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A SEMINAR REPORT

ON TILLAGE

Submitted by:
Chumpi Chiring Phukon.
Roll no: POW/14/AG/002
Agricultural Engg.
CONTENT

Introduction
Tillage
Objectives tillage
Primary and secondary tillage and
its implement
Mould board plough
Disc plough
Methods of ploughing
Disc Harrow
INTRODUCTION

Crop production requires a


number of operations like seed
bed preparation, seeding,
fertilising ,spraying, dusting,
irrigation, harvesting and
threshing . The first operation
in production of crop is Tillage.
TILLAGE

It is a mechanical manipulation
of soil to provide favourable
condition for crop production .
Soil tillage consist of breaking
the compact surface of earth to
a certain depth and to loosen
the soil mass , so as to enable
the roots of crops to penetrate
and spread into the soil
OBJECTIVE OF
TILLAGE

To obtain deep seed bed ,


suitable for different type of
crops.
To destroy and prevent
weeds .
To increase water absorbing
capacity of the soil.
To destroy insect, pests, and
their breeding places .
To reduce the soil erosion .
CLASSIFICATION OF
TILLAGE

Tillage is divided into two


classes :

1. Primary tillage

2.
Secondary tillage
1. PRIMARY TILLAGE

The operations performed to open


up any cultivable land with a view to
prepare a seed bed for growing
crops is known as Primary tillage .
The implement used for
primary tillage is known as primary
tillage implement . Primary tillage
may be tractor drawn or animal
drawn implement . Animal drawn
implements mostly include
indigenous plough and mould board
plough . Tractor drawn implements
include mould board plough , disc
plough etc.
2. SECONDARY
TILLAGE:

Tillage operations following


primary tillage which are
performed to create a proper
soil tilth for seeding and
planting are secondary tillage .
These are lighter and finner
operations , performed on the
soil after primary tillage .
The implements used
for secondary tillage
operations are called
secondary tillage implement .
The main objectives of
secondary
tillage operations are:

To pulverise the soil of the


seed beds in the field .
To destroy grasses and weeds
in the field .
To break the big clods and to
make the field surface uniform
and levelled .
PRIMARY TILLAGE
IMPLEMENT :
INDIGENOUS PLOUGH:
The main part of indigenous
plough are :
1.Body 2. Share 3. Shoe
4.Beam 5. Handle
1.Body: It is the main frame to which
the shoe , beam, handle are
attached .
2. Share: The share is attached to
shoe which into the soil and
breaks the open .
3. Shoe: The shoe helps in stabilizing
and balancing the plough while in
operation .
MOULDBOARD
PLOUGH

A mould board plough is very


common implement used for
primary tillage implement.
FUNCTION OF A
MOULDBOARD PLOUGH

1. Cutting the furrow slice .


2. Lifting the soil .
3. Turning the furrow slice.
4. Pulverising the soil.
Component of mould
board plough
COMPONENT OF
MOULD BOARD
PLOUGH

Mould board plough consists of :

Share
Mould board
Land side
Frog
Tail piece
Adjustment of mould
board plough
VERTICAL SUCTION:
It is the maximum clearance under the
landside and the horizontal surface in the
working position .
HORIZONTAL SUCTION : It is the maximum
clearance between the landside and a horizontal
plane touching point of share at its gunnel

side and heal of landside.


DISC PLOUGH

It is a plough which cuts ,


turns, and in some cases
breaks furrow slices by means
of separately mounted large
steel discs.
Advantages of Disc
plough
1. It is more useful for deep
ploughing .
2. A disc plough can be forced
to penetrate into the soil
which is too hard and dry for
working with a mouldboard
plough.
3. It works in loose soil also
without much clogging .
Disadvantages of disc
plough
1. Comparatively , disc plough
leaves the soil in rough and
more cloddy condition than
that of mould board plough .
2. It is not suitable for covering
surface trash and weeds .
Types of Disc plough

Disc ploughs are of two types :

Standard disc plough

Vertical disc plough


Disc angle and Tilt
angle
The angle between the plane of
cutting edge of disc and the
direction of travel is called disc
angle .
Tilt Angle

It is the angle at which the


plane of cutting edge of the
disc is inclined to a vertical line
. It varies from 15 to 25
degree.
Methods of ploughing

There are two methods of


working are used.
They are :
1. Gathering
2. Casting
Gathering and Casting

Whenever a plough works round


a strip of ploughed land , it is
said to be gathering .
whenever a plough
works round a
strip of unploughed land , it is
said to be casting .
Secondary tillage
implement
DISC HARROW :
Disc harrow is used for
breaking clods while preparing
seed beds. It is usually six or
eight discs fixed in two gangs ,
each gang has three or four
discs .
Component of Disc
harrow
The disc harrow mainly consist
of :
1. Disc
2. Gang frame
3. Beam
4. Scraper
5. Gang angle mechanism
6. Spacer
7. Bearing
Other secondary tillage

Some other secondary tillage


implements are Cultivators ,
Rotovators , Bund former ,
Ridger etc.