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III.

Preparing the Reference List in APA Style


(American Psychological Association, 2010)

*A Reference List provides all the sources used


in writing the research paper.
*Referencing has two major purposes (Wray &
Bloomer, 1998, p. 233):
- giving credit where it is due (avoiding
plagiarism); and
- enabling the reader to trace an idea or
piece of information right back to its
source
A. Books, Reference Books, and Book
Chapters
For an entire book:
1. Author, A. A. (1997). Title of work.
Location: Publisher.
Example: Cruz, I. (2006). The curriculum
innovator. New York: Mcmillan.
2. Author, A. A. (1997). Title of work. Retrieved
from http://www.xxxxxxx

3. Author, A. A. (2006). Title of work. doi:xxxxx

4. Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (1986). Title


of work. Location: Publisher.
For a chapter in a book or reference book:

5. Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1995). Title of chapter or


entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.),
Title of book (pp. x-xx). Location: Publisher.

6. Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1993). Title of chapter or


entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book
(pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx

7. Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1995). Title of chapter or


entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.),
Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). doi:xxxxxxx

Note: If there are no page numbers, the chapter or entry title


is sufficient.
For an entry in a reference work with no
byline (author):

8. Title of entry. (1999). In A. Editor (Ed.), Title


of reference work (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp.xx-
xx). Location: Publisher.

9. Title of entry. (1998). In Title of reference


work (xx ed., Vol. xx). Retrieved from
http://www.xxxxx
B. Periodicals

1. Newspaper

Author, J. J. (Year, Month Day). Title of the article. Title of


the Newspaper, page/s.

2. Magazine

Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of the article. Title of the


Magazine, Vol (Issue), page/s.

3. Journal

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the article. Title of the Journal,


Vol(Issue), page/s.
4. Meetings and Symposia

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., &


Contributor, C. C. (Year, Month). Title of
contribution. In E. E. Chairperson (Chair),
Title of symposium. Symposium
conducted at the meeting of Organization
Name, Location.
5. Technical and Research Reports

Author, A. A. (1998). Title of work (Report


No.xxx). Location: Publisher.

6. Paper Presentation or Poster Session:

Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper


or poster. Paper or poster session
presented at the meeting of Organization
Name, Location.
7. Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses

For unpublished dissertation or thesis:

Author, A. A. (1978). Title of doctoral dissertation or masters thesis


(Unpublished doctoral dissertation or masters thesis). Name of
Institution, Location.

For a doctoral dissertation or masters thesis available from a database


service:

Author, A. A. (2003). Title of doctoral dissertation or masters thesis


(Doctoral dissertation or masters thesis). Retrieved from Name
of database. (Accession or Order No.)

Abstracted from DAI

Author, L. G. (year). Title of the work. Dissertation Abstracts


International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 65 (10), 5428.
8. Reviews and Peer Commentary

Reviewer, A. A. (2000). Title of review


[Review of the book Title of book, by A.
A. Author]. Title of complete work, xx,
xxx-xxx.

9. Unpublished and Informally Published


Works

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of manuscript.


Unpublished manuscript.
10. Archival Documents and Collections

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day).Title of material.


[Description of material]. Name of Collection
(Call number, Box number, File name or
number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.

11. Internet Message Boards, Electronic Mailing


Lists, and other Online Communities

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day).Title of post


[Description of form]. Retrieved from
http://www.xxx
A. Message Posted to a Newsgroup, online forum, or
discussion group

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Re: Traditional knowledge


and traditional cultural expressions. [Online forum
comment]. Retrieved from http://www.xxx

B. Message Posted to an Electronic Mailing List

Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed


estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list
message]. Retrieved from http://www.xxx
C. Blog Post

PZ Myers. (2007, January 22). The


unfortunate prerequisites and
consequences of partitioning
your mind [Web log post].
Retrieved from http://www.xxx

A blog comment would be:

Middlekid. (2007, January 22). Re: The


unfortunate prerequisites and
consequences of partitioning your
mind [Web log comment]. Retrieved
from http://www.xxx
Order of References (Reference List)

A. Alphabetizing Names: arranging entries in


alphabetical order by the surname of the first
author followed by initials of the authors given
name

1. Alphabetize by the authors surname


2. Alphabetize letter by letter

e.g., Lopez, M. E., precedes Lopez de Molina,


G. Singh, Y., precedes Singh Siddu, N.
Villafuerte, S. A., precedes Villa-lobos, J.
3. Alphabetize the prefixes

M, Mc, and Mac literally.


