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KOMPENDIUM

KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

PENGELOLAAN
KESUBURAN TANAH

Dikoleksi
Dikoleksi oleh
oleh ::
Prof.Dr.Ir.Soemarno,M.S.
Prof.Dr.Ir.Soemarno,M.S.
Jurs
Jurs Tanah
Tanah FP-UB
FP-UB ---
--- PSLP
PSLP PPSUB
PPSUB
September 2011
September 2011
KESUBURAN TANAH
Kesuburan Tanah merupakan kemampuan suatu tanah
untuk menghasilkan produk tanaman yang diinginkan,
pada lingkungan tempat tanah itu berada. Istilah lain
yang maknanya hampir sama adalah produktivitas
tanah. Kesuburan tanah berhubungan dengan
ketersediaan hara dalam tanah.
Produk tanaman dapat berupa: buah, biji, daun, bunga,
umbi, getah, eksudat, akar, trubus, batang, biomassa,
naungan, penampilan dsb.

Tanah memiliki kesuburan yang berbeda-beda


tergantung sejumlah faktor pembentuk tanah yang
merajai di lokasi tersebut, yaitu:
Bahan induk, Iklim, Relief, Organisme, atau Waktu.

Tanah merupakan fokus utama dalam pembahasan


ilmu kesuburan tanah, sedangkan kinerja tanaman
merupakan indikator utama kesuburan tanah.

Sumber: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesuburan_tanah .. Diunduh


15/3/2012
TANAH SUBUR
Ciri-ciri Tanah Subur:

1.Kaya unsur hara esensial yang tersedia untuk pertumbuhan tanaman, termasuk
nitrogen, phosphorus dan kalium.
2.It contains sufficient minerals (trace elements) for plant nutrition, including
boron, chlorine, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum,
sulfur, and zinc.
3.It contains soil organic matter that improves soil structure and soil moisture
retention.
4.Soil pH is in the range 6.0 to 6.8 for most plants but some prefer acid or
alkaline conditions.
5.Good soil structure, creating well drained soil, but some soils are wetter (as for
producing rice) or drier (as for producing plants susceptible to fungi or rot) such
as agave.
6.Beraneka-ragam mikroba tanah mendukung pertumbuhan tanaman.
7.Topsoilnya cukup tebal.

Tanah Subur

Fertile soil has an abundance of plant nutrients


including nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, an
abundance of minerals including zinc, manganese,
boron, iron, sulfur, cobalt, copper, magnesium,
molybdenum, and chlorine and an abundance of organic
matter. In addition, fertile soil has a pH ranging from
5.5 to 6.2 and good drainage.
(http://www.ecochem.com/t_faq8.html)

Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertility_%28soil%29 .. Diunduh


15/3/2012
SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT
Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.

Lack of soil fertility causes decreased yields but many


plant diseases are also related to poor soil fertility. If the soil fertility is
not good, the crops are not in optimal condition, and are thus more
susceptible to diseases and pests.
The presence of diseases and pests lowers productivity levels, again
threatening further the livelihoods of the rural communities. Such
conditions can be avoided by improving the condition of the soil.

The presence of organic matter in the soil is


fundamental in maintaining the soil fertility. Organic
matter in the soil consists of fresh organic matter
(leftover of dead plants and animals) and humus.
The fresh organic matter is transformed into humus by
soil organisms. Humus gives the soil a dark colour and
can retain a lot of water and nutrients.

The first step in maintaining soil fertility should be directed at


maintaining the organic matter content of the soil. This can be done
by using appropriate crop husbandry practices and by applying
organic manure or compost. If the soil is very deteriorated,
applying chemical fertilisers might be necessary. Chemical
fertilisers can restore the soil fertility very quickly; because the
nutrients are available to the plants as soon as the fertilizers are
dissolved in the soil. It takes much longer before organic matter is
transformed into humus and has released its nutrients.

Sumber: journeytoforever.org/farm_library/AD2.pdf.. Diunduh


15/3/2012
SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT
Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.

Crop husbandry measures


Crop husbandry measures refer to methods the farmer can use before,
during and after the growing season that do not require the addition of
a new component to his business nor the purchase of many extra inputs
(just sowing or planting materials). These measures include
mulching, green manuring, intercropping, green fallow periods, and
agroforestry.
All of the above methods are intended to achieve and retain optimum
conditions in the root zone, where the crop gets the nutrients and
moisture it needs for good production. Also the soil must be penetrable
for plant roots.

Methods such as mulching, intercropping and agroforestry aim to keep the


soil covered in order to prevent evaporation and dehydration. Intercropping
and agroforestry also ensure that extensive root systems are present in the
soil; planting different crops with different root systems that need different
nutrients contributes to a better utilisation of the available nutrients and
water.

The trees that form a part of agroforestry systems also ensure that the
nutrients in deeper soil layers are utilised.

Green manuring and green fallow periods contribute particularly to a


higher level of organic matter and to greater availability of the nutrients
that are released from the organic material worked into the soil.

The latter function can be intensified if leguminous plants are used.

Sumber: journeytoforever.org/farm_library/AD2.pdf.. Diunduh


15/3/2012
SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT
Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.

BAHAN ORGANIK TANAH

Organic matter is very important in soil fertility management because it has


many properties that help increase soil fertility and improve the soil
structure. Organic matter has a great capacity to retain nutrients; this is
especially important in sandy soils, which retain very few nutrients.

Organic matter can also retain a lot of water, which means that in dry periods
more water is available for the plants for a longer time. This is especially
important in sandy soils, which retain little water. Organic matter can
improve the soil structure. This is important for both sandy and clay soils,
because they have a poor structure. Finally, organic matter stimulates the
growth of soil organisms, which help make the nutrients in the organic matter
available to the plants.

The organic matter in the soil consists of fresh organic material and humus.
Fresh organic material is plant and animal waste that has not yet
decomposed, such as roots, crop residues, animal excrement and cadavers.
The fresh material is transformed by soil organisms into humus, which is also
called organic soil matter. In the process, nutrients are released; organic
matter thus makes nutrients available to the plants.

Humus, i.e. organic soil matter, is material that has been broken down so far
that the original fresh material is no longer distinguishable. It gives the soil a
dark colour.
Humus itself is also broken down by the soil organisms, which releases even
more nutrients, but this process takes much longer in cold or dry conditions.

Sumber: journeytoforever.org/farm_library/AD2.pdf.. Diunduh


15/3/2012
SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT
Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
BAHAN ORGANIK TANAH

Crop husbandry that contributes to a positive balance of organic matter is


the basis for good soil fertility in the long term. The balance of organic
matter must be even or positive, that is, the amount of organic matter that is
added must be equal to or greater than the amount that is broken down and
thereby lost. However a positive balance of organic matter is difficult to
achieve. This means that if a lot of organic matter is lost (by erosion for
example) it is difficult to increase the level of organic matter in the soil.
Even in favorable conditions and with good crop management, this can take
a number of decades, especially if during that time crops are grown that are
almost completely removed with the harvest.
The rate at which organic matter is broken down depends largely on the
climate. In warm, damp conditions the organic matter is broken down faster
than in cold or dry conditions.

TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH


Cover crops are gaining favor as a way of increasing organic matter. Winter
cover crops have been used for years, primarily to protect soil from erosion.
Winter cover crops can also take up much of the nitrogen left over at the end
of the growing season. Winter rye has been an old stand by. It can germinate
and make quite a bit of growth, even if planted as late as October. Winter rye
is efficient at taking up left over nitrogen. It remains green over the winter
and resumes growth early in the spring. It adds little organic matter if plowed
under in early Spring while still small. If allowed to grow until late may, it
can reach three to four feet and contribute a fair amount of organic matter.
Unless plowed under while quite small, it can be difficult to break up the
clumps of winter rye, making it difficult to seed crops.
(http://extension.umass.edu/vegetable/articles/soil-basics-part-iii)

Sumber: journeytoforever.org/farm_library/AD2.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012


SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT
Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.

Soil fertility and fertilisers


The use of animal manure and compost contributes to retaining the level of
organic matter in the soil. Chemical fertiliser can be needed to quickly supply a
crop with required nutrients. In contrast to organic fertilisers, chemical fertilisers
help the plants immediately; organic manures first have to be broken down into
nutrients before they can be utilised by the plants.

This means that organic material only has an effect in the long term, while
chemical fertilisers contribute immediately (within a few days to weeks) to soil
fertility. However, chemical fertilisers are depleted by the end of the season or
seasons, while organic matter continues to enhance soil fertility as well as the soil
structure. Moreover, the presence of organic material ensures that the chemical
fertiliser is more efficiently utilised by the crop because it prevents the fertiliser
from being leached.

Pada tanah-tanah yang miskin bahan


organik, aplikasi pupuk kimia buatan
harus dibarengi dengan aplikasi bahan
organik secukupnya

Sumber: .. Diunduh 15/3/2012


KESUBURAN TANAH DAN BUDIDAYA
TANAMAN

After an introduction about crop husbandry, organic matter, burning and the
local conditions the crop husbandry systems are described in more detail:

1. mulching is a method, in which a layer fresh organic matter is placed on


top of the soil;
2.green manuring consists in ploughing under fresh green material;
3.intercropping means growing two or more crops together on the same
field;
4.during green fallow periods, species are sown or stimulated that have
better qualities then the species that would grow spontaneously in the fallow
period;
5.agroforestry comprises all forms of land use in which woody species
(trees and shrubs) are grown in combination with other crops.

INTERCROPPING
Intercropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in
proximity. The most common goal of intercropping is to produce a
greater yield on a given piece of land by making use of resources that
would otherwise not be utilized by a single crop. Careful planning is
required, taking into account the soil, climate, crops, and varieties. It is
particularly important not to have crops competing with each other for
physical space, nutrients, water, or sunlight.
Examples of intercropping strategies are planting a deep-rooted crop
with a shallow-rooted crop, or planting a tall crop with a shorter crop
that requires partial shade.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercropping)

Sumber: journeytoforever.org/farm_library/AD2.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012


CROP HUSBANDRY SYSTEM

Husbandry means managing resources or caring for animals and crops:


1.Thrifty management of a household is an example of husbandry.
2.The practice of managing a farm, growing crops and breeding animals
is an example of husbandry.
(sumber; http://www.yourdictionary.com/husbandry)

(Husbandry) farming: the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock


(sumber: http://nicedefinition.com/Definition/Word/husbandry/husbandry.aspx )

LAND HUSBANDRY

The concept of husbandry, signifying understanding,


management and improvement, is widely understood when
applied to crops and animals.

It is equally applicable to land. Thus, land husbandry can be


defined as the care and management of the land for
productive purposes; only through sound land husbandry
can the land's productive potential be sustained and
enhanced

Sumber: lada.virtualcentre.org/.../download.asp?pub.. Diunduh


18/3/2012
Better Land Husbandry Components

The intrinsic components to Better Land Husbandry (BLH):


1.Promotion of an integrated and synergistic resource management
approach embracing locally appropriate combinations of the following
technical options:

B.L.H.
build-up of soil organic matter and related biological activity to optimum sustainable levels (for
improved moisture and nutrient supply and soil structure) through the use of compost, farmyard
manure, green manures, surface mulch, enriched fallows, agroforestry, cover crops and/or better crop
residue management;

integrated plant nutrition management with locally appropriate, and cost effective, combinations of
organic/inorganic and on/off-farm sources of plant nutrients (e.g. organic manures, crop residues,
rhizobial N-fixation, transfer of nutrients released by weathering in the deeper soil layers to the
surface via tree roots and leaf litter, rock phosphate, lime and chemical fertiliser);

better crop management, improved seeds of appropriate varieties, improved crop establishment at the
beginning of the rains (to increase protective ground cover, thereby reducing water loss and soil
erosion), weed management and integrated pest management;

better rainwater management to increase infiltration and reduce runoff so as to improve soil moisture
conditions within the rooting zone, thereby lessening the risk of moisture stress during dry spells,
while reducing erosion;

improvement of soil rooting depth and permeability through breaking of a cultivation- induced
compacted soil layer (hoe/plough pan) through conservation tillage practices by means of tractor-
drawn subsoilers, ox-drawn chisel ploughs, and hand-hoe planting pits/ double dug beds; and/or
interplanting of deep rooted perennial crops/trees & shrubs); and

reclamation, where appropriate (i.e. if technically feasible and cost effective), of arable land that has
been severely degraded by such processes as gullying, loss of topsoil from sheet erosion, soil
compaction, acidification and/or salinisation..

Sumber: lada.virtualcentre.org/.../download.asp?pub.. Diunduh


18/3/2012
PENN STATE EXTENSION.
College of Agricultural Sciences
AGRONOMY GUIDE. CROP AND SOIL MANAGEMENT.
Section II. Soil Fertility Management

Uji Tanah dan Tanaman

The goal of soil fertility management is to create soil


chemical conditions that encourage plant growth and
supply required nutrients in the amounts and at the
times they are most needed. Liming materials and
plant nutrients may be added to the soil in many forms
and can be done so in a way that maximizes the
economic benefits of nutrients while minimizing any
environmental impact. The ways in which crops
respond to these applications often are different
because some soils have inherent physical limitations
to plant growth. Soil testing is the best guide to soil
fertility. Plant tissue analysis also may be helpful when
used in conjunction with soil testing.

Sumber: http://extension.psu.edu/agronomy-
guide/cm/sec2/sec21.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
A set of soil fertility management practices that necessarily
include the use of fertilizer, organic inputs, and improved
germplasm, combined with knowledge on how to adapt
these practices to local conditions, and aiming to maximize
agronomic use efficiency of the applied nutrients and thus
crop productivity.
All inputs are managed, using sound agronomic principles.

ISFM interventions have been developed for


maize, sorghum, and cassava-based systems
in the major impact zones. Yield increases
were over 100%, even as soil fertility status
improved. Activities are now directed towards
achieving the same successes with riceand
banana-based systems. Conservation
agricultural practices are also being developed.

Sumber: http://www.ciat.cgiar.org/AboutUs/Documents/synthesis_isfm_program.pdf..
Diunduh 15/3/2012
PENGELOLAAN KESUBURAN TANAH
Goals of a Sustainable Soil Fertility Management Program

1. To sustain high crop productivity and crop quality in food and


fiber production
a) Crop productivity, crop quality, and the success of a given
operation
2. To minimize risks to environmental quality and human health
associated with agricultural production
a)Important steps in minimizing human health risks, and on and
off-farm impacts

1.Avoid the use of all synthetically compounded materials;


balance inputs of organic matter and mineral inputs to avoid
exceeding crop needs
2.Avoid creating nonpoint source pollution through surface
runoff and leaching
3.Prevent soil erosion and sedimentation of waterways
4.Close nutrient cycles as much as possible within the field and
farm
5.Close nutrient cycles at multiple scales: watershed, regional
and national scales

Sumber: http://63.249.122.224/wp-
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Components of a Sustainable Soil Fertility
Management Program

1. Improve and maintain physical and biological properties of soil

a) Sustainable agricultural practices used to improve and sustain soil physical and
biological properties
i.Maintaining or building soil organic matter (SOM) levels through inputs of
compost and cover cropping
ii.Properly timed tillage
iii.Irrigation
iv.Sound crop rotations, soil amending, and fertilizing techniques all serve to
improve the quality of agricultural soils, which in turn affects soil quality and
crop performance.

Integrated plant nutrient components in the Nepalese farming system

http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a
g120e/AG120E10.htm

Sumber: http://63.249.122.224/wp-
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Components of a Sustainable Soil Fertility
Management Program
2. Improve and maintain chemical properties of soil

a) Benchmarks of optimal soil chemistry


i.Balanced levels of available plant nutrients (see Unit 1.11, Reading and Interpreting Soil Test Reports)
ii.Soil pH ~6.07.0
iii.Low salinity levels

b) Sustainable agricultural practices used to develop and maintain optimal soil chemical properties
i.Provide a balanced nutrient supply for the crop
ii.Conduct soil sampling and periodic monitoring
iii.Conduct plant tissue testing
iv.Time seasonal nutrient release from organic amendments to correspond with crop requirements: (a) The
quality of the organic matter input; and (b) Environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture
v.Avoid leaving fields bare to avoid wind and water erosion and nutrient leaching
vi.Manage irrigation carefully to avoid runoff, erosion, and leaching of soluble nutrients
vii.Supply major nutrients primarily through organic matter and mineral soil amendments
viii.Allow sufficient time for fresh residue to break down before planting crops
ix.Use in-season supplemental fertilizers when necessary

http://cropsoil.psu.edu/extension/f
acts/agronomy-facts-31a

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Components of a Sustainable Soil Fertility
Management Program
3. Minimize disease/pest susceptibility

a) Sustainable agriculture practices used to minimize disease/pest


susceptibility in organic farming systems

1.Maintain soil nutrient levels and soil pH within optimal range


2.Build and maintain soil organic matter to promote desirable soil physical
3.properties and supply essential plant nutrients
4.Maintain soil moisture within optimal ranges for plant growth and the
avoidance of compaction and erosion
5.Design appropriate rotations to break pest cycles
6.Plant polycultures
7.Use appropriate preventative and active biocontrol practices

Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the
diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or
monoculture. It includes crop rotation, multi-cropping, intercropping, companion
planting, beneficial weeds, and alley cropping.
Polyculture, though it often requires more labor, has several advantages over
monoculture:
The diversity of crops avoids the susceptibility of monocultures to disease. For
example, a study in China reported in Nature showed that planting several varieties
of rice in the same field increased yields by 89%, largely because of a dramatic
(94%) decrease in the incidence of disease, which made pesticides redundant
(Nature 406, 718 - 722 , 17 augt. 2000).
The greater variety of crops provides habitat for more species, increasing local
biodiversity. This is one example of reconciliation ecology, or accommodating
biodiversity within human landscapes. It is also a function of a biological pest
control program.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyculture)

Sumber: http://63.249.122.224/wp-
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Soil Fertility and Soil Quality in Sustainable Farming
Systems
KESUBURAN TANAH DAN KUALITAS TANAH

a)Kualitas Tanah
b)Indikator Kualitas Tanah
1.Ketersediaan hara
2.Ketersediaan air
3.Promotes good root growth and maintains good habitat for soil organisms
4.Mencegah degradasi
5.Maintains good soil structure to provide adequate aeration and tilth
6.Good soil structure allows for rapid water infiltration
7.pH moderat (6.07.5)
8.Tingkat salinitas rendah
9.Low levels of potentially toxic elements
10.Kesuburan tanah berimbang.
c) Soil fertility: The capacity of a soil to provide nutrients required by plants for growth;
one component of soil quality

