.

2. For terms of the same multiplicity, the highest L value has the lowest

energy (D < P < S).

3. For subshells that are less than half-filled, the minimum J-value state is of

lower energy than higher J-value states.

4. For subshells that are more than half-filled, the state of maximum J-value

is the lowest energy.

Based on these rules, the ground electronic configuration for carbon has the

following energy order: 3P0 < 3P1 < 3P2 < 1D2 < 1S0

Hunds Rules

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