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Applied EM by Ulaby, Michielssen and Ravaioli

Overview

Examples of Antennas

Antenna Properties

converts a guided wave propagating on a

transmission line into an electromagnetic

wave propagating in an unbounded

medium (usually free space), or vice versa.

exhibiting the same radiation pattern for

transmission as for reception.

when operating in the receiving mode, can

extract from an incident wave only

that component of the wave whose electric

field matches the antenna polarization

state.

Far-Field Approximation

1. In close proximity to a

radiating source, the wave is

spherical in shape, but at a far

distance, it becomes

approximately a plane wave as

seen by a receiving antenna.

simplifies the math.

the far-field approximation is

valid is called the far-field range

(will be defined later).

The Hertzian Dipole

A Hertzian dipole is a thin, linear

conductor whose length l is very

short compared with the wavelength

; l should not exceed /50.

current along the length of the

conductor as constant, even though it

has to decay to zero at the ends of

the wire.

Fields Radiated by Hertzian Dipole

Current along dipole:

With:

Fields Radiated by Hertzian Dipole (cont.)

we have:

Fields Radiated by Hertzian Dipole (cont.)

Application of:

leads to:

Radiated Electric Field

Hertzian DipoleFar-Field Approximation

At any range R:

At

Normalized Radiation Intensity

Electric and Magnetic Fields Normalized Radiation Intensity

Radiation Pattern of Hertzian Dipole

Antenna Radiation

Characteristics

1. By virtue of reciprocity, a receiving antenna

has the same directional antenna pattern as

the pattern that it exhibits when operated in

the transmission mode.

Differential area

Solid Angle

Example of 3-D Pattern

F (dB) = 10 log F

Principal planes:

1. Elevation plane (x-z and y-z planes)

2. Azimuth plane (x-y plane)

Polar and Rectangular Plots

Beam Dimensions

2. Half-power beamwidth

Since 0.5 corresponds to 3 dB, the half power beamwidth is also called the 3-dB beamwidth.

Antenna Directivity D

Antenna pattern solid angle

Directivity

Antennas with Single Main

Lobe

Cont.

(cont.)

Radiation Efficiency and Gain

Radiation efficiency

Antenna gain G

Antenna Radiation and Loss Resistances

Cont.

Example 9-3 (cont.)

For any antenna:

Half-Wave Dipole

1. Current in half-wave dipole

dipole is like a Hertzian dipole, radiating

a field

Half-Wave Dipole (cont.)

Integration leads to:

Radiation Pattern of Half-Wave Dipole

dipole. Its beamwidth is slightly narrower, 78

degrees compared with 90 degrees for the

Hertzian dipole.

Other Half-Wave Dipole Properties

easy to match the antenna to a 75-

transmission line. In contrast, the radiation

resistance of a dipole whose length is much

shorter than a wavelength is on the order of

1 or less.

Quarter-Wave Monopole

When placed over a conducting ground plane,

a quarter-wave monopole antenna excited by a

source at its base [Fig.9-15(a)] exhibits the

same radiation pattern in the region above the

ground plane as a half-wave dipole in free

space.

that of a half-wave dipole, namely 36.5 .

Antenna Effective Area

Friis Transmission Formula

Example 9-4 (cont.)

Radiation by Aperture Antennas

radiated fields E and H at Q

due to currents in the

antenna, with apertures it is

also possible to relate the

radiated fields to the electric

field distribution across the

aperture.

Examples of Aperture Sources

1. Computational Approaches

a. Vector Formulation--accurate, but

mathematically involved

b. Scalar Formulationeasier to implement

but restricted to large aperture dimensions

(relative to the wavelength)

2. Both methods are applicable at all

wavelengths, including the visible spectrum

3. Validity of Scalar Formulation. The key

requirement for the validity of the scalar

formulation is that the antenna aperture be at

least several wavelengths long along each of its

principal dimensions.

formulation.

Relating Radiated Field to Aperture Distribution

Far Field Condition

Radiated E Field

Aperture Distribution

Rectangular Aperture with

Uniform Distribution

its argument is zero; sinc(0) = 1.

Examples of Radiation Patterns

is inversely proportional to antenna

dimension in that plane

beam along length direction and

wide beam along its width direction

Directivity & Effective Area

Antenna Arrays

Antenna Arrays

digital data to analog. By controlling the signals fed into

individual array elements, the pattern can be shaped to suit the

desired application.

phase shifters, the beam direction of the antenna array can

be steered electronically by controlling the relative phases

of the array elements.

applications, including electronic steering and multiple-beam

generation.

Array Pattern

Array Factor

radiated by the radiated by

entire array an individual

element

The array factor represents the far-field radiation

intensity of the N elements, had the elements been

isotropic radiators.

Cont.

Example 9-5 (cont.)

Example 9-5 (cont.)

Array Pattern for Uniform Phase Distribution

Electronic Steering

with:

steered pattern is

a maximum

Examples of Steered Patterns

widens as it is steered

away from broadside

Array Feeding

changed by changing the broadside

frequency

Cont.

Example 9-8 (cont.)

Cont.

Example 9-8 (cont.)

Summary

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