2. Soil fertility, plant health, and the resistance and resilience of crop plants to pest and
pathogens

http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iv/food-
production/nutrient-availability.php

Concept of Nutrient Availability


Soil is a living medium consisting of physical part - called as soil particles,
chemical part - consisting of various compounds as well as biological part -
consisting of various microbes, vertebrates, invertebrates inhabiting in soil.
Unless all these components are kept in harmony, the crop plants would suffer
by poor nutrient availability. Nutrients are made available to crop roots
through the living media of soil mainly by processes called as
1.Mass flow
2.Cation exchange and anion exchange
3.Diffusion

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PENGELOLAAN KESUBURAN TANAH
PENGOLAHAN TANAH DALAM PERTANIAN
BERKELANJUTAN
1. Services provided by tillage
a) Prepares the ground for seedlings and transplants
b)Provides a range of residue incorporation options
c)Enables the incorporation of amendments
d)Improves soil aeration, and breaks up soil clods to form good seed and root beds
e)Improves water infiltration
f)Increases rate of microbial activity and mineralization
g)Deep tillage can break through compacted layers

2. Disadvantages of tillage
a)Accelerates the rate and extent of long-term declines in soil organic matter
b)May increase sub-soil compaction
c)High energy and labor costs
d)Loss of soil organic matter (SOM) from excessive tillage can lead to crusting of bare
soils

3. Advantages of reduced and no-tillage systems


a)Residue cover protects the soil from wind and water erosion
b)Allows for greater moisture retention in rain-fed systems
c)These systems build SOM over a period of years, and reach a higher steady state
level than tilled systems in the same environment
d)Reduced tillage in agricultural soils creates a greater carbon sink

4. Limitations of reduced and no-till agriculture systems


a)Residue cover lowers soil temperature, which delays seed germination and slows
seedling growth and may place growers at an economic disadvantage
b)Weed control is very difficult without use of herbicides
c)Requires specialized equipment to plant through thick layer of residue
d)Increased leaching of nutrients and herbicides into the groundwater has been shown
in some

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PENGELOLAAN KESUBURAN TANAH
Cover Crops dalam Pertanian Berkelanjutan
1. Services provided by cover crops
a) Cover crops increase nutrient availability
i.The role of legume cover crops in biological N fixation and nutrient budgeting
ii.Nutrients are released into the soil solution as the cover crop residues are broken
down
iii.Cover crops can stimulate microbial activity and increase the breakdown of existing
SOM
iv.Deep-rooted cover crops are able to recycle nutrients acquired from deeper in the soil
profile
v.Grass/cereal cover crops may reduce nutrient losses by capturing mobile nutrients
(e.g., nitrate)

2. Influences on the nutrient release from cover crops


a) Temperature and moisture conditions
b) Placement of the residue
i.Residue on soil surface: Will decompose more slowly due to drying
ii.Incorporation into the top 68 inches of the soil: Will decompose most rapidly due to
high oxygen levels and the presence of large populations of decomposing organisms
iii.Below 68 inches: Will decompose more slowly due to lower oxygen levels, fewer
decomposers

c) Composition/quality of the cover crop residue


i.The C to N ratio of the cover crop residue and N mineralization: (a) C/N ratios
around 22:1 or less = net mineralization of N; (b) C/N ratios above 22:1 = net
immobilization of N
ii.Optimum stage of development to incorporate cover crops = 75%100% of full
bloom
iii.The presence of lignins and tannins in cover crop residue slows decomposition

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PENGELOLAAN KESUBURAN TANAH
Cover Crops dalam Pertanian Berkelanjutan

3. The timing of nutrient release, crop demand, and the fate of essential plant nutrients
a)Managing the timing of nutrient release from cover crops to coincide with crop
demand
b)Leaching: Nutrients (N) can become vulnerable to loss if timing is mismatched
c)Nutrient deficiencies: If timing is mismatched, nutrient deficiencies (N) may then
result

4. Some effects of cover crops on agricultural soils


a)Improvements to soil physical properties: Carbon and nutrient cycling through the
use of cover crops
b)The influence of cover crops on disease and pest severity
i.Rye, triticale, forage rapeseeds, mustards, and oil seed radish are known to suppress
certain plant parasitic nematodes and soil borne diseases
ii.Many legumes can actually increase pest populations
c) Weed-suppressive effects of cover crops
i. Competition for light/smothering
ii. Allelopathy

5. Importance of gathering regional cover crop information

http://smallfarm.about.com/od/glossary/g/Cover-Crop.htm

A cover crop is a type of plant grown to suppress weeds, help build and
improve soil, and control diseases and pests. Cover crops are also called
"green manure" and "living mulches."
They're called "green manure" because they provide nutrients to the soil
much like manure does. And as "living mulches," cover crops prevent soil
erosion.
Once grown, cover crops are usually mowed and then tilled into the soil.

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PENGELOLAAN KESUBURAN TANAH

KOMPOS DAN PUPUK KANDANG

1. Composts
a) How much compost to apply annually
b) The nutrient contribution of a manure-based compost: ~1N-1P-1K, i.e., balanced
contribution of N-P-K. As nutrient levels in compost vary, it is recommended that
you check with supplier or have a compost nutrient assessment done to confirm
nutrient levels and proportions.

c) Application timing: Nutrient release should ideally coincide with crop demand
i.Depending on compost quality, may be an inefficient source of N in short term
ii.Release of N may last 6 weeksseveral months following incorporation, depending on
compost quality and environmental conditions
iii.Need to incorporate into root zone if applying mid season as side dress

d) Compost quality indicators


i.C:N ratio
ii.CO2 levels
iii.Ammonia levels
iv.Smell
v.Color
vi.Texture/feel
vii.Temperature

e) Ease and economics of use


f) Labor and/or equipment requirements for on-farm production of compost.
g) National Organic Program standards for on-farm compost production

h) Transportation issues:
(i)Local/regional availability and costs;
(ii)Variability in quality

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PENGELOLAAN KESUBURAN TANAH
Effect of Manure application on carbon budgets in ecosystems
http://www.soi.wide.ad.
jp/class/20070046/slide
s/03/32.html

PUPUK KANDANG

a)The use of fresh and undecomposed manure in agricultural systems:


Cropping in soils with fresh and/or undecomposed manures may result in
nitrogen burns (due to high ammonium levels) and nitrate depression/net
immobilization, respectively
b)Restrictions on the use of manure under National Organic Standards
c)Variations in the nutrient profiles of animal manures: The nutrient profile of
fresh manures range from approximately .75-.75-.75 (horse manure) to 2-2-2
(poultry manure).
d)Handling and storage of animal manures for the conservation of nutrients:
Fresh animal manures should be temporarily stored and protected from sun and
rain by covering with tarps
e)Food safety issue: NOP guidelines designed to prevent contamination by E.
coli and other disease-causing organisms

Sumber: http://63.249.122.224/wp-
content/uploads/2010/05/unit_1.1_fertility.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
PENGELOLAAN KESUBURAN TANAH
Soil Amendments and Supplemental Fertilizers

1. Organic amendments
a) OMRI/NOP-certified materials in certified organic farming systems
b) Nutrient budgeting

2. Supplemental fertilizers: When used

3. Soil fertility management and nutrient budgets: Balancing nutrient inputs


with nutrient outputs each year
a)Inputs > outputs = accumulation. Potential risk of excess nutrients creating
nonpoint source pollution through leaching and run off, and enhancing
disease and pest incidence.
b)Inputs < outputs = soil depletion. Potential risk of plant nutrient
deficiencies and stress, reduced yield, and increased susceptibility to pest and
pathogens.
c)Goal: Balance inputs and outputs once you have achieved desired/optimal
nutrient levels in the soil. Example of inputs factored into budget for
nitrogen
i.Inputs = imported fertilizers and amendments + atmospheric deposition + N
fixation through cover crops
ii.Outputs = N exported in crop harvest + N lost through leaching, erosion,
and denitrification
iii.Calculating nutrient budgets: See Unit 1.11, Reading and Interpreting Soil
Test Reports

4. Application of nutrient budgets in assessing the health of larger-scale


units: Watersheds, regions.. Example of accumulation and depletion, e.g.,
the impact of high densities of confinement animal production facilities.

Sumber: http://63.249.122.224/wp-
content/uploads/2010/05/unit_1.1_fertility.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
PENGELOLAAN KESUBURAN TANAH

PERGILIRAN TANAMAN
1. Crop rotation
2. Rotation considerations
a) Try to avoid rotation of crop species that share similar pests and
diseases. Intersperse with different crops to break pest and disease
cycles. Example: Solanaceae rotation

b) Rotation of crops to maximize use of nutrient inputs and


distribute nutrient demand placed on the soil. Examples of multi-
year crop rotations (Coleman 1995)
c) Fallow periods and perennial cover crop rotations

Pola pergiliran tanaman sayuran dalam periode lima tahun


http://www.howto.co.uk/l
earning/allotments/crop_r
otation/

Sumber: http://63.249.122.224/wp-
content/uploads/2010/05/unit_1.1_fertility.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
Mempertahankan jumlah optimum
DINAMIKA unsur hara hanya dapat terlaksana
HARA dengan menciptakan keseimbangan
TANAH yang baik antara penambahan dan
kehilangannya

Benefits of Organic Matter

Reduces compaction and bulk


Benefits of Organic
density
Matter
Provides a food source for
microorganisms
Increases soil CEC
Increases activities of earthworms
Stabilizes nutrients
and other soil critters
Builds soil friability and
tilth
Reduces soil splash

Carbon Sequestration
C cycling in agroecosystems has a significant impact at the
global scale because agriculture occupies approximately 11%
of the land surface area of the earth.
Carbon sequestration is the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and may refer
specifically to:
1."The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a
reservoir. When carried out deliberately, this may also be referred to as carbon
dioxide removal, which is a form of geoengineering.
2.The process of carbon capture and storage, where carbon dioxide is removed
from flue gases, such as on power stations, before being stored in underground
reservoirs.
3.Natural biogeochemical cycling of carbon between the atmosphere and
reservoirs, such as by chemical weathering of rocks.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_sequestration)
PENTINGNYA PUPUK DAN PEMUPUKAN

Fertilizer is any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic


origin (other than liming materials) that is added to a soil to supply one or
more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
A recent assessment found that about 40 to 60% of crop yields are
attributable to commercial fertilizer use. They are essential for high-yield
harvest.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertilizer)

Balanced nutrition is important in obtaining maximum yields.


The most usual limitations concern nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium, followed by sulphur.

Sumber: http://www.sunkarresources.com/en/pages/Importance_of__fertilizers .. Diunduh


17/3/2012
KETERSEDIAAN UNSUR HARA DAN pH
Nutrient availability and soil pH
Some generalizations can be made regarding the availability of nutrients to plants in
relation to soil pH. Deficiencies of zinc, manganese, and iron are more common on
alkalines soils while deficiencies of molybdenum, calcium, and magnesium occur
more commonly on acid soils. For other nutrients such as potassium and sulfur,
there is little association between soil pH and availability to plants. Toxicities of
aluminum and manganesse occur almost exclusively on acid soils.
(http://wheatdoctor.cimmyt.org/en/nutrient-problems/list/176?task=view)

Chart of the Effect of Soil pH on Nutrient Availability

Sumber: http://www.avocadosource.com/tools/fertcalc_files/ph.htm..
Diunduh 15/3/2012
Cation Exchange Capacity Everything You Want
to Know and Much More
James J. Camberato
Clemson University, Crop and Soil Environmental Science

RINGKASAN
Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is the amount of negative charge in
soil that is available to bind positively charged ions (cations). Essential
plant nutrients, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4 + and detrimental elements,
Na+, H+, and Al+3 are cations. Cation exchange capacity buffers
fluctuations in nutrient availability and soil pH. Clay and organic matter
are the main sources of CEC. The CEC of most native soils in the
Carolinas and sand-based sports fields is low because they are low in
clay and organic matter. What little CEC exists in these soils is pH
dependent, thus it is beneficial to maintain soil pH near 6.5 for optimum
levels. Adding calcined clay, diatomaceous earth, or
zeolite/clinoptilolite increases CEC, but the benefits of adding these
materials in lieu of peat or organic matter maintenance are not well
established.

Cation exchange capacity is estimated and reported by most soil testing


laboratories. Estimates are reasonably accurate unless the soil has been
heavily fertilized or amended just prior to sampling or an acid extractant
was used on a soil containing precipitated calcium carbonate. Base
saturation, the quantity of CEC occupied by one or more of the basic
cations, is useful for managing detrimental levels of soil Na+ and Mg2+
availability.
Sumber: http://www.jbhs.ccs.k12.nc.us/Facultyandstaff/withers/Supplemental%20Notes
%20For%20APES/cation%20exchange%20capacity.pdf .. Diunduh 15/3/2012
Organic matter, nutrient contents and cation
exchange capacity in fine fractions from semiarid
calcareous soils
F. Caravaca ), A. Lax, J. Albaladejo. Geoderma 93 1999. 161176

ABSTRACT
Soil erosion, which is a widespread problem in semiarid areas, may lead to a
decline in soil productivity since the finest and most fertile soil particles are those
which are generally removed. Our objective was to determine the distribution of
soil organic matter, phosphorus, potassium and cation exchange capacity within
the fine fractions -2 mm and 220 mm. of the soil. Samples were taken from the
top 20 cm of 14 cultivated soils and six forest soils. The organo-mineral size
fractions from soil samples were isolated without chemical pretreatment by
ultrasonic dispersion in water followed by sedimentationsyphonation. The
distribution of organic matter within size fractions varied with land use. The
cultivated soils had a greater percentage on average, about 30%. of total soil C in
the -2 mm fraction than the soils under natural vegetation on average, about 18%.,
in which the total soil C was associated with the 220 mm fraction to a greater
extent than in cultivated soils. The distribution of the soil N between the clay and
fine silt size fractions followed a similar pattern to that shown by soil C. The CrN
ratio became smaller as particle size decreased. The higher CrN ratio obtained for
the 220 mm fraction for both forest and cultivated soils suggests the presence of
less decomposed organic matter, while the organic matter associated with the -2
mm fraction can be considered to be more humified. The cation exchange
capacity of whole soil and organo-mineral fractions were closely correlated with
their respective C contents. The clay-size fraction had the highest CEC, which
was related to its mineralogical composition. The data confirm that the proportion
of soil organic matter depends on the stabilizing capacity of the different size
fractions, both the clay and fine silt size fractions playing an important role in
semiarid soils. To the detriment of the soils organic matter content these fractions
are easily eroded in soils under arid and semiarid conditions, which may render
them unsuitable for agricultural purposes..
Sumber:
http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/projects/scape/uploads/90/Caravace_Lax_Albaladej
o.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
POKOK- 1. Suplai nitrogen dari:
POKOK 2. Sisa Tanaman Tanaman biasa
PENGELOLA Pupuk kandang Tanaman legume
AN Hujan & irigasi Pupuk hijau
KESUBURAN Pupuk nitrogen Kompos
TANAH.

2. Penambahan bahan organik 3. Penambahan kapur bila


melalui: diperlukan
Sisa tanaman legume dan Batu kapur kalsit atau dolomit yg
non legume biasa dilakukan
Pupuk kandang
Pupuk hijau

4. Penambahan fosfat: 5. Penambahan kalium


Pupuk superfosfat, atau tersedia:
Pupuk lainnya Pupuk kandang
Sisa tanaman
Pupuk Kalium

6. Kekurangan belerang 7. Penambahan unsur


diatasi dg: mikro: Sebagai garam
Belerang, gipsum, terpisah atau campuran
superfosfat, Amonium
sulfat, Senyawa
belerangdalam air hujan
THE FATE OF PHOSPHATE FERTILISERS IN SOIL
I.S. Cornforth (Department of Soil Science, Lincoln University)

Phosphorus participates in many of the reactions that keep plants and animals alive, and is
thus essential for all living organisms. Phosphorous is found in two different forms in soil:
inorganic and organic.

Inorganic phosphorus
The main inorganic forms of phosphorus in soil are H2PO4- and HPO42-. This is the form
in which phsophorus is used by plants. However, these ions can also absorb onto the
surface (or adsorb into) solid matter in the soil. This phosphorus is then unavailable to
plants.

Organic phosphorus
Between 50 and 80% of phosphorus in soil is organic phosphorus. This comes from the
breakdown of dead plants etc., as phosphorus is found in cell membranes and DNA in
living organisms.
Phosphorus is thus naturally available in the soil. However, there isn't usually enough
available for plants to grow well. Phosphorus levels are reduced by animals eating the
plants then dying elsewhere so that the phosphorus is removed, and also by phosphorus
being adsorbed into soil particles or washed away by excess rain. For this reason
phosphate fertilisers are widely used. The ways in which this influences phosphate cycling
in the soil are discussed in more detail in the following article.

The availability of phosphorus is affected by soil pH.

