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Aerodynamics

Getting to the Point

Orville Wright Wilbur Wright

Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative


By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame

Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!


Four Forces of Flight
Lift opposes Weight
Thrust opposes Drag
In straight, unaccelerated
flight, L = W & T = D
Lift created by pressure
differential around wing. High
pressure on lower surface
and low pressure on the
upper surface low pressure
caused by increased airflow
velocity over top of airfoil.
Weight downward force of
gravity
Drag rearward retarding force
Thrust forward force
propelling airplane through air
Airfoils
What is NACA?
National Advisory
Committee for
Aeronautics
Chartered in
1915, operational
from 1917-1958
The National
Aeronautics and
Space Act of 1958
created NASA
from NACA
Aerodynamic Surfaces
Aerodynamic Surfaces
Prop

Jet

B727 Spoilers
Airfoils - Nomenclature

Low p

High p

Chord line - straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges of an
airfoil
Camber line locus of all points equidistant from top and bottom of airfoil
Camber distance between chord line and camber line
Thickness maximum distance between top and bottom surfaces of wing
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
Wingspan (b)
Aspect Ratio (AR = b2/S)
Frost

If wing is below Why is this bad?


dewpoint which is Decreases lift
below freezing, frost Increases drag
will form Frost removed
Sublimation of air to before take-off
solid ice crystals Rime Ice
Disrupts smooth Clear Ice
airflow over the wing
Angle of Attack

Angle between wing chord line and relative


wind
The angle of attack at which airplane stalls
does not change
Published NACA Data NACA 2415
Airfoils - Nomenclature
Flaps
Plain Flap
Flaps increase lift and decrease stall speed
Flaps allow steep rate of descent for approaches
without increasing airspeed
Split Flap

Fowler Flap
-Fowler Flap effectively increases
the wing area by rolling backwards
on a roller system.

Slotted Flap
-Slotted Flap allows high pressure
air underneath wing to join airflow
above wing. This effectively
increases velocity of top airflow
and thus increases lift.
Laminar v. Turbulent

Laminar flow about a sphere


Laminar v. Turbulent

Turbulent flow about a sphere


Bernoullis Principle - Lift

Low Pressure
As the velocity of a fluid
increases, its internal pressure
decreases.
From Newtons 2nd (F=ma)
High Pressure
Shown by Venturi tube
A1V1=A2V2
Bernoullis Principle Again

Courtesy of FAA: Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B


Bernoullis Principle Again

Courtesy of FAA: Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B


Bernoullis Principle Again

Courtesy of FAA: Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B


Lift Vector

Courtesy of FAA: Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B


Drag Types
Induced drag is the unavoidable by-product of lift
and increases as the angle of attack increases
Parasite drag is caused by any aircraft surface
that deflects or interferes with smooth airflow
around airplane
Skin-friction drag - between the outer surfaces
of the aircraft and the air through which it
moves. Reduced by using glossy, flat finishes on
surfaces
Form drag - resistance of air to the shape of the
aircraft. Form drag can be reduced by
streamlining the aircraft shape.
Drag Body Comparison

cylinder sphere

airfoil
Wingtip Vortices Twin Tornadoes

A few words on wingtip vortices:


High pressure on the lower surface creates a natural
airflow that makes its way to the wingtip and curls upward
around it to the area of low pressure. When flow around
the wingtips streams out behind the airplane, a vortex is
formed. These twisters represent an energy loss and are
strong enough to flip airplanes that blunder into them.
Wingtip Vortices
Why Winglets?
Equivalent to span extension w/o increased wingspan
Reduces wingtip vortices
Reduces drag

NASA B-727 Wingtip Vortex Test Flight

Learn more about winglets:


http://www.airspacemag.com/ASM/Mag/Index/2001/AS/htww.html
Drag Ground Effect

TIP:
On a soft-field
runway, you can
takeoff at a lower
speed and then
accelerate while in
Ground Effect.
Drag vs Angle of Attack

Relationship between drag and angle of attack


Torque / P-factor (Left-Turning Tendencies)

Newtons 3rd law: For


every action there is an
equal and opposite
reaction.
Propeller rotates CW
when viewed from pilots
seat.
Torque reaction rotates
the airplane CCW about
longitudinal axis
P-factor (asymmetrical
thrust) caused by
descending blade
taking a greater bite of
air than ascending
blade at high angle of
attack
Stability & Control

Inherently stable airplane


returns to its original condition
after being disturbed. Requires
less effort to control

Center of Gravity concerns:


Unable to compensate with
elevator in pitch axis
Weight and Balance becomes
critical taught in a coming
lecture
Stability & Control
pitch
The 3 axes of motion:
roll, pitch, yaw

roll

yaw
Tail Placements

Looks like the A-10


Also called H-Tail
Canards

Stabilizer located in
front of the main wings
Used on the Wright
Flyer
More aerodynamically
efficient than an
elevator b/c canards
provide positive lift
Accident Report Loss of Elevator
AIRCRAFT FINAL REPORT
THE AIRCRAFT HAD JUST BEEN REPAIRED AFTER RECEIVING TORNADO
DAMAGE. THIS REPAIR INCLUDED REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT OF THE
ELEVATOR CONTROL TUBE. THE PILOT TAXIED TO THE RUNWAY FOR THE
PURPOSE OF A TEST FLIGHT. ALL FLIGHT CONTROL CHECKS APPEARED
NORMAL. AFTER LIFT-OFF, THE PILOT INTENDED TO LEVEL OFF AT 5 TO 10
FEET, THEN TOUCH DOWN AGAIN. HOWEVER, AFTER THE AIRPLANE
BECAME AIRBORNE, HE LOST ELEVATOR CONTROL, AND THE AIRCRAFT
CLIMBED STEEPLY TO 50 TO 75 FEET. THE PILOT THEN REDUCED POWER,
THE AIRCRAFT'S NOSE DROPPED, AND THE AIRCRAFT DESCENDED. WITH
NO ELEVATOR CONTROL, THE PILOT WAS UNABLE TO ARREST THE
DESCENT, AND THE AIRCRAFT IMPACTED THE GROUND. A POST-CRASH
EXAMINATION REVEALED THAT A BOLT AND NUT WERE MISSING FROM THE
ELEVATOR CONTROL LINKAGE, WHICH ALLOWED THE LINKAGE TO BECOME
DISCONNECTED.

AIRCRAFT 1 CAUSE REPORT


FAILURE OF MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL TO PROPERLY REINSTALL A BOLT
AND NUT IN THE ELEVATOR CONTROL LINKAGE, WHICH RESULTED IN A
DISCONNECT OF THE LINKAGE AND LOSS OF ELEVATOR CONTROL.