Disregard the apostrophe:
MacArthur precedes
McAllister, and MacNeil
precedes MCarthy

4. Alphabetize entries with numerals chronologically

Macomber, J., II, precedes


Macomber, J., III
Order of Several Works by the Same First Author

A. One-author entries (by the same author) arranged


by year of publication, the earliest first

e.g., Upenieks, V. (2003).


Upenieks, V. (2005).
Upenieks, V. (2007).

B. One-author entries preceded multiple-author


entries beginning with same surname (even if
multiple-author work was published earlier)

e.g., Alleyne, R. L. (2001).


Alleyne, R. L., & Evans, A. J. (1999).
C. References with same first author and different
second or third authors arranged alphabetically by
surname of second author or, if second author is
same, surname of third author, and so on

e.g., Boockvar, K. S., & Burack, O. R. (2007).


Boockvar, K. S., Carlson La Corte, H.,
Giambanco, V., Friedman, B., & Siu, A.
(2006).

Hayward, D., Firsching, A., & Brown,


J. (1999).
Hayward, D., Firsching, A., & Smigel, J.
(1999)
D. References with same authors in same order
arranged by year of publication, the earliest first

e.g., Cabading, J. R., & Wright, K. (2000).


Cabading, R., & Wright, K. (2001).

E. References by the same author (or by same two


or more authors in same order) with same
publication date arranged alphabetically by title
(excluding A or The)

e.g., Milano, G. (2001). The artistic evidence...


Milano, G. (2001). Chronology of time...
F. For references with same authors published
in same year identified as articles in a series
(Part 1 and Part 2), order the references in a
series, not alphabetically by title. Place
lowercase letters a, b, and so on
i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e y e a r, w i t h i n
parentheses.

e.g., Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control...


Baheti, J. R. (2001b). Roles of....
Order of Several Works by Different First
Authors Same Surname

e.g., Mathur, A. L., & Wallston, J. (1999).


Mathur, S. E., & Ahlers, R. J. (1998)

Note: Include initials with surname of first


author in text citation.
Order of Works With Group Authors or With No Authors

A. Alphabetize group authors (such as associations or


government agencies) by the first significant word of the
name; full official names to be used (American
Psychological Association, not APA); a parent body
precedes a subdivision (e.g., University of Michigan,
Department of Psychology)

B. If the work is signed Anonymous, begin the entry with


the word Anonymous spelled out, and alphabetize entry as
if Anonymous were a true name.

C. If there is no author, move the title to the author position,


and alphabetize the entry by the first significant word of
the title.
NOTES:

A. When the author and publisher are the same, use the word
Author as the name of the publisher.

B. Alphabetize books with no author or editor by the first


significant word in the title.

C. Place information about editions, volume numbers, and


page numbers (such as revised edition, volume number, or
chapter page range) in parentheses following the title, with
period after: (Rev. ed.) or (Vol. xx, pp. xx-xx). As with
periodicals, for any nonroutine information that is
important for identification and retrieval, place a
description of content in brackets following the title:
[Brochure].
References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of


mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

Bentley, M., Peerenboom, C. A., Hodge, F. W., Passano, E. B., Warren, H. C., &
Washburn, M. F. (1929). Instructions in regard to preparation of manuscript.
Psychological Bulletin, 26, 57-63. doi:10.1037/h0071487

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New
York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Bruckman, A. (1997). MOOSE Crossing: Construction, community, and learning


in a networked virtual world for kids (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology). Retrieved f r o m
http://wwwstatic.cc.gatech.edu/~asb/thesis/

Carlbom, P. (2000). Carbody and passengers in rail vehicle dynamics (Doctoral


thesis, Royal Institute of Technology. Stockholm, Sweden). Retrieved from
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3029

Chamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packard, E., & P r i c e , M . ( 2 0 0 8 , M a y ) .


Enhancing workerwell-being: Occupational health psychologistsconvene to
share their research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology,
39(5), 26-29.
Fisher, C. (2003). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Grissom, R. J., & Kim, J. J. (2005). Effect sizes for research: A broad practical
approach. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Herbst-Damn, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and
the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229.
doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.225

Kasdorf, W. E. (Ed.). (2003). The Columbia guide to digital publishing. New


York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Knatterud, M. E. (1991, February). Writing with the patient in mind: Dont add
insult to injury. American Medical Writers Association Journal, 6, 10-17.

Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of
intelligent agent based on early warning solutions. Paper presented at the
Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami,
FL. Abstract retrieved from http://www.iceis. 2005/abstracts_2005.htm