As a particle of fertilizer comes in contact with the soil, moisture from the soil will begin
dissolving the particle. Dissolving of the fertilizer increases the soluble phosphate in the soil
solution around the particle and allows the dissolved phosphate to move a short distance away from
the fertilizer particle. Movement is slow but may be increased by rainfall or irrigation water
flowing through the soil. As phosphate ions in solution slowly migrate away from the fertilizer
particle, most of the phosphate will react with the minerals within the soil. Phosphate ions
generally react by adsorbing to soil particles or by combining with elements in the soil such as
calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), and iron (Fe), and forming compounds that are
solids. The adsorbed phosphate and the newly formed solids are relatively available to meet crop
needs.
(http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/DC6795.html)

Sumber: http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/soils/2D.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012


THE FATE OF PHOSPHATE FERTILISERS IN SOIL
I.S. Cornforth (Department of Soil Science, Lincoln University)

Examples of phosphate adsorption mechanisms

Sumber: http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/soils/2D.pdf..
Diunduh 15/3/2012
THE FATE OF PHOSPHATE FERTILISERS IN SOIL
I.S. Cornforth (Department of Soil Science, Lincoln University)

The absorption of adsorbed P into soil minerals (a) and the


subsequent occlusion of adsorbed P (b)

Sumber: http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/soils/2D.pdf..
Diunduh 15/3/2012
THE DYNAMICS OF POTASSIUM (K) IN
REPRESENTATIVE SOIL SERIES OF GHANA
D. O. Yawson, P. K. Kwakye, F. A. Armah and K.A. Frimpong.
ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science
VOL. 6, NO. 1, JANUARY 2011

ABSTRACT
The immediate supply of K by soils to growing plants derives mainly from the K
that is labile whereas the long term K nutrition of plants depends on the non-
labile K. The dynamic relationship between these forms of K constitutes the
dynamics of K in soils. Most Ghanaian farmers grow root and tuberous crops
which have high K requirements. Knowledge of K dynamics in soils is therefore
essential for K management to sustain crop production and management of agro-
ecological environments in Ghana. Quantity-Intensity isotherms provide a better
overview of K dynamics in soils. Therefore, Quantity/Intensity (Q/I) curves were
used in this study to evaluate the dynamics of K in ten soil series representing the
major agro-ecological zones of Ghana. K dynamics in the soils were found to be
influenced by some soil properties. Significant correlations were found between
soil properties and Q/I parameters; and among equilibrium solution parameters
and Q/I parameters.

There was no significant variation among the mean quantity (K) values of the
soils. The savannah soils had higher non-specific K, K-potential, and potential
buffering capacity (PBCK) than the forest soils; and the Akuse series had the
highest values for these parameters. However, the forest soils had higher K-
intensity.

Therefore, the forest soils will require frequent and split K applications since they
have lower capacity to maintain long-term supply of K. However, the savannah
soils will require less frequent but higher K fertilization to satisfy the
exchangeable pool and immediate plant nutrition requirement

Sumber:
http://www.arpnjournals.com/jabs/research_papers/rp_2011/jabs_0111_233.pdf
.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
SOIL FACTORS AFFECTING MAGNESIUM
AVAILABILITY IN PLANT-ANIMAL SYSTEMS: A
REVIEW I
H. F. Mayland and S. R. Wilkinson.
J. Anita Sei. 1989. 67:3437-3444

ABSYRAOT
Soils provide the support, water and most of the nutrient elements,
including Mg, needed for plant growth. Magnesium uptake by plants
depends largely on the amount, concentration and activity of Mg in the
soil solution and the capacity of the soil to replenish Mg in the soil
solution. The availability of Mg depends on the activity or proportion of
Mg relative to soluble and exchangeable amounts of K, Ca, Na, AI and
Mn.
In humid regions, Mg losses from leaching are often greatest from
agroecosystems receiving heavy N fertilization. Cool-season grasses
produce nearly maximum growth at herbage concentrations of 1 to 1.5 g
Mg/kg, 25 g K/kg and 30 g N/kg of dry matter. At these concentrations
of N and K, herbage should contain about 2.5 g Mg/kg to avoid
inducing hypomagnesemic grass tetany in ruminants. To increase
herbage Mg concentration to this level often requires, except on sandy
soils, an uneconomically large addition of Mg fertilizer. Adjusting soil
conditions to produce grasses with a low-tetany potential may not
always be possible physically. The risk of tetany can be reduced by a
judicious program of well-timed N, K and Mg fertilizer applications.
However, direct Mg supplementation of grazing ruminants is considered
more cost-effective than is Mg fertilization to prevent grass tetany.

Sumber: http://www.animal-science.org/content/67/12/3437.full.pdf
.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
Effects of Potassium Fertilization on Soil Potassium
Distribution and Balance in Pistachio Orchards
David Qiupeng Zeng, Patrick H. Brown, and Brent A. Holtz
Better Crops/Vol. 83 (1999, No. 4)
Potassium distribution in the soil profile is characterized by decreasing soil K content
with depth. Potassium fertilization significantly increased soil K content throughout the
0 to 30 inch soil profile, even though the movement of surface-applied K in the soil
profile was slow.
More K was accumulated in the fruit and leaves in pistachio trees treated with K. Soil K
balance data showed that without K fertilization, soil available K was rapidly depleted.
To accurately diagnose soil K deficiency and to determine K fertilization requirements
in pistachio, it is important to examine K status in the irrigated soil profile.

Fertilizer and Management Practices


Increased use of nitrogen (N) and other limiting nutrients. When adequate K is
available, addition of N and/or phosphorus (P) greatly increases K uptake, as yields
are increased. Usually the uptake of K by crops closely parallels N uptake and may be
greater. So, as limiting nutrients are added, the demands on soil K increase.
Applications of K in fertilizers, manures or crop residues. The major way to
increase K availability is to apply adequate amounts. Potassium is readily available
from all these sources, provided they are located where roots can absorb the K.
Placement of K. Broadcast plow-down applications of K are more available than
surface applied disked-in K. Row K at moderate rates and soil test levels is usually
twice as available to corn as similar amounts broadcast. Deep placement or drip
irrigation helps move K down. Gypsum applied with K also helps move K down in
very fine textured soils.
Conservation tillage limits availability of surface applied K. Soil K levels should
be built to high levels before shifting to minimum or conservation tillage. This
improves K distribution within the plow layer. In many fine textured soils, surface
applied K moves very little in the soil and has low availability, particularly under
dryland conditions.
Drainage increases K availability. Draining soils of excess moisture helps many
soils warm up and improves the soil aeration. This improves the availability of soil K.
Weed and insect control. Controlling weeds and insects reduces competition for
moisture and nutrients, so that the crop being produced has relatively more K
available.
(http://www.ipni.net/ppiweb/bcrops.nsf/
$webindex/726438DEC39EDF01852568F000677EB8/$file/98-3p14.pdf)

Sumber: http://ucanr.org/sites/nm/files/76664.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012


Effects of Potassium Fertilization on Soil
Potassium Distribution and Balance in Pistachio
Orchards
David Qiupeng Zeng, Patrick H. Brown, and Brent A. Holtz
Better Crops/Vol. 83 (1999, No. 4)

Potassium distribution in the soil profile after three years


of K fertilization at various rates in the Madera orchard.
Each value is the average of five repli cates standard
error.

Sumber: http://ucanr.org/sites/nm/files/76664.pdf.. Diunduh


15/3/2012
MENGATASI The term Agronomic Optimum N Rate or
KEKURANGAN AONR defines the N rate that will produce
maximum grain yield, regardless of cost. The
NITROGEN term Economic Optimum N Rate or EONR
defines the N rate that will result in the
maximum dollar return to N. The EONR is
usually less than the AONR, will usually
decrease as N prices increase, will usually
increase as grain prices increase, or may remain
Penambahan & the same if the ratio between nitrogen cost and
Kehilangan N-tersedia grain price (N:G) remains the same.
(http://www.agry.purdue.edu/Ext/corn/news/tim
eless/nitrogenmgmt.pdf)
Pengikatan
Nitrogen Pupuk
Buatan

Simbiotik Non-
Simbiotik

Sisa
tanaman N-tersedia
Atmosfer
Pupuk dlm tanah
Kandang

Bahan
Organik

Panen Hilang Hilang


Tanaman Pencucian Erosi
The fate of nitrogen from legume and fertilizer sources in soils
successively cropped with wheat under field conditions
J.N. Ladd, M. Amato
Soil Biology and Biochemistry. Volume 18, Issue 4, 1986, Pages 417425

Abstract
Using N-labelled legume material (Medicago littoralis) and fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2SO4,
15

KNO3), a direct comparison has been made of the fate of nitrogen from these sources and
their residues, in soils sown with two successive wheat crops. The availability of N from
each source to both crops is discussed in terms of the release, movement and immobilization
of N in the soil profiles.
For fertilizer N, uptake by crops, distribution as inorganic 15N in soil profiles, total recovery
15

and percentage recovery in organic residues in soil were not significantly influenced by the
form of fertilizer applied. For both legume and fertilizer 15N, uptake by both crops was
directly related to input; and uptake by the second crop was directly related to the amounts of
15
N residual in soil after the first crop. About 17% of applied legume N was taken up by the
tops of the first wheat crop, and, at the time of sowing of the second crop, about 62%
remained as organic residues; total recovery in crop and soil averaged 84%. By contrast,
about 46% of applied fertilizer N was taken up by crop 1, and at sowing in the following
year 29% was present as organic residues, and total recovery in soil plus crop averaged 80%
The availabilities of N from both legume and fertilizer residues to a second wheat crop
declined markedly but continued to differ significantly (P < 0.01) from each other. Expressed
as percentages of total residual 15N present in soils at sowing, the second crop took up about
6% of legume-derived N and about 9% of fertilizer-derived N.
Fertilizer N directly contributed 5% and 0.5% respectively of the N of first and second wheat
crops, per 10kg of fertilizer N applied ha1. Under the same conditions, legume N directly
contributed about 2% and 1% respectively of the N of successive crops, per 10 kg of legume
N applied ha1. The proportions of grain N derived from the applied sources were higher
than those of straw N. For both legume and fertilizer 15N, the amounts of inorganic 15N
present in soil profiles at sowing in successive years were directly related to 15N inputs. A
small but statistically-significant departure from linearity was observed for inorganic 15N at
sowing of crop 2 when related to total recoveries of 15N in soils at that time; the higher the
amount of 15N recovered, the greater the proportion present as inorganic 15N in the soil
profile. The respective contributions of legume and fertilizer N to the total inorganic N pool
in soil at sowing declined each year, but were similar to their contributions to the N of the
following wheat crop. Concentrations of inorganic N and 15N in soil profiles varied each year
but their patterns of distribution in cropped soils were not influenced by the nature and
amount of the initial amendments. The 15N atom% enrichments of the inorganic N at sowing
in the cropped soils were relatively uniform throughout the profile.

Sumber: .. Diunduh 15/3/2012.


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0038071786900489
Soil & Tillage Research 33 (1995) 197-213
Traffic and residue management systems: effects on fate of fertilizer
N in corn
H.A. Torbert , D.W. Reeves.

ABSTRACT

Soil compaction has been recognized as a problem limiting crop production, especially
in the Southern Coastal Plain of the USA. Development of tillage and residue
management systems is needed to alleviate soil compaction problems in these soils.
Fertilizer nitrogen (N) management is also an important factor in these management
systems. In 1988, a study was initiated with a wide-frame (6.3 m) vehicle to determine
the interactive effects of traffic, deep tillage, and surface residue management on the
fate of fertilizer N applied to corn ( Zea mays L.) grown on a Norfork loamy sand
(fine-loamy, siliceous, Thermic, Typic Kandiudults). Corn was planted into a winter
cover crop of 'Tibbee' crimson clover ( Trifolium incarnatum L ). Treatments included:
traffic (conventional equipment or no traffic): deep tillage (no deep tillage, annual in-
row subsoiling, or one-time only complete disruption); residue management (no
surface tillage or disk and field cultivation). The one-time only complete disruption
was accomplished by subsoiling at a depth of 43 cm on 25 cm centers in spring 1988.
In 1990-1991, fertilizer applications were made as 15Ndepleted NH4NO3 to
microplots inside each treatment plot. The 1990 and 1991 data are reported here. In
1990 an extreme drought resulted in an average grain yield of 1.8 Mg grain ha -1.
whereas abundant rainfall in 1991 resulted in 9.4 Mg grain ha -1.

Deep tillage Increased corn dry matter production in both years. In 1991, grain yields
indicated that corn was susceptible to recompaction of soil owning to traffic when
residues were incorporated with surface tillage. In the dry year, plant N uptake was
increased 27% with deep tillage and decreased 10% with traffic. In the wet year, a
surface tillage x deep tillage x traffic interaction was observed for total N uptake,
fertilizer N uptake, and total fertilizer N recovery in the plant-soil system. When
combined with traffic, plant N uptake was reduced with the highest intensity tillage
treatment (135 kg N ha-1) because of rootrrestricting soil compaction. and with the
lowest intensity tillage treatment (129 kg N ha-1) because of increased N losses.

In these soils, leaving residues on the soil surface can reduce the detrimental effect of
traffic on corn production, but if no surface tillage is performed, deep tillage is
needed.
SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AS A FUNCTION OF NITROGEN
FERTILIZATION IN CROP SUCCESSIONS
Renato Yagi; Manoel Evaristo Ferreira; Mara Cristina Pessa da Cruz; Jos Carlos Barbosa;
Luiz Alberto Navarro de Arajo.
Sci. Agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.), v.62, n.4, p.374-380, July/Aug. 2005

ABSTRACT

The interdependence between the C and N cycles is reflected by the levels of soil
organic matter (SOM). SOM and organic C levels in water soluble (C-WS) humic
acids (C-HA), fulvic acids (C-FA), and humin fractions (C-H) were evaluated
through the classic chemical fractionation method in samples of a Rhodic Eutrudox
from a randomized blocks experimental design, with split-split-plots using five
nitrogen sidedressing levels for corn (0; 60; 120; 180; and 240 kg ha-1 N) as the
main treatment, two crop sequences (corn-corn and soybean-corn) as the secondary
treatment, and two sampling depths (0 to 0.2 and 0.2 to 0.4 m) as a sub-
subtreatment.
Nitrogen fertilization did not affect SOM levels, but favored the synthesis of
substances in the C-HA fraction. There was a quadratic effect of N rates on the C-
WS and C-FA levels in the corn-corn succession. The soybean-corn succession
resulted in larger SOM and organic C levels in the C-H fraction .

N in soil organic matter How much is released?


It is not uncommon for some to use a general rule of thumb of about 1 to 2%
release of N in soil organic matter, during the spring through summer growing
season each year. The release rate varies with soil texture or CEC, soil pH, soil
microbial population, the prevailing temperature and moisture, as well as with
any soil disturbance by tillage. The range of N released (mineralized) by soil
microbes may be approximately 10 to 80 lb/A each growing season, or more.
Obviously, more N is released during warm, moist conditions as opposed to
those that are cool and dry. With such a broad range, it is no surprise that there
have been many attempts to develop more reliable measures of potentially
available soil N, and in some regions, soil N tests have met with some
calibration and field validation success. Often, these potentially available soil
N tests require sampling beyond the typical 0 to 6 in. depth, and may require
sampling to 2 or 3 ft. deep.

(Sumber: http://www.agprofessional.com/resource-centers/crop-
fertility/nitrogen/news/N-in-soil-organic-matter--How-much-is-released-into-fields-
136615318.html .. Diunduh 21/3/2012 )

Sumber: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/sa/v62n4/25090.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012


Carbon Inputs to Soil
MEMPERTAHANKA
N BAHAN ORGANIK Crop residues
TANAH Cover crops
Compost , and
Manures

Carbon Substrate
The majority of C enters the soil in the form of complex organic
matter containing highly reduced, polymeric substances.
During decomposition, energy is obtained from oxidation of the C-H
bonds in the organic material.

Soil Carbon Equilibrium


Input primarily as plant products
Output mediated by activity of decomposers
It is common that from 40 to 60% of the C taken up by microorganisms is
immediately released as CO2.
Managing soil carbon
Natural variations in SOM occur as a result of climate, organisms, parent
material, time and relief. The greatest contemporary influence has been that
of humans; for example, historical SOM in Australian agricultural soils may
have been twice the present range that is typically from 1.6 to 4.6 per cent.
It has long been encouraged that farmers adjust practices to maintain or
increase the organic component in the soilon one hand, practices that
hasten oxidation of carbon, such as burning crop stubbles or over-cultivation
are discouraged; on the other hand, incorporation of organic material, such as
manuring has been encouraged.
Increasing soil carbon is not a straightforward matterit is made complex by
the relative activity of soil biota, which can consume and release carbon and
are made more active by the addition of nitrogen fertilizers.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_carbon)
Soil Quality Technical Note No. 5
Managing Soil Organic Matter
The Key to Air and Water Quality
USDA Technical Note No. 5 October 2003

Apply practices that enhance soil organic matter


Diverse, high biomass crop rotations
Cover crops
Reduced tillage
Rotational grazing

Organic matter dynamics change


Increased surface residue forms a physical barrier to wind
and water erosion.
Higher residue rotations and cover crops contribute more
organic matter and nutrients to the soil.
Less soil disturbance means lower organic matter losses.

Soil properties change


Surface structure becomes more stable and less prone to
crusting and erosion.
Water infiltration increases and runoff decreases when soil
structure improves.
Soil organic matter holds 10 to 1,000 times more water and
nutrients than the same amount of soil minerals.
Beneficial soil organisms become more numerous and active
with diverse crop rotations and higher organic matter levels.

Sumber:
http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/concepts/soil_organic_matter/files/sq_tn_5.pdf
.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets
are also available on our website at:
http://osufacts.okstate.edu
Building Soil Organic Matter for a Sustainable
Organic Crop Production

Strategies for Building Soil Organic Matter


The methods used for building SOM depend on several factors. One
factor is the goal of the practice. Is the goal simply to supply
nutrients or to supply both nutrients and build OM in the soil? This
question refers to whether a producer should engage in supplying
nutrients to make sure higher yield is achieved in the short-term or to
consider both yield and conditioning the soil for optimum long-term
production. Another factor that affects the strategy is the type of
organic enterprise.
A producer needs to answer whether they are interested in:
A livestock-crop mixed organic production system
Perennial or annual agronomic crops
Fruits or vegetables
A mixed cropping system

It is also important to know the soil type and problems specific to that soil.
What is the physical and chemical composition of the soil? For soils rich in
nutrients, but difficult to cultivate due to drainage problems, for example,
raising the SOM level is recommended. Some soils are low in available
nutrients; the strategy should be to supply nutrients as well as build SOM.
Similarly, the nature of existing soil problems, such as low or very high pH
and salt problems, must be taken into consideration. There are two strategies
to build and maintain SOM for organic or, for that matter, any agricultural
production system: reduce SOM losses and add organic material.

Sumber: http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-
6125/PSS-2257web.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets
are also available on our website at:
http://osufacts.okstate.edu
Building Soil Organic Matter for a Sustainable Organic Crop
Production
APLIKASI BAHAN ORGANIK KE TANAH

There are wide ranges of options that an organic producer can use to add OM to
the soil. Organic materials are highly variable in mineralization pattern, nutrient
content, and availability. That is why it is important to set a goal and develop a
best management plan for a given field.
Cover crops, green manure, residue and live mulch, animal waste, compost,
uncomposted yard debris, and packaged organic fertilizers are some of the major
materials for building SOM. If a producer is planning a certified organic
enterprise, it is important to know the allowed and non-allowed organic materials
and their sources by national and state organic program rules and regulations.

Schematic illustration of the pools and fluxes included in MAGIC for use in simulating
the dynamics of organic and inorganic nitrogen in soils
(sumber: http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/recover/magic.htm ...,, DIUNDUH 21/3/2012)

Sumber: http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-6125/PSS-2257web.pdf..
Diunduh 15/3/2012
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets
are also available on our website at:
http://osufacts.okstate.edu
Building Soil Organic Matter for a Sustainable Organic Crop
Production

TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH DAN PUPUK HIJAU

A cover crop is defined as any crop that is planted in a field after or prior to harvest
of the major crop to cover the field until the next main crop is planted.
A green manure crop is the crop grown on a field and then turned under when still
green before the main crop is sown largely to supply nutrients, but also to contribute
to the addition of OM.
Cover and green manure crops serve four purposes: add OM, supply nutrients,
prevent erosion, and prevent leaching by scavenging plant nutrients such as NO3
which otherwise may be leached into ground water.
The contribution of cover and green manure crops to build SOM depends on the C:N
ratio of the crops. There are four types of cover or green manure crops.

Schematic representation of the


factors concerning in tree
cover crop system above- and
belowground.

The tree cover crop system


concerns many factors above- and
belowground. These can have
significant effects on major
processes in agricultural
ecosystems and positively
influence the soil and
environmental quality in a long-
term

(sumber:
http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn95142671
84/html/x154.html diunduh
21/3/2012)

Sumber: http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-6125/PSS-2257web.pdf..
Diunduh 15/3/2012
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets
are also available on our website at:
http://osufacts.okstate.edu
Building Soil Organic Matter for a Sustainable Organic
Crop Production
Maintaining and Monitoring Soil Organic Matter
Once an acceptable level of SOM (about 3.5 to 4.0 percent) is obtained,
it is desirable to maintain it. As a rule of thumb returning about two to
three tons of organic material per year per acre would maintain an
acceptable SOM level.

Indicators used to monitor the status of soil organic matter in


organic production.

Sumber: http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-
6125/PSS-2257web.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
Microbial biomass a significant source for soil organic matter
Matthias Kaestner and Anja Miltner
Geophysical Research Abstracts
Vol. 13, EGU2011-3261, 2011

ABSTRACT
The formation of soil organic matter (SOM) has long been a dominating topic in soil science
because the amount and composition of SOM determines soil quality but the processes are
still not yet really understood. However, proper management of soil organic matter (SOM) is
needed for maintaining soil fertility and for mitigation of the global increase of the
atmospheric CO2 concentration. It needs to be based on knowledge about the sources, the
spatial organisation and the stabilisation processes of SOM. On the molecular level, the
degraded plant-derived organic material in soil is considered to be self-assembled and
arranged to macromolecular complexes. Both easily degradable and refractory compounds
are stabilised in these aggregates. In addition, the so-called humic substances were regarded
for a long time as a novel category of cross-linked organic materials. Recently, microbial
biomass residues have been identified as a significant source for SOM . We incubated 13C-
labelled bacterial cells in an agricultural soil and traced the fate of the 13C label of bacterial
biomass in soil by isotopic analysis.
In this study, we summarise the mass balance data and visualise the microbial biomass and
its residues by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our results indicate that a high
percentage of the biomass-derived carbon remains in soil, mainly in the non-living part of
SOM after extended incubation. The SEM micrographs only rarely show intact cells. Instead,
organic patchy fragments of 200-500 nm size are abundant. These fragments are associated
with all stages of cell envelope decay and fragmentation. Similar fragments develop on
initially clean and sterile in situ microcosms during exposure in groundwater providing
evidence for their microbial origin. Microbial cell envelope fragments thus contribute
significantly to SOM formation.

The results provide a simple explanation for the development of the small, nano-scale patchy
organic materials observed in soil electron micrographs. They suggest that microstructures of
microbial cells and of small plant debris provide the molecular architecture of SOM
adsorbed to particle surfaces. This origin and macromolecular architecture of SOM is
consistent with most observations on SOM, e.g. the abundance of microbial-derived
biomarkers, the low C/N ratio, the water repellency and the stabilisation of microbial
biomass . The specific molecular architecture determines carbon mineralisation and balances
as well as the fate of pesticides and environmental contaminants.
Sumber: http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2011/EGU2011-3261.pdf .. Diunduh
17/3/2012
. Effect of cover crop management on soil organic matter
Guangwei Ding, Xiaobing Liu, Stephen Herbert, Jeffrey Novak, Dula
Amarasiriwardena, Baoshan Xing.
Geoderma. Volume 130, Issues 34, February 2006, Pages 229239.

Abstract
Characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) is important for determining
the overall quality of soils, and cover crop system may change SOM
characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cover
crops on the chemical and structural composition of SOM. We isolated humic
substances (HS) from soils with the following cover crop treatments: (a)
vetch (Vicia Villosa Roth.)/rye (Sesale cereale L.), (b) rye alone, and (c)
check (no cover crops) that were treated with various nitrogen (N) fertilizer
rates.

CPMAS-TOSS (cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning and total sideband


suppression) 13C NMR results indicated that humic acids (HA) from soils
under rye only were more aromatic and less aliphatic in character than the
other two cover crop systems without fertilizer N treatment.
Based on the DRIFT (diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared) spectra
peak O/R ratios, the intensities of oxygen-containing functional groups to
aliphatic and aromatic (referred to as recalcitrant) groups, the highest ratio
was found in the HA from the vetch/rye system with fertilizer N. The lowest
ratio occurred at the vetch/rye system without fertilizer N treatment. The O/R
ratio of fulvic acids (FA) can be ranked as: vetch/rye without
fertilizer>vetch/rye with fertilizer>no cover crop without fertilizer>rye alone
(with or without fertilizer) soils.
Both organic carbon (OC) and light fraction (LF) contents were higher in
soils under cover crop treatments with and without fertilizer N than soils
with no cover crop. These chemical and spectroscopic data show that cover
crops had a profound influence on the SOM and LF characteristics.

Sumber: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016706105000364
.. Diunduh 17/3/2012
Liming Benefits

reduces the possibility of Mn2+ and Al3+ toxicity;


PENTINGNYA improves microbial activity;
Ca & Mg improves physical condition (better structure);
improves symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes;
improves palatability of forages;
provides an inexpensive source for Ca2+ and Mg2+
when these nutrients are deficient at lower pH;
improves nutrient availability (availability of P and
Penambahan dan Mo increases as pH increases at 6.0 7.0, however,
kehilangan other micronutrients availability increases as pH
decreases).
(http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/management/files/sq_atn_8.pdf)

Sisa
Pupuk Mineral
tanaman &
Komersial Tanah
Pupuk
Kandang

Ca dan Mg
tersedia dalam KAPUR
tanah

PANEN Hilang
TANAMAN Hilang Erosi
pencucian
Effects of Liming to Near-neutral pH on Vitis vinifera L.
J. Wooldridge, P.J.E. Louw and W.J. Conradie.
S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic., Vol. 31, No. 1, 2010

ABSTRACT

Wine grape vines are sensitive to soil pH and liming. The effects
of pre-plant liming at rates sufficient to promote average soil pH
levels (1M KCl) of 5.05 (unlimed, treatment L0), 5.64 (L1) and
6.56 (L2) in two wine grape (scion) varieties and four rootstocks
five years after planting were investigated over six seasons in a
factorial field trial at Stellenbosch.
Yields tended to decrease in the sequence: L0 > L1 > L2, and
were significantly (P = 0.05) lower in L2 than in L0. Conversely,
cane masses increased progressively with lime application rate,
with L1 exceeding L0 by 11.0% and L2 exceeding L1 by 13.0%.
These increases were significant. Compared to L0, liming
decreased the ratio of yield to cane mass by 13.6% in L1 and
28.8% in L2, but increased Ca:Mg ratios in the soil and petioles.
Wine quality was significantly better from L0 than L2. Petiole N
concentrations were above normal in all treatments.

Suppressed yields and wine quality in the limed treatments were


attributed to a lime-induced imbalance between vegetative and
reproductive growth, possibly exacerbated by increased Ca:Mg
ratios and excess nitrogen.

Sumber: http://www.sasev.org/journal-sajev/sajev-articles/volume-31-1/Effects
%20of%20liming%20to%20near-netrul%20pH.pdf .. Diunduh 15/3/2012
Dolomite Limes Reaction Applied on the Surface of a Sandy
Soil of the Northwest Paran, Brazil
Anderson R. Meda; Marcos A. Pavan; Marcelo E. Cassiolato and Mrio
Miyazawa.
BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY. AN
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL. Vol.45, N. 2 : pp. 219 - 222, June 2002

ABSTRACT

Low Ca and Mg are serious limitations to crop production in


sandy soils of the northwest Paran, Brazil. Thus soil samples
of an Oxisol collected in this region were packed into 30cm
long columns. Dolomite lime (2.0, 0.84, 0.30, and < 0.30 mm
screen) was added on soil surface, then leached with
deionized water.

Thereafter, the columns were dismantled and the soil cut into
5cm segments for chemical analysis. Dolomite lime increased
pHCaCl2,, Kclexchangeable Ca and Mg and residual CO3
mostly in the top surface layers.

Surface dolomite lime had no effect on pH, Ca, Mg, and CO3
in the leachate, independent on the lime particle size.

These results indicated that surface dolomite lime application


had no effect on subsoil composition and mostly of the
calcium and magnesium carbonates are still unreacted on the
soil surface.

Sumber: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/babt/v45n2/11443.pdf .. Diunduh 15/3/2012


Effect of ammonium fertilizer on NH3 loss and Ca,
Mg, ammonium and nitrate content in a calcareous
soil solution
L. B. Fenn and E. Wu. Biology and Fertility of Soils.
Volume 5, Number 2, 171-174

Abstract
This study examined the effects of NH inf4 + fertilizers [(NH4)2SO4,
(NH4)2HPO4, CO(NH2)2, NH4OH, and NH4NO3] on NH3 loss and the
quantity of Ca + Mg, NH inf4 + and NO inf3 sup in the solution of a
calcareous soil (Harkey sicl, Typic Torrifluvent).
Various NH4 fertilizers applied at a depth of 5 cm in the soil produced
differing NH3 loss characteristics. Applying (NH4)2SO4 (AS) resulted in
high volatile NH3 losses as compared with NH4OH (AH) and (NH4)2CO3
(AC). The AS treatment formed an equal molar amount of CaSO4, which
increased the mobility of ammonium, while AH and AC treatments
caused Ca precipitation and decreased ammonium mobility.

Leaching the AS system before NH3 loss could occur resulted in the
most rapid nitrification rate. Lower nitrification rates were found with
AH and AC than AS under the same conditions. Surface placement of
NH4 fertilizers resulted in variable leachate contents of Ca + Mg.
Ammonium sulfate reacted with CaCO3 either to solubilize some Ca +
Mg or simply to replace exchangeable Ca + Mg with NH4, while AH,
AC, and (NH4)2HPO4 (DAP) precipitated essentially an equivalent molar
amount of soluble and adsorbed Ca + Mg.
Use of NH4NO3, which does not form an insoluble calcium precipitate,
resulted in the leaching of an equivalent molar amount of exchangeable
Sumber: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p404453nq384n417/
Ca + Mg from the Harkey soil. ..
Diunduh 15/3/2012
MEMPERTAHANKAN
KETERSEDIAAN FOSFAT.

Kehilangan & Penambahan


P-tersedia

Sisa Pukuk Mineral P-


tanaman komersial tanah
Pukuk
kandang

Bahan P-tersedia dalam


Organik tanah
Tanah

Terangkut Hilang Hilang


tanaman Pencucian Erosi Fiksasi
Grant, C., Bittman, S., Montreal, M., Plenchette, C. and Morel, C.
Soil and fertilizer phosphorus: Effects on plant P
supply and mycorrhizal development.
Can. J. Plant Sci. 85: 314. 2005.
ABSTRACT

Plants require adequate P from the very early stages of growth


for optimum crop production. Phosphorus supply to the crop is
affected by soil P, P fertilizer management and by soil and
environmental conditions influencing P phytoavailability and root
growth. Phosphorus uptake in many crops is improved by
associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Cropping system
and long-term input of P through fertilizers and manures can
influence the amount and phytoavailability of P in the system and
the development of mycorrhizal associations.

Optimum yield potential requires an adequate P supply to the crop


from the soil or from P additions. Where early-season P supply is
low, P fertilization may improve P nutrition and crop yield
potential. Alternately, under low-P conditions, encouragement of
arbuscular mycorrhizal associations may enhance P uptake by
crops early in the growing season, improving crop yield potential
and replacing starter fertilizer P applications. Soil P supply that
exceeds P requirements of the crop may preclude mycorrhizal
development. To encourage arbuscular mycorrhizal association,
threshold levels of soil solution P that restrict mycorrhizal
development must not be exceeded. Sustainable P management
practices must be applied both in conventional and in alternative
biologically based agricultural systems.

Sumber: .. Diunduh 15/3/2012


Soil and fertilizer phosphorus: Effects on plant P
supply and mycorrhizal development
by C Grant, S Bittman, M Montreal, C Plenchette, C Morel
Canadian Journal of Plant Science (2005)
Volume: 85, Issue: 1, Pages: 3-14

ABSTRACT
Plants require adequate P from the very early stages of growth for
optimum crop production. Phosphorus supply to the crop is affected by
soil P, P fertilizer management and by soil and environmental conditions
influencing P phytoavailability and root growth. Phosphorus uptake in
many crops is improved by associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal
fungi. Cropping system and long-term input of P through fertilizers and
manures can influence the amount and phytoavailability of P in the
system and the development of mycorrhizal associations.

Optimum yield potential requires an adequate P supply to the crop from


the soil or from P additions. Where early-season P supply is low, P
fertilization may improve P nutrition and crop yield potential.
Alternately, under low-P conditions, encouragement of arbuscular
mycorrhizal associations may enhance P uptake by crops early in the
growing season, improving crop yield potential and replacing starter
fertilizer P applications. Soil P supply that exceeds P requirements of the
crop may preclude mycorrhizal development. To encourage arbuscular
mycorrhizal association, threshold levels of soil solution P that restrict
mycorrhizal development must not be exceeded. Sustainable P
management practices must be applied both in conventional and in
alternative biologically based agricultural systems.

Sumber: http://www.mendeley.com/research/soil-fertilizer-phosphorus-effects-plant-p-
supply-mycorrhizal-development/ .. Diunduh 15/3/2012
The Effect of Farmland Management on Soil Phosphorus
Runoff in Taihu Basin*
Lixia YANG
Journal of Cambridge Studies. Vol.6 No.2-3 2011

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus fertilizer levels related to the soil phosphorus loss directly. The
studies assessed the effects of different phosphorus (P) fertilizer levels (0,
30, 75 and 150 kg/hm2) on characteristics and forms of soil P loss in runoff
by artificial rainfall simulations. N, P and K fertilizers were used as basal
fertilizers by surface broadcast. Each treatment had three replicates of
rectangular 1 2 m with a random block design. Slope gradient was 7%
and vegetable coverage density was uniform. Two day after fertilizer
application to plots, rainfall was applied using the rainfall simulator at 1.67
mm/min (100 mm/h). It lasted for 30 min after effective runoff generation.
Each sample was collected on a 5 min interval for the full 30 min of the
runoff event.
The results indicated that P concentrations of different forms in runoff were
high at the early stage, then gradually decreased with time and finally
reached a comparative steady stage after about 20 min of runoff generation.
At the entire rainfall-runoff process, Particulate phosphorus (PP) occupied
72%~87% of total phosphorus (TP). This showed PP was main loss form of
soil P. Flow-weighted mean concentrations of soil P loss at different P
fertilizer levels followed the order from large to small: 150 kg/hm2 >75
kg/hm2 >30 kg/hm2 > treatment (0 kg/hm2).

It was found that the runoff losses of dissolved phosphorus(DP), dissolved


inorganic phosphorus(DIP), PP and TP in runoff significantly increased in
linear function with P fertilizer increase at different P fertilizer levels
(r2=0.99, 0.98, 0.89 and 0.93).

Sumber: http://journal.acs-cam.org.uk/data/archive/2011/201123-article7.pdf ..
Diunduh 15/3/2012
KETERSEDIAA Tanah mineral umumnya mengandung
N KALIUM cukup banyak kalium, kisaran 40 ton setiap
hektar lapisan olah tanah. Namun demikian
hanya sebagian kecil yangtersedia bagi
tanaman

Kehilangan & Penambahan


Kalium:

Sisa tanaman Pupuk Mineral-K


& Pupuk komersial lambat
Kandang tersedia

K-tersedia
tanah

Terangkut Kehilangan
tanaman Kehilangan
Kehilangan erosi Fiksasi
pencucian
Potassium Releasing Capacity in Some Soils of Anantnag District of
Kashmir. Subhash Chand and Tahir Ali
Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology. 2011 Volume 1, Issue 3: 373-
375

Abstract
The potassium releasing capacity of fifteen soil samples of Anantnag district of
Kashmir were assessed by using five chemical extractants.
The decreasing order of potassium release by the different chemical extractants in the
soils was 1M HNO3 > 0.01 N HCl--12 extractions>0.01 N HCl--9 extractions> 0.3 N
NaTPB-16 hours > 0.01N HCl 3 extractions> 1.38N H2SO4=0.01N HCl-1
extractions> % K saturation. The K released by 1M HNO3 was significantly correlated
with 1.38N H2SO4 (0.995**) and 10.28 N H2SO4 (0.996**) .
The significant correlations among different form of K in Anantnag soils indicate the
various K pools (exchangeable=Non-exchangeable) for proper K fertilizer
management. The potassium status in Anantnag soils was variable.

Factors Affecting K Availability


1.Soil CEC: Plant-available soil K is in the ionic (electrically charged) form. This charge is
positive, making K a cation, represented as K+. Cations are attracted to, and held by negatively
charged colloids (primarily clay and organic matter) that make up the cation exchange capacity
(CEC) of the soil. The larger the CEC, the more K that can be held by the soil and the higher the
soil test needed to adequately feed plants.
2.Soil test K:Higher soil test K increases the available K, by increasing the amount and balance of
K relative to other cations.
3.Cation Balance: Where there is a significant imbalance between available K and the other
major cations (Primarily Calcium, Magnesium, and sometimes Hydrogen, Aluminum, or Sodium),
it may affect the availability of K to the crop.
4.Soil Moisture: K is transported within the soil and is absorbed by plant roots in the soil water.
Therefore a water deficiency results in less K absorption.
5.Soil pH: As the soil pH is reduced (increasing soil acidity) the availability of K is often reduced.
6.Soil Temperature: Cold soils often reduce the availability of K.
7.Soil compaction: Compacted soils often reduce the availability of K.
8.Soil Drainage/Aeration: As soil drainage is improved, K uptake typically improves.
9.Soil Salinity: Saline soils often have excess sodium (Na). One of the negative effects of excess
Na is that it reduces the availability of K.

(sumber: http://www.spectrumanalytic.com/support/library/ff/Potassium_basics.htm.. Diunduh


21/3/2012)

Sumber: http://www.environmentaljournal.org/1-3/ujert-1-3-17.pdf.. Diunduh 15/3/2012


RATE OF RELEASE OF NON-EXCHANGEABLE POTASSIUM BY
ONTARIO SOILS IN RELATION TO NATURAL SOIL
CHARACTERISTICS AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
H. B. McEwen, B. C. Matthews
Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 1958, 38(1): 36-43

Abstract
The rate of release of non-exchangeable potassium, i.e. potassium-supplying power, of
41 Ontario soils was measured by a continuous percolation procedure.
It was found that clay content of the soil was the predominant factor affecting
potassium-supplying power (r=0.978). Potassium fertilization or intensive cropping
of the soil caused no change in the potassium-supplying power of the soil. As
potassium-supplying power was found to be a constant characteristic of soil and not a
function of previous management, potassium-supplying power measurements should
not be necessary in routine soil testing.
Knowledge of potassium-supplying power can be deduced from particle size
distribution. Because soils of different texture have different potassium-supplying
power, the interpretation of measured exchangeable potassium in terms of fertilizer
requirement will be different for soils of different textural class.

Relationship among unavailable, slowly available, and readily available potassium in the
soil-plant system.
(sumber: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc6794.html.. diunduh
21/3/2012)

Sumber: http://pubs.aic.ca/doi/abs/10.4141/cjss58-006.. Diunduh 15/3/2012


Effect of Potassium on Potato Tuber Production in
Acid Soils of Malepatan, Pokhara
B.H. Adhikari, K.B. Karki
Nepal Agriculture Research Journal Vol.7 2006 pp.42-48

Abstract
Soils of Pokhara valley, especially Malepatan, are fine textured silt loam,
extremely acidic in nature (3.7-4.0 pH) and are medium in soil potassium content.
On-station experiments were conducted to assess the response of potassium (K 2O)
and its application methods on potato tuber
yield in an extremely acid soil condition. Six potassium levels (0, 50, 75, 100 kg
ha-1 as basal application, 50 kg basal plus 50 kg top dressed, and 50 kg basal plus
50 kg foliar application) were tested in the experiment for three consecutive years
(2000, 2001 and 2002).
A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications was employed.
Variety used was MS 42. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P2O5) and compost were
applied as basal dose in each plots at the rate of 100 kg, 50 kg and 20 t ha -1,
respectively. Three years mean result on the plant growth characters revealed that
tallest plant height was recorded (33.22 cm) when 50 kg ha-1 potassium
was applied basally and 50 kg ha-1 top-dressed. The trend was quite similar in
tillers production (6.96 branches plant-1) and biomass production (168.66 g plant-
1
). Maximum of 473.33-g plant-1
of tubers was produced when 100 kg of potassium was applied basal single dose.
Highest tuber yield of 24.75 t ha-1 of tuber were produced when 50 kg potassium
was applied basally and 50 kg top- dressed, a total of 100 kg ha-1. Highly
significant response of potassium levels on tuber production was observed in all
the years. The results of this investigation suggested that application of potassium
(K2O) at the rate of 50 kg ha-1 basal and 50 kg ha-1 top-dressed in 45 days could
increase potato tuber yield satisfactorily in extremely acid soil condition .

Sumber: http://nepjol.info/index.php/NARJ/article/view/1867..
Diunduh 17/3/2012
. Potassium Fixation and Charge Characteristics of Clay in
some Soils of Central and Northern Iran
A. Hosseinpur and M. Kalbasi
JWSS - Isfahan University of Technology, 2001; 5 (3) :79-93

Abstract

Potassium fixation and release by phillosilicate clay minerals in soils are


very important processes influencing the availability of K to plants. This
investigation was conducted to determine the potassium fixation capacity and
charge characteristics of soil clays of 15 surface soils (0-30 cm) from central
and northern Iran. After clay particle separation, both total and tetrahedral
cation exchange capacity of soil clays were determined. Tetrahedral CEC
was measured after saturation with Li and heating at 300 C to reduce
octahedral charge to near zero.
Potassium fixation was obtained in both wet (1:10 soil:solution, 16 h on a
shaker) and dry conditions (after drying for 24 h at 70C) using three
different levels of added K
The total CEC in soil clays of Isfahan, Char-Mahal and Gilan provinces
ranged from 22.1-36.0, 33.0-55.8 and 31.3-47.9 cmol kg-1, respectively.
Tetrahedral CEC in soil clays of Isfahan, Char-Mahal and Gilan provinces
ranged from 17.9-4504, 26.2-32.5 and 8.3-23.8 cmol kg-1, respectively,
which consisted of 81.0-98.4, 58.5-95.8 and 24.7-72.5% of their total charge,
respectively. The amount of K fixation increased with drying and the level of
k added. Mean potassium fixation in soil clays of Isfahan, Char-Mahal and
Gilan ranged from 5.42-9.13, 6.63-14.67 and 8.87-10.36, respectively. Mean
potassium fixation by soil clays (except for soil clays of Gilan) best
correlated with total CEC. In the soil clays of Isfahan, mean potassium
fixation correlated with tetrahedral CEC, whereas no correlation was
observed in soil clays from other places. The average amount of potassium
fixation in clay fractions was in the order: Gilan clays > Char-Mahal clays >
Isfahan clays.

Sumber: http://jstnar.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_code=A-10-2-
66&slc_lang=en&sid=1.. Diunduh 17/3/2012
. Factors of soil potassium regime in intensive
fertilization.
Hudcov, O.
Journal Rostlinn Vroba 1990 Vol. 36 No. 2 pp. 113-118

Abstract

The effects on soil potassium dynamics of applications of high


doses of mineral and organic fertilizers over 21 years were
evaluated for a brown earth on loess. Over this period, the
mobile potassium supply of the control was not reduced, because
of the soil's considerable buffer capacity; gradually, the level of
available potassium fell slightly and the buffer capacity was
reduced. With intensive fertilizer application, the potassium
capacity factor increased by 50%, availability by 120% and
mobile forms by 200%.
Mineral fertilizer application increased potassium mobility, its
migration to subsoil horizons and mobilization from soil
resources. Organic fertilizers, however, favoured fixation on
humus. Long-term application of high rates of organic and
mineral fertilizers on brown earths saturated by sorption causes
non-productive intake of potassium by plants, which can be
partly mitigated by increasing buffer capacity.

Sumber:
http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19901946718.html;jsessionid=85A46EDFF2F
502BA4CA518D22ED46FCD.. Diunduh 17/3/2012
Potassium Leaching as Affected by Soil Texture
and Residual Fertilization in Tropical Soils
Ciro Antonio Rosolem, Thomaz Sgariboldi, Rodrigo Arroyo Garcia &
Juliano Carlos Calonego.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis
Volume 41, Issue 16, 2010 . pages 1934-1943

Abstract
Potassium (K) leaching is affected by soil texture and
available K, among other factors. In this experiment, effects
of soil texture and K availability on K distribution were
studied in the presence of roots, with no excess water. Soils
from two 6-year field experiments on a sandy clay loam and
a clay soil fertilized yearly with 0, 60, 120, and 180 kg ha 1
of K2O were accommodated in pots that received 90 kg ha 1
of K2O. Soybean was grown up to its full bloom (R2).
Under field conditions, K leaching below the arable layer
increased with K rates, but the effect was less noticeable in
the clay soil.

Potassium leaching in a sandy clay loam soil was related to


soil K contents from prior fertilizations. With no excess
water, in the presence of soybean roots, K distribution in the
profile was significant in the lighter textured soil but was not
apparent on the heavier textured soil.

Sumber:
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00103624.2010.495804..
Diunduh 17/3/2012
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah & Lingkungan, Vol 9, No 1 (2007).
Phosphorus and Potassium Status in Paddy Soils
(Sawah) of Central Lampung Regency
Junita Barus

Abstract

The knowledge about the nutrient status in the lowland soils is one of
several ways to maintain soil fertility and increase farmers income. The
objective of this study was to evaluate the status of P2O5 and K2O
content in paddy soils (sawah) at Central lampung regency during the
year 2001/2002. Composite soil samples were collected in each different
soil types based on mapping technical survey of I : 50.000 scale.
Composite soil samples consisting of 5 - 10 sub samples were taken
from top layer (0 - 20 em) depth. Soil sampling was taken by using grid
system, that is 1 cm2 in the map represented 25 ha in the field P2O5
and K2O potential content determined by HCl 25 %. Data were
arranged in a descriptive methode and then classified in to three degrees
(high, medium and low). High P was > 40 mg P2O5/100 g, medium P
was 20 - 40 mg P2O5/100 g and law P was < 20 mg P2O5/100 g. High
K was > 20 mg K2O/100 g, medium K was 10 -20 mg K2O /100 g and
low K (< 10 mg K2O/100g).

The results showed that soil P2O5 status in paddy soils (sawah) of
Centra Lampung regency were 61,65 % high, 35,84 % medium and 2,65
% low while K2O status were 6,64% high, 16,02 % medium and
77,34% low.

Sumber: http://journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jtanah/article/viewFile/2385/1391 ..
Diunduh 17/3/2012
Clays and Clay Minerals, 1970, Vol. 18, pp. 127-137.
FACTORS AFFECTING POTASSIUM FIXATION AND CATION
EXCHANGE CAPACITIES OF SOIL VERMICULITE CLAYS
ISAAC BARSHAD and FAWZY M. KISHK

Abstract-
Soil vermiculite clays of varying tetrahedral and octahedral composition
and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were examined for their ability to fix
K in both the wet and dry states. Fixation capacity, expressed as per cent of
the CEC, in the wet state was fairly high for most samples but it was
enhanced greatly upon drying the K saturated samples. This enhancement
indicated that each sample contained a number of vermiculite species with
different CECs.
The vermiculite clays, as a group, exhibited a much higher fixation capacity
at a much lower CEC than those of the coarse grained vermiculites. This
enhanced fixation is believed due to the dioctahedral nature of the coarse
grained vermiculites. In samples of nearly equal CECs only those containing
AP in tetrahedral positions exhibited an enhanced fixation capacity in the
dry state but not in the wet state.
In was remarkable to find that the state of oxidation of crystal structure iron
strongly affected the fixation and the CEC. Reduction of Fe z+ to Fe z+
caused a decrease infixation even though the CEC increased as a result of
this change. Conversely these reactions and their effects were found to be
reversible.

The variation in the orientation of the dipole of the hydroxyl ion in the
octahedral layer with respect to the cleavage plane of the crystal is believed
to be responsible for some of the noted differences.

Sumber: http://www.clays.org/journal/archive/volume%2018/18-3-127.pdf ..
Diunduh 17/3/2012
The Soil Food Web
In 1 teaspoon of soil there are

5 or more ------------ Earthworms


Up to 100 . Arthropods
10 to 20 bacterial feeders and a few fungal feeders . Nematodes
Several thousand flagellates & amoeba
One to several hundred ciliates . Protozoa
6-9 ft fungal strands put end to end . Fungi
100 million to 1 billion . Bacteria

A Soil Foodweb Audit will provide a detailed analysis of the actual and desired
biomass and balance of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, mycorrhizal fungi and
microarthropods in your soil together with notes and recommendations for feeding
your soil for a balanced Soil Foodweb.
Sumber: http://www.independentsoils.co.uk/subpage.asp?subpageid=2&pageid=2
diunduh 18/3/2012
Classical C Pools

Nonhumic substancescarbohydrates, lipids,


proteins
Humic substanceshumic acid, fulvic acid, humin
BOT berpengaruh terhadap:
-Plant nutrition
-Soil and Plant health
-Soil physical, chemical and biological
properties

Graph of Relative Available N with Length of Time for Decomposition

Gambar diambil dari: Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling (James
J. Hoorman and Rafiq Islam. 2010. The Ohio State University)

69
Sumber: http://ohioline.osu.edu/sag-fact/pdf/0016.pdf . Diunduh 18/3/2012
BOT ----- FRAKSI RINGAN
The light fraction (LF) with a density of ~1.6 gm cm-3 is relatively
mineral free and consists of partially decomposed plant material, fine
roots and microbial biomass with a rapid turnover time.

The LF is a source of readily mineralizable C and N, accounts for ~50%


of total soil C and declines rapidly under cultivation.

Effect of C / N ratio on rate of decomposition of


residues

Sumber: http://www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter
70
%2012.pdf.. Diunduh 18/3/2012
BOT --- FRAKSI BERAT --- The Heavy
Fraction

The heavy fraction (HF) is organic matter adsorbed onto mineral


surfaces and sequestered within organomineral aggregates.

The HF is less sensitive to disturbance an chemically more


resistant than the LF.

Effect of the C / N of incorporated residue on available N in


the soil.

Sumber: http://www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter
71
%2012.pdf.. Diunduh 18/3/2012
Bacteria vs. Fungi
Bacteria are smaller than fungi and can occupy smaller pores and thus potentially
have greater access to material contained within these pores.
Bacteria are less disrupted than are fungi by tillage practices commonly used in
agriculture.

Bacteria are the most abundant organisms playing important role in the decomposition
of organic matter. Majority of bacteria involved in decomposition of organic matter are
heterotrophs and autotrophs are least in proportion which are not directly involved in
organic matter decomposition. Actinomycetes and fungi are also found to play
important role in the decomposition of organic matter. Soil algae may contribute a
small amount of organic matter through their biomass but they do not have any active
role in organic matter decomposition.

Microorganisms

Constituents Bacteria Fungi Actinomycetes

Achromobacter, Bacillus, Aspergillus, Chaetomium,


Micromonospora,
Cellulomonas, Cellvibrio, Clostridium, Fusarium, Pencillium
Cellulose Nocardia Streptomyces,
Cytophaga, Vibrio Pseudomonas, Rhizoctonia, Rhizopus,
Thermonospora
Sporocytophaga etc. Trichoderma, Verticilltttm.

Bacillus, Achromobacter, Cytophaga Aspergillus, Fusarium,


Streptomyces,
Hemicellulose Pseudomonas, Erwinia, Vibrio, Chaetomium, Penicillium,
Actinomycetes
Lactobacillus Trichoderma, Humicola

Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Humicola, Fusarium Fames,


Lignin Micrococcus, Arthorbacter, Pencillium, Aspergillus, Streptomyces, Nocardia
Xanthomonas Ganoderma

Micromonospora,
Fusarium, Fomes, Aspergillus,
Starch Achromobacter, Bacillus, Clostridium Nocardia,
Rhizopus
Streptomyces,

Pectin Bacillus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas Ftisarium, Verticillum

Streptomyces,
Bacillus, Achromobacter, Cytophaga, Mucor, Fusarium, Aspergillus,
Chitin Nocardia,
Pseudomonas Trichoderma
Micromanospora

Proteins & Nucleic Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Clostriddum,


Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Streptomyces
acids Serratia, Micrococcus
72

Sumber: http://agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=5&topicid=170
Bacteria vs. Fungi
Fungi tend to be selected for by plant residues with high C/N ratios.
Fungi have a greater influence on decomposition in no-till systems in
which surface residues select for organisms that can withstand low water
potentials and obtain nutrients from the underlying soil profile.

Decomposition of Cover Crop Residues: Cowpeas with a low C:N ratio (<20) will
decompose in 4 to 8 weeks and result in net mineralization or release of N. Sudan
grass or cereal rye with a higher C:N ratio (>38) will decompose slowly (3 months to
1 year or more) and will result in net immobilization or will tie up soil N. Graph by
Dr. Rafiq Islam.

Gambar diambil dari: Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling (James
J. Hoorman and Rafiq Islam. 2010. The Ohio State University)

73
Sumber: http://ohioline.osu.edu/sag-fact/pdf/0016.pdf . Diunduh 18/3/2012
Bacteria vs. Fungi
Fungi often produce more cell wall than cytoplasmic material when
starved for N, and thus can extend into new regions of the soil without
requiring balanced growth conditions.
The filamentous growth structure of a fungus permits it to access C in
one location and nutrients in another.

Soils contain about 8 to 15 tons of bacteria, fungi, protozoa,


nematodes, earthworms, and arthropods. See fact sheets on Roles of
Soil Bacteria, Fungus, Protozoa and Nematodes.
Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling (James J.
Hoorman and Rafiq Islam. 2010. The Ohio State University)

74
Sumber: http://ohioline.osu.edu/sag-fact/pdf/0016.pdf . Diunduh 18/3/2012
KANDUNGAN BOT
How organic matter in soil influences the soil-plant relationship?
Decomposed organic matter provides nutrients for plant growth (Mineralization)
It determines the soils temperature, air ventilation, structure and water management
It contains bioregulators which affects plant growth
It contains bioregulators, which affects plant growth (enzymes, hormones, etc.)
Its carbon and energy content is the soils energy battery for future use
It determines the soils capacity to compensating, regenerating and protecting the
environment regenerating and protecting the environment.

It is widely recognized that SOM plays an important role in soil biological


(provision of substrate and nutrients for microbes), chemical (buffering and pH
changes) and physical (stabilization of soil structure) properties. In fact, these
properties, along with soil organic carbon (SOC), N and P, are considered
critical indicators for the health and quality of the soil.
(sumber: http://www.treepower.org/soils/soilorganicmatter.html.. Diunduh 21/3/2012)

75
PENTINGNYA BOT

1.Organic material in the soil is essentially derived from residual plant and animal
material, synthesised by microbes and decomposed under influence of
temperature, moisture and ambient soil conditions
2.Soil organic matter is extremely important in all soil processes
3.Cultivation can have a significant effect on the organic matter content of the
soil
4.In essentially warm and dry areas like Southern Europe, depletion of organic
matter can be rapid because the processes of decomposition are accelerated at
high temperatures
5.Generally, plant roots are not sufficiently numerous to replace the organic
matter that is lost

Improving organic matter in your soil


There are many management practices you can do to improve SOM on
your property. Practices that may increase soil organic matter include:

1.Reducing or eliminating tillage


2.Maintaining vegetative cover
3.Protect soil from fire
4.Stubble retention
5.Adding manures or other organic matter sources
6.Restrict grazing
7.Control insects and rodents

(http://vro.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/soilhealth_practical-note-soil-
organic-matter .. Diunduh 19/3/2012)

76
MANFAAT BOT
1.Storehouse for nutrients
2.Source of fertility
3.Contributes to soil aeration thereby reducing soil compaction

4.Important building block for the soil structure


5.Aids formation of stable aggregates
6.Improves infiltration/permability
7.Increase in storage capacity for water.
8.Buffer against rapid changes in soil reaction (pH)
9.Acts as an energy source for soil micro-organisms

Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling (James J.


Hoorman and Rafiq Islam. 2010. The Ohio State University)

77
Sumber: http://ohioline.osu.edu/sag-fact/pdf/0016.pdf . Diunduh 18/3/2012
Degradation: HILANGNYA BOT
1.During field operations, fresh topsoil becomes exposed and dries rapidly on the
surface
2.Organic compounds are released to the atmosphere result from breakdown of
soil aggregates bound together by humic materials
3.Unless the organic matter is quickly replenished, the system is in a state of
degradation leading eventually to un-sustainability
4.The removal of crop residues in dry ecosystems, which are inherently marginal,
can cause such systems to be quickly transformed from a stage of fragility to total
exhaustion and depletion

Long-term effect of tillage, crop rotations and fertilizer


application on soil organic matter.

Sumber: http://www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter
78
%2012.pdf.. Diunduh 18/3/2012
FAKTOR YG PENGARUHI BOT
Natural factors:
1.Climate
2.Soil parent material: acid or alkaline (or even saline)
3.Land cover and or vegetation type
4.Topography slope and aspect
Human-induced factors:
1.Land use and farming systems
2.Land management (cultivation)
3.Land degradation

The source of SOM


Plants are able to harvest energy from sunlight by making carbohydrates
from carbon dioxide and water. This is photosynthesis and provides the
energy for powering ecosystems. Plant (and animal) residues then become
available for soil organisms to feed on, metabolise and produce new
residues. These new residues then become the food source for yet more
organisms and so on.
The pathway for the break down of plant matter (Brady, 1990)

http://vro.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/soilhealth_practical-note-soil-
organic-matter
FAKTOR IKLIM PENGARUHI BOT:

Temperature:
OM decomposition rapid in warm climates
OM Decomposition is slower for cool regions

Result:
Within zones of uniform moisture and comparable vegetation --
Av total OM increases 2x to 3x for each 10 deg C fall in mean temperature

Moisture:
OM decomposition rapid in warm climates
OM Decomposition is slower for cool regions
Result:
Under comparable conditions
Av total OM increases as the effective moisture increases

AIR TANAH
Adequate soil moisture i.e. about 60 to 80 percent of
the water-holding capacity of the soil is must for the
proper decomposition of organic matter. Too much
moisture leads to insufficient aeration which results
in the reduced activity of microorganisms and there
by checks the rate of decomposition.

80

SUMBER: http://agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=5&topicid=170 . DIUNDUH 18/3/2012


Sumber: pgsgrow.com/blog/tag/organic-gardening/

C/N ratio
C: N ration of organic matter has great influence on the rate of
decomposition. Organic matter from diverse plant-tissues varies widely
in their C: N ratio (app. 8-10 %). The optimum C: N ratio in the range of
20-25 is ideal for maximum decomposition, since a favorable soil
environment is created to bring about equilibrium between
mineralization and immobilization processes. Thus, a low nitrogen
content or wide C'.N ratio results into the slow decomposition. Protein
rich, young and succulent plant tissues are decomposed more rapidly
than die protein-poor, mature and hard plant tissues. Therefore, C:N
ratio of organic matter as well as soil should be narrow/less for better
and rapid decomposition. Thus, high aeration, mesophilic temperature
range, optimum moisture, neutral/alkaline soil reaction and narrow C: N
ratio of soil and organic matter are required for rapid and better
decomposition of organic matter.
81

SUMBER: http://agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=5&topicid=170 . DIUNDUH 18/3/2012


Structure of soil, indicating presence of bacteria, inorganic,
and organic matter
Sumber: www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sci...ones.htm

Aerasi Tanah

Good aeration is necessary for the proper activity of the microorganisms


involved in the decomposition of organic matter. Under anaerobic
conditions fungi and actinomycetes are almost suppressed and only a few
bacteria (Clostridium) take part in anaerobic decomposition. The rate of
decomposition is markedly retarded. It was found that under aerobic
conditions 65 percent of the total organic matter decomposes during six
months, while under anaerobic conditions only 47 percent organic matter
can be decomposed during the same period. Anaerobic decomposition of
organic matter results into the production of large quantity of organic
acids and evolution of gases like methane (CH 4) hydrogen (H2) and
carbon dioxide (CO2).
82

SUMBER: http://agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=5&topicid=170 . DIUNDUH 18/3/2012


PUPUK KANDANG

Manure consists of animal excrement, usually


mixed with straw or leaves. The amount and
quality of the excrement depend on the animals.
feed. Good manure contains more than just
excrement and urine. Straw and leaves are added
and it is aged. Ageing is necessary to retain all of
the nutrients. Using aged manure is an ideal
method to retain and increase soil fertility.

The goals of applying manure are to:

1.increase the level of organic matter;


2.increase the available nutrients;
3.improve the structure (aggregate formation) and
water retention capacity of the soil.

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
KEUNTUNGAN MENYIMPAN DAN
MEMATANGKAN PUPUK KANDANG

Fresh stable manure is not very suitable for immediate use. The C:N
ratio of fresh manure is high, which can cause nitrogen
immobilisation.
If the organic matter is very rough i.e. it contains a lot of fibre
and few fresh, juicy leaves then the C:N ratio is high.
Microorganisms then have to work hard to digest it and allow
nutrients to become available to the crops. Moreover the micro-
organisms use nutrients to build up their own bodies which may
exceed temporarily the amount they can generate. Also, in the
initial stage of decomposition, substances are freed that can inhibit
plant growth or scorch the leaves. If the manure is spread on a field
empty of crops, many nutrients will be leached. Often there is not
even a field immediately available where manure could be spread.

Keeping and ageing the manure has a number of advantages:


? The C:N ratio decreases during ageing.
? Harmful substances that are released in the first stage of
decomposition are eliminated.
? Weed seeds are decomposed or loose their germinative power.
? Few nutrients are lost through run-off or volatilisation.
? Aged manure is easier to transport.

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
KOMPOS
Compost is an ideal fertiliser. To create a compost heap, organic material (e.g.
crop residues, straw, manure, kitchen wastes, etc.) is collected and stored together.
In this heap micro-organisms decompose the material.

Graph of Cowpeas (C:N<20) being decomposed by bacteria and fungus, the carbon
dioxide evolution and protozoa and nematodes consuming the bacteria and fungus and
excreting ammonia into the soil for plant growth. NO3- and NH4+ are easily
converted in the soil. Graph by Dr. Rafiq Islam.

Gambar diambil dari: Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling (James
J. Hoorman and Rafiq Islam. 2010. The Ohio State University)

Sumber: http://ohioline.osu.edu/sag-fact/pdf/0016.pdf . Diunduh 18/3/2012


KEUNTUNGAN KOMPOSTING

Compost increases the level of organic matter in the soil, which


has a positive effect on the soil organisms, soil structure,
infiltration, water retention capacity and aggregate stability.
Compost is rich in nutrients that are readily available to the
plants.
Advantages of compost over mulch or green manures:
1.Through composting, diseases and pests, as well as weed seeds
are destroyed because the temperature in the compost heap is so
high that they cannot survive.
2.Rats and mice can nest in thick layers of leaves or mulch. This
is not a problem with compost.
3.If green manures are ploughed into the soil in climates that
have a heavy rainy season, the mineralised nitrogen can be
leached or volatilised (denitrification).
4.Some materials have a very high C:N ratio, which can result in
the immobilisation of nitrogen. After composting, the C:N ratio
is decreased and the rough material is largely decomposed.
5.Nutrients and organic material are lost when crop residues or
fallow vegetation are burned. The positive effects of the ash
often last only one season. By composting the material the
nutrients and the organic matter is preserved and the positive
effects last much longer.

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
KETERBATASAN KOMPOSTING

1. Composting is labour-intensive. If labour is in short supply, this can be an


important limiting factor. On the other hand, compost is such a valuable
fertiliser that it makes the invested labour very costeffective.
2. The compost heap can also be made in a period when there is not very much
other work to be done.
3. Another limitation can be that organic material is scarce, or it is used for
cooking fuel. This can be solved by planting trees for firewood, for example
as a living fence. Composting without manure is very difficult, but it is
possible.
4. A compost heap can attract vermin, especially if kitchen scraps are also
used. It can also stink. This need not be a problem if the heap is kept in the
field instead of in the farmyard.

Kelemahan Pembuatan Kompos:


1.Loss of Ammonia : Compost contains less than half the nitrogen of
manure but if manure is not incorporated into the soil it loses nitrogen to
the atmosphere and may retain less nitrogen than the compost.
2.Time Involved : Composting requires a time commitment to properly
manage the windrows to produce quality compost.
3.Cost of Equipment : Specialized windrow turners may be required, but
they can come at with a high price tag.
4.Land Required : The composting site and storage for finished product can
use a considerable area of land.
5.Marketing Required For Sale : Money and time may be spent advertising,
packaging, and managing the business.
(http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/
$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/eng4464/$file/comp_benefits.pdf?
OpenElement)

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
KESEIMBANGAN HARA

To ensure a sufficient nutrient supply for crops, we must


strive to keep an even nutrient balance in the soil. The loss of
nutrients has to be minimised, and the addition of nutrients
maximised in order to avoid a depletion of nutrients in the
soil.

Kehilangan hara dari tanah dapat terjadi melalui proses-


proses berikut:

1.removal of the harvest (all of the nutrients);


2.volatilisation (especially N; this happens especially during burns
due to the high temperatures);
3.run-off (especially N);
4.fixation (especially P);
5.leaching;
6.erosion (all nutrients).

Hara ditambahkan ke tanah melaluii proses:


1.decomposition of organic matter (all nutrients);
2.nitrogen fixation (only N);
3.weathering (mostly K and Mg);
4.chemical fertiliser (mostly N, P, and K);
5.rain and solid matter deposits.

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
PUPUK HIJAU

Green manuring consists of ploughing in green, not woody


plants or plant parts. The plant material can come from a
crop that was grown after or between the main crop, or
from a weed that grew during a fallow period. It can also
come from a shade plant or tree whose cuttings or fallen
leaves are suitable for ploughing into the soil.

Tujuan penggunaan pupuk hijau adalah untuk:

1.make nutrients available for the main crop;


2.improve the soil structure;
3.increase or retain the level of organic matter in the soil;
4.increase the ability of the soil to retain moisture;
5.protect the soil against rain and wind erosion, dehydration
and extreme temperature fluctuations at a time when no
other crops are present;
6.when using leguminous plants as green manure, to fix
extra nitrogen out of the air, which becomes available to the
main crop after the manure has been ploughed into the soil.

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
KEUNTUNGAN PUPUK HIJAU

Green Manures
Any crop grown on land with the intent of turning it into the soil is
called a green manure. Generally, legumes and various grasses are
grown as green manure. Turning under a crop can provide a number
of benefits, including increasing organic matter of the soil,
decreasing certain disease problems, and increasing the nutrient level
in the soil. After the green manure is turned under, it decomposes and
adds nutrients and organic matter to the soil.

(http://erthturf.com/AllAboutOrganicGardening.html ... diunduh


19/3/2012)

Keuntungan Pupuk Hijau

1.During their growth period, green manures provide the same benefits as
mulch. They are therefore sometimes called .living mulch..
2.Their advantage over mulch is that they absorb nutrients, so these cannot
be leached during a period in which no main crops are grown. After the green
manures are ploughed under, these nutrients become available via
decomposition.
3.Green manures also have a positive effect on the soil structure, because of
the penetration of their root systems, they add organic matter, and they
stimulate the growth of soil organisms. Organic matter nourishes the soil
organisms, which also benefit from the higher moisture content and the
limiting of extreme temperatures during the day.

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
KETERBATASAN PUPUK HIJAU
1. If farmers are not accustomed to
growing green manures, they may
not readily accept the method. While
the farmers have to invest their time
and labour, they receive no obvious
benefit, such as cash or food. The
direct advantage in the form of
increased production is not always
immediately noticeable. Moreover,
ploughing under a green manure is
hard work, especially if done by
hand.
2. An alternative that is easier to
introduce is intercropping with a
green manure. The green manure is
then grown in combination with the
main crop . To prevent competition
for nutrients, the green manure plant
is sown later than the main crop.
This is possible even in a short
season, because the green manure
plant does not have to mature fully.
One plant that has been used quite
successfully for this purpose is Tanaman jagung dengan
mucuna under corn. pupuk hijau

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
APLIKASI PUPUK HIJAU
1. It is important to choose a plant species that quickly covers the ground and produces a deep
and extensive root system, so that the nutrients from the deep soil layers can be transported to
the surface. A fast groundcover also prevents the growth of weeds, because it shades them.
2. However, the green manure may not grow so quickly and easily that it expands to other fields
where a different crop is being grown. And it may not be so resilient that it continues to grow
after it has been ploughed under.
3. A few species that are often used as green manures are: Crotolaria juncia (sun hemp),
Sesbania aculeata (daincha), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Vigna mungo (black gram), and
Vigna radiata (green gram). If these species are not available, other species that grow well in
the area can be used, as long as they satisfy the requirements listed above.

Azolla: green manure profile


Azolla is a small aquatic fern (usually 1-5 cm large) which can also grow on saturated or moist
soils. It is capable of doubling its weight in 3-5 days.
A blue-green alga (Anabaena azollae) lives in the cavities of Azolla leaves and fixes nitrogen
from the atmosphere. The daily nitrogen-fixing rate of the Azolla-algae complex is 3-7 kg N/ha.
Azolla contains 4% nitrogen on a dry-weight basis (dry weight is 5% of fresh weight); 0.5-0.9%
phosphorous; and 24.5% potassium.
Azolla is not really new. It has been used as a green manure for rice in Northern Vietnam and
Southern China as early as the 11th century. Use of Azolla is an Asian, indigenous technology.
(sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=d-00000-00---off-0fnl2.2--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-
10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---20-about---00-0-1-00-0--4----0-0-11-10-0utfZz-8-
00&cl=CL3.33&d=HASHd3b46cd4916b56b3547bcc.2.12&gt=1..diunduh 21/3/2012)

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
APLIKASI PUPUK HIJAU
The green manures are usually ploughed under when they are
still young and succulent. The material is then broken down
quickly by the soil organisms, whereby the nutrients become
available. Within a few months the material is completely
decomposed. Thus, little addition is made to the level of
organic matter in the soil. Young and succulent material
should be ploughed under at least two months before the new
crop is sown, because in the initial period of decomposition,
substances are released that can damage the young sprouted
plants or can make the root ends sensitive to damage by
pathogens.

If the material is ploughed under when it is older and tougher


it will be broken down much slower. In that case it does add
to the level of organic matter in the soil. Since the nutrients
are slowly made available, their effect in the first season is
less than with young and succulent material. However, the
effect is noticeable for several seasons.

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
APLIKASI PUPUK HIJAU

If the soil has a low organic content, it is better to let


the green manure get old and tough, so that an
addition is made to the level of organic matter in the
soil. The level of organic matter in the soil is after all
the most important indicator of soil fertility. Material
that is old and tough generally is difficult to
decompose.

Many soil organisms are needed to do this. Before the


soil organisms can start to digest the organic matter
they have to grow themselves. To grow the organisms
use nitrogen like plants do (this is also called nitrogen
immobilisation). This means that if plants grow at the
same time as the organisms the plants will lack
nitrogen. Therefore it is better to first allow the soil
organisms to grow and decompose the organic matter
before the crop is sown.

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
INTERCROPPING
Intercropping means growing two or more crops together on the same field. By
combining crops that have different growth patterns, the available air, water and
nutrients can be better utilised.

Important goals of intercropping are:


A direct production increase compared to monoculture (if enough water is
available), due to:
1.better ground cover;
2.optimum use of sunlight;
3.more efficient root growth;
4.extra nitrogen (when using nitrogen-fixers);

Spreading the risks of crop failure over more crops, due to:
1.multiple crops; if one crop fails the other might still yield something;
2.limited effect of diseases and pests because one pest or disease is mostly
specialised on one crop and will leave a different crop unharmed.

Schematic representation of vertical root distribution of cacao intercropped with


coconut (Nelliat et at. 1974).
(http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/af298e/af298E01.htm)

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
MANFAAT INTERCROPPING

In many parts of Africa intercropping is a traditional farming method. A


common combination is a grain crop grown together with a bean crop.
Grains generally grow tall and slender, while beans stay low and creep over
the ground. This combination protects the soil more than a single grain crop
would. Grains generally need as much sun as possible, while beans and other
legumes grow just as well in the shade. The available sunlight can thus be
utilised optimally by both crops.

1.If one of the crops fails, for example due to irregular rainfall or disease,
then the other crop can often still provide a successful harvest. In this way,
the farmer minimises the risks of crop failure.
2.With multiple crops, each with its own root pattern, water and nutrients can
be absorbed from various layers and places. These resources are thus utilised
more efficiently than when only one crop is grown.

3.Intercropping can have a limiting effect on the spread of diseases and pests.
For example, grains can serve as a barrier against the spread of insects in
cowpea or peanut crops.
4.Insects or other pests that damage a particular crop can be driven away by
substances that another crop produces, or by the other crop.s attraction of
insects that eat the damaging soil organisms or insects. This method is
especially used in the cultivation of vegetables, such as by planting onions
and carrots next to each other.
5.Lack of labour is often a problem at peak seasons such as sowing and
harvesting time. If the sowing and harvesting periods of the different crops
vary, it is easier to spread the available labour over the entire season avoiding
high peaks

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
KERUGIAN INTERCROPPING

1. One disadvantage is that the denseness of the crops makes it


physically more difficult to combat diseases, pests and weeds.
2. Mechanisation of an intercropping system is difficult to achieve.
However, this is generally not a very serious problem because
small farmers perform most tasks by hand.

Disadvantages of intercropping:

1. Yield decreases as the crops differ in their competitive


abilities.
2. Management of I/c having different cultural practices seems
to be difficult task.
3. Improved implements cannot be used efficiently.
4. Higher amount of fertilizer or irrigation water cannot be
utilized properly as the component crops vary in their
response of these resources.
5. Harvesting is difficult.
(http://www.agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=1&topicid=662)

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
METODE INTERCROPPING
1. A frequently used combination is that of a grain with a bean. Beans are nitrogen
fixing crops i.e. they can fix extra nitrogen from the air. They are also good at
releasing fixed phosphate. The timing of the sowing dates of the different crops in
relation to each other is important, because if the nitrogen-fixer matures and is
harvested first, then the added nitrogen and phosphate already become partially
available to the other crop. If it matures after the other crop, then the nitrogen and
phosphate will only be available to the subsequent crop.
2. Whether diseases and pests are stimulated or, preferably, blocked by
intercropping depends on the crops, the climate and also on which diseases and
pests are common in the area. Therefore, it is best to first experiment on a small
scale.
3. If farmers have very serious objections to growing various crops together on one
field, then crop rotation is an option. In this case various crops are grown one
after the other on one field. By choosing crops that have different root patterns
and that do not contract the same diseases, some of the advantages of
intercropping can still be achieved.

For best ecological results, the corn and soybeans are planted at specific predetermined
distances at the same time of year. The corn and soybeans create a microclimate of
humidity, as well as a root system and groundcover which effectively resists drought
and erosion. Another advantage is use of conservation tillage which is compatible with
the ecological longterm advantages of intercropping commercial annual grains and
legumes. (http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6631585.html)

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
MULSA DAN APLIKASINYA
Mulching means covering the ground with organic material, such as crop residues, straw or leaves, or with
other materials such as plastic or gravel. The goal of mulching is to:
1.Improve infiltration;
2.Protect the soil from water and wind erosion and from dehydration;
3.Prevent high ground temperatures;
4.Increase the moisture level in the soil; and, when mulching with organic material, to:
5.Increase or retain the level of organic matter in the soil;
6.Better utilise the nutrients from chemical fertiliser;
7.Stimulate soil organisms.

The role of organic mulches


Mulches have many beneficial effects upon the soil, plants and area surrounding the plants.
1.They conserve soil moisture by reducing evaporation of water from the soil.
2.They prevent crusting of the soil surface, thus improving absorption and percolation of water to
the soil areas where the roots are growing.
3.They maintain a more uniform soil temperature by acting as an insulator that keeps the soil
warm during cool spells and cooler during the warm months of the year.
4.They prevent fruits and plants from becoming mud splashed and reduce losses from soil-borne
diseases.
5.They reduce weed problems when the mulch material itself is weed-free and is applied deep
enough (at least 2.5-cm thick) to prevent weed seed germination or smother existing smaller
weeds. Time and labor of weeding is reduced considerably when mulches are used properly.
(sumber: http://collections.infocollections.org/ukedu/en/d/Jii06be/5.10.html.. Diunduh
21/3/2012)

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis. Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
KEUNTUNGAN MANFAAT MULSA
1. Covering the ground with a mulch layer protects the soil from forming a crust. This
allows the rainwater to infiltrate, and thus decreases water erosion. Moreover, the
mulch layer protects the soil particles from being carried away by strong winds, i.e. it
decreases wind erosion.
2. The mulch layer protects the soil from becoming dehydrated. Together with increased
infiltration, this ensures that the moisture content in the soil remains higher than in soil
without a mulch layer. It will thus take longer in the dry season for crops with a mulch
layer to be short of water.
3. The temperature of exposed soil can become very high during the day. By applying a
mulch layer, the sun is blocked and the daytime temperature is lower, which is
favourable for seed germination, the crop.s root growth, and for the growth of micro-
organisms.
4. The mulch layer prevents the phosphate in chemical fertilisers from getting into contact
with the soil particles that fix the phosphate.

Phosphate fertilisers are therefore more effective if they are applied on top of a mulch layer
than if they are applied on unprotected soil . An extra advantage of mulching with
organic materials compared to mulching with non-organic materials is: the
decomposition of the mulch increases the level of organic matter in the soil.

Effect of organic residue mulch on soil moisture storage (Juo, 1990).


Juo, A.S.R. (1990) Maintenance and management of organic matter in tropical soils. In: Pushparajah, E. and
Latham, M. (eds), Organic Matter Management and Tillage in Humid and Subhumid Africa. IBSRAM
Proceedings No. 10, International Board for Soil Research and Management, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 199-212.

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis. Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
KETERBATASAN DAN KERUGIAN MULSA
1. Some organisms in the soil can profit so much from the higher moisture content and
protection from high temperatures that they proliferate under the mulch layer. Snails
can multiply extremely quickly under a mulch layer. In sub-humid areas of Africa,
mulching caused an increase in termites. The termites can harm the crops, coffee for
example. In such circumstances, it would be better to look for an alternative,
combining the use of compost with specific steps to protect the soil from water and
wind erosion.
2. The use of crop residues as mulch can intensify the risk of pests. This is especially
true with the crop residues of corn, sorghum, sugar cane and cotton, particularly if
they are not grown alternatively with another crop. Damaging organisms such as
stem borers can survive in the stems and create problems the following season. This
effect can be minimised by ploughing the crop residues into the soil, by allowing
cattle to graze, by adding compost, or by rotating crops.

Organic mulch should not touch


the tree stem, particularly where
rodents and insects are a
problem. Where termites attack
the young trees, only a non-
organic mulch or plastic may be
acceptable.

Source: Briscoe (1989), p. 43-44.


Briscoe, C.B. 1989. Field trials manual
for multipurpose tree species.
Multipurpose tree species network
research series; manual no. 3. Winrock
International. Bangkok, Thailand.

Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?
e=d-00000-00---off-0hdl--00-0----0-10-0---
0---0direct-10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---
20-about---00-0-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-
00&cl=CL3.58&d=HASH01c80496ecbd1
84652a2bf98.4&gt=2.. Diuinduh
21/3/2012

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis. Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
TEKNOLOGI APLIKASI MULSA

Method and recommendations


The mulch has to be applied before the rainy season begins, because
the soil is then most vulnerable. The seeds can be sown through the
mulch layer by making small openings in the mulch through which the
seeds are planted. After planting each seed the opening must be
closed, otherwise birds will become aware of the presence of the seed.
The mulch layer may not be too thick. A sufficient amount would almost
completely cover the soil from sight. If the layer is too thick, it
will be difficult for the sprouted plants to reach the surface. The seeds
can also be sown in rows that have been cleared by ploughing or
removing the mulch.

Applying Mulches
Apply mulch around established plants in the garden in mid-spring, when the soil
has warmed up sufficiently for active root growth. If a mulch is applied before
this time, it will keep the ground cool and root development will be delayed.
With newly planted material, apply a mulch after the plants are set in place and
watered in well. If you are planting in the late summer or early fall, apply the
mulch immediately after watering the plants so that the soil temperature will be
kept warm during the cool nights. It is important for fall-planted stock to have
sufficient root growth so that the plants don't heave out of the ground during the
winter months because of alternate freezing and thawing. Organic mulches such
as leaves, sawdust, or shredded bark should be moist when applied to the soil.
Extremely dry mulches act as a blotter and remove moisture from the soil.

(http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/vista/html_pubs/mulch/MULCH.html)

Sumber: SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT


Laura van Schll, Rienke Nieuwenhuis
Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2004.
Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 32
Integrated Nutrient Management, Soil Fertility, and Sustainable
Agriculture: Current Issues and Future Challenges
by Peter Gruhn, Francesco Goletti, and Montague Yudelman
International Food Policy Research Institute . 2033 K Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006 U.S.A. September 2000

The plant nutrient balance system


Smaling, E. M. A. 1993. Soil nutrient depletion in Sub-Saharan
Africa. In The role of plant nutrients for sustainable food crop
production in Sub- Saharan Africa, ed. H. Van Reuler and W. H.
Prims. Leidschendan, the Netherlands: VKP.

Sumber:
http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/pubs/2020/dp/2020dp32.pdf
.. Diunduh 15/3/2012
Soils: Fertility Management
MSU EXTENSION SERVICES October 14, 2010.

BMP Kesuburan Tanah

1.Use soil testing to assess fertility status.


2.Use common-sense, attainable yield goals.
3.Determine nutrient and moisture content of manure.
4.Base nutrient applications (either manures or purchased fertilizer) on
crop needs as determined by the soil test.
5.Rotate fields receiving manure to avoid nutrient buildup and maximize
nutrient utilization.
6.Use only sufficient fertilizer required for attainable crop yield goals.
7.Incorporate fertilizer and manure when possible.
8.Calibrate all application equipment.
9.Avoid applying fertilizer, or manure, on wet soils to minimize
compaction, runoff and leaching/denitrification.
10.Avoid applying fertilizers and manure near streams, ponds, or other
water bodies.
11.Use grass filter strips along ditches and waterways to reduce soil
erosion, runoff and nutrient losses.
12.Time applications to when nutrients are needed by the crop as
possible.
13.Utilize fall cover crops to minimize soil erosion and runoff and to
maximize nutrient utilization from manure applications.

Sumber: http://msucares.com/crops/soils/management.html .. Diunduh 17/3/2012


Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi
State University

Nutrient Management Planning (NMP) is a Best Management Practice, or BMP. While the
term nutrient managementoften is associated with manure management, it applies to all
nutrient inputs, including organic materials, livestock byproducts, and inorganic
commercial fertilizers. When animal manures are a nutrient source for a farm, NMP
includes Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans, or CNMP, particularly when
developed by Natural Resource Conservation Service personnel.

What is Nutrient Management Planning?


Nutrient management planning principles are the same as good business management
principles:
Know what you have,
Know what you need,
Manage wisely, and
Document the management.

Nutrient management plans must be site-specific, tailored to the available inputs, soils,
landscapes, and management objectives of the farm.

Sumber: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27 .. Diunduh


17/3/2012
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State
University

Steps in Nutrient Management Planning


1) Obtain accurate soil information for each field or management unit.
a. Create farm maps that include soil series, surface water bodies, and other resource
concerns
present in the landscape.
b. Sample the soil in each field or management unit and process through a reputable soil-
testing
laboratory. Some government programs in the state require testing through the Mississippi
State University Extension Service Soil Testing Laboratory.
2) Develop fair, realistic estimated crop yield goals for each field based on recent production
history, agronomic practices, and soil characteristics. The key is to be realistic. The past three
to
five years of production data may be used to develop an average baseline.
3) Using the soil test analyses, determine the plant nutrients required to reach the yield goal.
In some
cases, you may need to take into consideration nutrient uptake and removal data for common
crops. This information is available from various sources, including Chapter 3 of this
manual. It
is important to distinguish between crop uptake and nutrient removal in harvested biomass.
4) Determine plant-available nutrients from any livestock byproduct amendments that will be
used
to fertilize the crop. The BMP is to sample manure that will be used. General values are
available,
but accurate nutrient content of manure is specific to site, animal, diet, and management. See
also
Chapter 7. More information on testing broiler litter is available at Soil and Broiler Litter
Testing
Basics (MSU Extension Service Information Sheet 1614)
nnn
4
5) Estimate nutrient contributions from manures that were applied in previous seasons.
Usually
50 to 60 percent of nitrogen in animal manures is available to growing plants the first year
Sumber: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27
following .. Diunduh
17/3/2012
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State
University

Best Management Practices for Nutrients in Agronomic Crop Production

The soils, environment, and crop systems used in Mississippi offer unique challenges
for fertilizer management.
Management plans should both protect our water resources and produce agronomic
crops economically.
Best Management Practices (BMPs) are research-proven, achievable management
options.
BMPs are site-specific, depending on current and past soil management, climate,
crops grown, and operator expertise.
Fertilizer management has three primary goals:
1) Match fertilizer nutrients to crop nutrient requirements,
2) Manage fertilizer applications wisely, and
3) Minimize the transport of nutrients from fields to water bodies.

There are five basic questions that each nutrient manager addresses in planning for
the next crop:
Are the fertilizers necessary?
How much fertilizer is economical?
What fertilizers are available?
When is the best time to apply the fertilizer?
How can I maximize effectiveness?

Sumber: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27 .. Diunduh


17/3/2012
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, Mississippi State University

Match Nutrients Supplied by Fertilizers to Crop


Nutrient Requirements
Soil testing
Fields should be tested for pH, P, K, and other
nutrients at least every three years and preferably
more
often. Information for first-time soil testers is
available in Chapter 4, at local Extension offices, and
at
http://msucares.com/pubs/infosheets/is0346.pdf.
Analyze animal byproducts
Poultry production is the only consistent source of
animal byproducts available in bulk in Mississippi to
provide crop nutrients. Nutrient contents vary due to
different bird and litter management programs.
Application rates should be based on analysis of the
actual litter used. The Mississippi State Chemical
Laboratory or commercial laboratories can complete
thisSumber:
analysis. Information17/3/2012on sampling litter..
http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27 forDiunduh
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, Mississippi State University

Manage fertilizer applications wisely


Soil test based recommendations
Each soil test phosphate and potash result is rated with
a category or index. MSU uses five: very low, low,
medium, high, and very high. The category compares
the amount measured in the soil to the amount needed
by the plants. A score of very high means plants
probably will not respond to additional fertilizer; a
score
of very low means plants probably will respond to the
addition of the nutrient.
If the soil is rated high or very high, P or K fertilizers
are not needed for most Mississippi crops
(Appendices A and B). Medium means there may or
may not be a response; for soil in this category, MSU
recommends maintenance levels of P and K. Soils in
the very low or low categories should respond to
fertilizer;
therefore, the decision depends on the relative
Sumber: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27
17/3/2012
risks of
.. Diunduh
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, Mississippi State University

Minimize the potential transport of nutrients from fields to


water bodies

Conservation tillage
Some nutrients, such as P ions, are closely bound to soil particles, so
soil management that minimizes erosion
also minimizes movement of those nutrients. These management
practices include strip-tillage, mulch
tillage, no-tillage, or ridge-tillage. More information about conservation
tillage is available through local Extension
Service or Natural Resource Conservation Service offices.

Proper storage of animal by-products


Proper storage of poultry litter is important. Many poultry growers have
dry stack sheds to store litter,
but farmers acquiring litter may need to store
it temporarily. Recent research by Auburn University
found that litter should be covered with
plastic or other materials to protect its nutrient
content. See Chapter 7 for more information.

Control water flow on and off fields


Controlling water flow with surface and subsurface
drainage management reduces nutrient,
Sumber:and
pathogen, http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27
pesticide runoff into .. Diunduh
17/3/2012
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, Mississippi State University

Mississippi State University Extension Service Soil


Testing-Based Recommendations for Hay and Pasture Crops

Sumber: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27 .. Diunduh


17/3/2012
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, Mississippi State University

Mississippi State University Extension Service Soil Testing-


Based Recommendations for Annual Agronomic Crops

Sumber: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27 .. Diunduh


17/3/2012
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, Mississippi State University

Mississippi State University Extension Service Soil Testing-


Based Recommendations for Annual Agronomic Crops

Sumber: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27 .. Diunduh


17/3/2012
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, Mississippi State University

Mississippi State University Extension Service Soil Testing-


Based Recommendations for Annual Agronomic Crops

Sumber: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27 .. Diunduh


17/3/2012
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, Mississippi State University

Mississippi State University Extension Service Soil Testing-


Based Recommendations for Annual Agronomic Crops

Sumber: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27 .. Diunduh


17/3/2012
Nutrient Management Guidelines for Agronomic
Crops Grown in Mississippi
Larry Oldham, Ph.D.
Extension Soils Specialist, Department of Plant and Soil
Sciences, Mississippi State University

Mississippi State University Extension Service Soil Testing-


Based Recommendations for Annual Agronomic Crops

Sumber: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2647.pdf#page=27 .. Diunduh


17/3/2012
Quality Water for Idaho
Current Information Series No. 962 Nov 1992
Best Management Practices for Nitrogen
Management to Protect Groundwater
R. L. Mahler, T. A. Tindall, and K. A. Mahler

. Summary of Nitrogen Best Management


Practices for the Protection of Groundwater
Apply nitrogen at recommended rates for crop
production in Idaho. Use preplant soil profile nitrate
testing and soil and plant nitrate testing when
appropriate during the growin season.
Base nitrogen application rates on realistic yield
goals.
Credit nitrogen contributions from legumes, manures,
and other organic wastes.
Plan nitrogen applications to correspond with crop
demand and availability to the crop.
Do not apply nitrogen fertilizer in the fall on coarse
textured soils, on shallow soil over fractured bedrock,
or on soils with a water table close to the soil surface.
Use nitrification inhibitors when soil conditions and
nitrogen application timing may promote leaching.
Uniformly apply manure across a field in accordance
with crop
Sumber: nutrient requirements.
http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/wq/wqpubs/cis962.html .. Diunduh 17/3/2012
.
Quality Water for Idaho
Current Information Series No. 962 Nov 1992
Best Management Practices for Nitrogen
Management to Protect Groundwater
R. L. Mahler, T. A. Tindall, and K. A. Mahler
. Nitrogen is an element essential for all plant and animal life. The interlocking
succession of nitrogen reactions occurring in the soil is known as the nitrogen
cycle (fig. 1). Agriculture affects both nitrogen additions and subtractions to the
soil. Additions include nitrogen fertilizers, crop residues, nitrogen fixation by
legumes, and manures. Subtractions attributed to agriculture include crop removal
(harvesting), plant uptake, and nitrogen leaching.

Sumber: http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/wq/wqpubs/cis962.html .. Diunduh 17/3/2012


Quality Water for Idaho
Current Information Series No. 962 Nov 1992
Best Management Practices for Nitrogen
Management to Protect Groundwater
R. L. Mahler, T. A. Tindall, and K. A. Mahler

Specific types of BMPs for nitrogen fertilizer


management that should be employed in many areas
of Idaho include:

1.Soil sampling
2.Fertilizer recommendations based on research
3.Timing of fertilizer application
4.Fertilizer placement
5.Nutrient credits for legumes and manures
6.Nitrification inhibitors
7.Manure management
8.Irrigation systems management
9.Slow-release nitrogen fertilizers
10.Crop rotation selection
11.Variable fertilizer management

Sumber: http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/wq/wqpubs/cis962.html .. Diunduh 17/3/2012


Quality Water for Idaho
Current Information Series No. 962 Nov 1992
Best Management Practices for Nitrogen
Management to Protect Groundwater
R. L. Mahler, T. A. Tindall, and K. A. Mahler

. Soil Sampling
Soil sampling is an important BMP that considers the amount of plant
available nitrogen already in the soil profile. Soil sampling should be
done 3 to 4 weeks before planting a crop. The soil samples should be
representative of the field. Normal sampling depth is to 12 inches for
phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and micronutrients. Soil samples for
nitrogen should be collected to the effective crop rooting depth.
Information on soil sampling details can be found in University of Idaho
Extension Bulletin 704, Soil Sampling.The need frequency of soil tests
for a nutrient depends on such things as its mobility in the soil and the
nutrient requirement of the crop to be grown. Soil samples for
determination of phosphorus, potassium, and micronutrients should be
taken at least once during each crop rotation cycle. For best soil fertility
management, especially for mobile nutrients such as nitrogen and sulfur,
soil testing should be done each year, and crops should be fertilized for
a realistic crop yield goal. Having an analysis performed for every
nutrient each year is not necessary. A record of soil test results should be
maintained on each field to evaluate long-term trends of nutrient levels.

Sumber: http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/wq/wqpubs/cis962.html .. Diunduh 17/3/2012


Quality Water for Idaho
Current Information Series No. 962 Nov 1992
Best Management Practices for Nitrogen
Management to Protect Groundwater
R. L. Mahler, T. A. Tindall, and K. A. Mahler

. Fertilizer Recommendations Based on Research


Nitrogen application rates for Idaho crops should be
based on scientific information. Reliable fertilizer
recommendations are developed by calibrating and
correlating laboratory soil test values with field plot
research on crop response to fertilizer rates.The
University of Idaho has developed more than 30
fertilizer guides for Idaho crops. The data base used to
develop these fertilizer guides is extensive and has
been collected for over three decades. Fertilizer
guides take into account the amount of residual
nitrogen in the soil profile, the amount of nitrogen
mineralized (released) from organic matter
decomposition during the growing season, crop yield
potential, and plant residue from the previous crop.

Sumber: http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/wq/wqpubs/cis962.html .. Diunduh 17/3/2012


Quality Water for Idaho
Current Information Series No. 962 Nov 1992
Best Management Practices for Nitrogen
Management to Protect Groundwater
R. L. Mahler, T. A. Tindall, and K. A. Mahler

. Timing of Fertilizer Application


The timing of nitrogen fertilizer applications is an
important factor affecting crop yield, efficiency of
nitrogen use, and a grower's economic return. The
period between nitrogen application and actual crop
uptake is critical. This is when high concentrations of
nitrogen as nitrate can be lost through leaching.
Groundwater quality is especially vulnerable where
the water table is close to the soil surface.Some BMPs
for timing of fertilizer applications include: (1)
applying nitrogen to a cool season crop in the spring
instead of the previous fall, (2) applying only a
portion of the needed nitrogen as a preplant treatment,
(3) using split or multiple nitrogen applications where
appropriate, (4) using side-dressed or top-dressed
applications during the growing season if irrigated or
adequate precipitation is expected to move it into the
root zone, and (5) using a combination of tissue
analysis for diagnosis and topdressed nitrogen
Sumber: http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/wq/wqpubs/cis962.html .. Diunduh 17/3/2012
Quality Water for Idaho
Current Information Series No. 962 Nov 1992
Best Management Practices for Nitrogen
Management to Protect Groundwater
R. L. Mahler, T. A. Tindall, and K. A. Mahler

. Fertilizer Placement
Placement of fertilizers is an integral part of efficient
crop management. Correct placement of fertilizers
often improves the efficiency by which nutrients are
taken up by plants and consequently encourages
maximum yields of intensively managed agronomic
crops. Correct fertilizer placement is more critical for
maximum crop yields under reduced tillage systems
than with conventional tillage management. Some
BMPs for fertilizer placement include: (1) applying
nitrogen below the seed at planting, (2) applying a
small portion of the nitrogen pop-up (with the seed) at
planting, (3) banding nitrogen on the soil surface
where leaching is a potential problem, and (4) spring
topdressed nitrogen applications where soil test, plant
tissue test, or environmental concerns warrant it.

Sumber: http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/wq/wqpubs/cis962.html .. Diunduh 17/3/2012


Quality Water for Idaho
Current Information Series No. 962 Nov 1992
Best Management Practices for Nitrogen
Management to Protect Groundwater
R. L. Mahler, T. A. Tindall, and K. A. Mahler

. Nutrient Credits for Legumes and Manures


Effective use of nitrogen fertilizer requires
consideration of nitrogen supplied in manure
applications and by legume crops in the rotation.
Observations in other areas of the United States have
shown that manures can supply crop nutrients
effectively and may often meet the total nitrogen
needs of the planted crop. In addition, a good clover
or alfalfa stand may provide up to 200 pounds of
nitrogen for subsequent crops in the rotation.
Crediting nitrogen supplied from manures and
legumes against crop nitrogen needs can substantially
reduce nitrogen fertilizer application rates and the
potential for overapplication of nitrogen.
Nitrification Inhibitors
Nitrification inhibitors prevent the conversion of
relatively immobile ammonium-based nitrogen
fertilizers to very mobile nitrate in agricultural soils.
Research has shown nitrification inhibitors
Sumber: http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/wq/wqpubs/cis962.html are most
.. Diunduh 17/3/2012
Quality Water for Idaho
Current Information Series No. 962 Nov 1992
Best Management Practices for Nitrogen
Management to Protect Groundwater
R. L. Mahler, T. A. Tindall, and K. A. Mahler

. Manure Management
Manure is often viewed as a waste product for
disposal rather than as a resource for supplying
nutrients to the soil. Manure can supply sufficient
quantities of nutrients to crops, add organic matter to
soils, improve soil structure and tilth, and improve the
soil's water holding capacity. Information on how to
calculate manure application rates in the Pacific
Northwest can be found in PNW 239, How to
Calculate Manure Application Rates in the Pacific
Northwest.
Irrigation Systems Management
More than 50 percent of Idaho's cropland is under
irrigation. In many areas of Idaho the water table is
shallow, which makes irrigation management crucial.
There is substantial evidence that excessive
applications of irrigation water may be the primary
factor in increasing nitrate levels in groundwater in
southwestern and southcentral Idaho, and
Sumber: http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/wq/wqpubs/cis962.html on the17/3/2012
.. Diunduh Fort
Quality Water for Idaho
Current Information Series No. 962 Nov 1992
Best Management Practices for Nitrogen
Management to Protect Groundwater
R. L. Mahler, T. A. Tindall, and K. A. Mahler

. Slow-Release Nitrogen Fertilizers


At present, the use of slow-release fertilizers is not economical for most
crops grown in Idaho. This is because slow-release materials usually
cost 30 to 40 percent more per pound of nitrogen than conventional
nitrogen fertilizers. However, slow-release materials often improve
nitrogen use efficiency in crops by up to 30 percent.
Crop Rotation Selection
The selection of crops in a rotation has an influence on the movement of
nitrogen through soils. Legumes and other crops that do not require
large additions of nitrogen fertilizers can often utilize or scavenge
nitrogen remaining in the soil from the previous crop. In addition,
rotating crops with low nitrogen fertilizer requirements in sequence with
crops that require high nitrogen inputs or crops that inefficiently recover
nitrogen can reduce the amount of nitrogen applied.
Variable Fertilizer Management
Variable fertility management within a single field is a strategy that can
potentially improve nutrient use efficiency, improve economic crop
returns, and reduce environmental pollution. A variable fertilizer
management strategy can be easily tailored for any field. Basically the
only knowledge a grower needs to implement this type of BMP is how
yield varies across a field. Differences in soil color, landscape position
(slope, elevation, aspect, etc.), and in the appearance of crops or soil
may also help to delineate fertility management units. A variable
management strategy follows these steps: (1) the field is divided into
different fertility management units based primarily..onDiunduh
Sumber: http://www.uiweb.uidaho.edu/wq/wqpubs/cis962.html yield potential,
17/3/2012
COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
Bulletin #XCM-175
Reagan M. Waskom and Troy Bauder

Best Management Practices for Phosphorus Fertilization


Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all forms of terrestrial
life and is one of the 18 chemical elements known to
be required for plant growth. In Colorado, agricultural soils
generally contain from 800 to 2,000 pounds of total P per
acre in the tillage layer. However, most of it is in insoluble
compounds unavailable to plants. The remainder cycles
within plants, animals, soil, and the soil solution in biologically
available forms and organic P compounds. A simplified
P cycle is depicted in Figure 1, showing the principal P inputs
and sinks. In production agriculture, fertilizer and manure
are the major P additions to this cycle. Without these inputs,
intensive commercial agriculture would not be viable on
many soils. However, proper management of soils and P fertilizers
is essential to protect water quality from degradation.
Water quality problems associated with phosphorus
are generally confined to surface water. Phosphorus in most
Colorado soils is tightly held to soil particles and does not
leach. However, the P held in organic phases from residues
such as manure can dissolve in water and be lost if improperly
managed. Adsorbed P on soil particles can cause surface
water contamination as P containing sediments move off the
land in agricultural runoff. When large amounts of nutrients
enter lakes and streams, they accelerate the natural aging process,
or eutrophication, by enhancing the growth of algae and
other aquatic weeds. As these plants flourish, depleted oxygen
and light reduce the survival of more desirable species and
the natural food chain declines. Eventually, impounded waters such as lakes,
ponds, and reservoirs become overgrown
with aquatic vegetation and, in a sense, die.
Sumber: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/crops/xcm175.pdf .. Diunduh 17/3/2012
COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
Bulletin #XCM-175
Reagan M. Waskom and Troy Bauder
Phosphorus in Agricultural Soils
When added to soil, P fertilizer undergoes several different reactions,
including adsorption on soil particles and precipitation. A number of
factors determine the speed and fate of the reactions. They include soil
pH, moisture and texture, chemical properties of the soil, and form of
fertilizer used. The net result in most Colorado soils is fixation of P by
calcium in relatively insoluble and unavailable forms. For this reason,
recommendations for soils low in available P often exceed actual crop
removal (Table 1).

Table 1. Phosphorus removed in harvested crops

Crop Yield P removed


(per acre) (lb P2O5/A)
Alfalfa 4 tons 40
Corn (grain) 190 bu 70
Corn (silage) 30 tons 120
Barley 100 bu 40
Bromegrass/fescue 4 tons 40
Potatoes 400 cwt 55
Sugarbeets 25 tons 35
Sunflowers 2,000 lb 80
Wheat 100 bu 85

Source: Adapted from BMP for Manure Utilization 568A

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COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
Bulletin #XCM-175
Reagan M. Waskom and Troy Bauder
Managing Fertilizer to Reduce Phosphorus
Losses and Maximize Returns
Applying P fertilizer at rates higher than production requirements
is unwise from both environmental and economic
viewpoints. Today, there is no agronomic justification for
building P soil test levels higher than crop sufficiency levels.
Phosphorus losses in surface runoff have been shown to
increase with increased P application rates. Therefore, once
the crop sufficiency levels have been reached in your fields,
P applications should be made only as dictated by soil testing.
Placement of P fertilizer will influence the amount of
P available for transport to surface water. Correct placement
of fertilizers in the plant root zone will improve fertilizer use
efficiency and seedling vigor, and reduce the amount of P
in agricultural runoff. Phosphorus fertilizer should not be
broadcast on the soil surface without incorporation, except
on perennial forages. In established alfalfa stands, P fertilizer
normally should not be applied in the late fall or winter when
growth is minimal and runoff potential is high. Broadcast
applications generally are less efficient and leave more P at
the soil surface than banding (Figure 2). Band application at
planting is considered the most efficient method for many
crops. Subsurface placement is especially important under
reduced tillage cropping systems to achieve maximum crop
yields.
Variable fertilizer rate management can improve both
fertilizer use efficiency and economic returns. While this
strategy can be adopted for any fertilized field, it makes the
most sense in relatively large fields where the producer has
knowledge of how crop yields and soil type vary across the
field. To use a variable fertilizer rate strategy:
1. Divide the field into different management units based
Sumber: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/crops/xcm175.pdf.. Diunduh 17/3/2012
upon a map of yields or soil types.
COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
Bulletin #XCM-175
Reagan M. Waskom and Troy Bauder
Managing Manure to Reduce
Phosphorus Losses
Manure is an excellent source of P for crop production.
However, if manure is not incorporated into the soil, runoff
may carry both soluble and sediment-associated nutrients to
surface waters. The most common strategies for manure
utilization
are (1) application for maximum nutrient efficiency
and (2) application for maximum disposal rates of manure.
While the second strategy presents a more difficult challenge
from a water quality viewpoint, both management methods
should consider application rates, timing, site characteristics,
and water quality impacts.
Manure managed for maximum nutrient efficiency
is the most sound manure application program. Producers
need soil and manure analyses to determine the correct
application
rate based upon crop uptake of N and P. Either of
these nutrients may limit application rate, as both nutrients
are present in large quantities in manures. In many cases, the
best program is to rotate fields receiving manures to avoid
salt or nutrient buildup.
Colorado producers faced with the need for manure
disposal at maximum application rates should have manures
analyzed for nutrient content and apply according to crop
Sumber: nitrogen
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COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
Bulletin #XCM-175
Reagan M. Waskom and Troy Bauder
The Colorado Phosphorus Risk Assessment (COPI)
is an evaluation tool to estimate P loss from manured fields.
Fields that receive frequent high rates of manure should be
evaluated using the COPI to determine risk of P loss and
management changes that could lower this risk.
As with commercial P fertilizers, manure should be incorporated
immediately after application. Injection of liquid
manure beneath the soil surface with specialized equipment
is also a recommended practice. Unlike commercial fertilizer,
the P content of manure can vary significantly. Approximate
values are available for various manure sources (Table 2), but
manure sampling and analysis are the best way to calculate
nutrient credit.

Table 2. Approximate P content of various manures1 when


applied to land (wet weight basis)

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COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
Bulletin #XCM-175
Reagan M. Waskom and Troy Bauder
Managing Soil to Reduce Phosphorus Losses
Although there are a number of sources of sediment entering
our waters, soil erosion from agricultural fields is a significant
contributor to nonpoint source pollution in Colorado.
The consequences of cropland erosion include loss of fertile
topsoil, eutrophication and sedimentation of surface waters,
destruction of habitat, and decreased recreational and aesthetic
value of lakes and streams. Runoff from agricultural
land also can transport pesticides and microbial pathogens,
as well as nutrients.
Owners of agricultural land should contact the Natural
Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) for help in evaluating
the erosion potential of their lands and in determining
what control measures are needed. In some cases, the NRCS
has cost-share funds available to help producers install BMPs
on their land.
A number of management practices and structures for
controlling runoff and erosion are currently available for use.
In some cases, there is a trade-off between reducing runoff
and increasing deep percolation to groundwater. BMPs for
managing surface runoff and soil erosion are listed in Table 3.

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COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
Bulletin #XCM-175
Reagan M. Waskom and Troy Bauder
Table 3. Erosion control BMPs for reducing surface losses of phosphorus
from crop fields

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COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
Bulletin #XCM-175
Reagan M. Waskom and Troy Bauder
Phosphorus BMPs
4.1 Sample the tillage layer of soil in each field on a regular
basis and have soil analyzed to determine available soil P
levels prior to applying P fertilizer.
4.2 Credit all available P from manures and other organic
residues to the P requirement for the crop.
4.3 Fertilize soils with low to medium P soil test values
using environmentally and economically sound agronomic
guidelines. In general, soils testing high will not
respond to additional P and should not receive fertilizer
unless a banded starter is needed to compensate for low
soil temperatures. Phosphorus fertilizer should not be
applied to soils testing very high for soil P.
4.4 Divide large, non-uniform fields into smaller fertility
management units based upon yield potential or
soil type and fertilize according to P levels determined
through soil analysis.
4.5 Apply P fertilizers where they can be most efficiently
taken up by the crop. Band application of P in the root
zone reduces surface loss potential and enhances nutrient
availability, especially in cold or P deficient soils.
4.6 Incorporate surface applied P into the soil where any
potential for surface runoff or erosion exists.
4.7 Minimize soil erosion and corresponding P losses by
establishing permanent vegetative cover, conservation
tillage and residue management, contour farming, strip
cropping, and other management practices as feasible.
When erosion potential is severe, install structures such
as diversions, terraces, grass waterways, filter fences,
and sediment basins. Contact your local NRCS office if
you need assistance in evaluating erosion potential and
control options.
4.8 Maintainhttp://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/crops/xcm175.pdf..
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is not applied) a safe distance from surface water and
COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION
Bulletin #XCM-175
Reagan M. Waskom and Troy Bauder
The phosphorus cycle in agricultural soils.

Phosphorus placement influences the amount available


for transport. Band placement of P fertilizers is
recommended
for erosive soils.

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