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# LIFT

For most objects moving through
a fluid, the significant fluid force is drag.
C L
C D
However for some specially shaped
objects the lift force is also important.

# LIFT - Some preliminaries:

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psin

LIFT
DRAG

# Forces on airplane at level speed and constant height and speed.

Note: F L is not
parallel to N
F L
F D
A planform = chord x width of wing
F L

• C L

• C D

A P
A P
A p and c are
independent of 

5
o
U  = 10 m/s
0.2kg (g)
 = ?

F L
U o
5 o
F D

F L
U o
5 o
F D

# mg

F L
U 
F D
mg
T
 = ?
tan () = Tsin()/Tcos()
= (F L – mg)/F D
 = tan -1 {{(F L – mg)/F D }

U 
mg
T
 = ?

U 
mg
T
 = ?

U 
mg
T
 = ?

# Newtonian Theory (1687) entire second book of Principia dedicated to fluid mechanics

- assumed particles of fluid lose momentum
normal to plate but keep momentum parallel to plate.
p 
due to random motion of molecules
p 
p
Aside
Area

Aside

A p
b

# Lift = U

“In order for lift to be generated there
must be a net circulation around the profile.”
PG 448 OUR BOOK

POTENTIAL FLOW

LIFT = U  
U 

# “Trailing vortices can be very strong and persistent, possibly being a hazard to other aircraft for 5 to 10 miles behind a large plane – air speeds of greater than 200 miles have been measured.”

U = 30 cm/s
Chord = 180 mm
Re = 5 x 10 5
Floating tracer method
Starting vortex

# Lift & Bernoulli’s Equation

Physics 101 – Energy

# Bernoulli’s Equation via Cons. Of Energy

Work = p 1 A 1 l 1 - p 2 A 2 l 2
Increase in Mechanical Energy =
[ 1 / 2  V 2 2 + gz 2 ]dVol - [ 1 / 2  V 1 2 + gz 1 ]dVol
p 2 – p 1 = 1 / 2  V 2 2 + gz 2 - 1 / 2  V 1 2 - gz 1

E
X
T
R
A
Momentum Eq.

# Yet one can argue that B.E. is valid for outer stream tubes so book not wrong.

? Turbulent flow?
? Turbulent flow?
From Fluid Mechanics
By Frank White

# LIFT ‘Measurements’

C p = (p-p  )/( 1 / 2  U  2 )

2-D

2-D

*
2-D

# Stagnation Point

favorable
unfavorable
favorable to unfavorable
may cause lam. to turb. trans.

# LIFT ‘Measurements’

C L = F L /( ½  V 2 A p )
C D = F D /( ½  V 2 A p )

2-D

2-D

# LIFT - SEPARATION

Stall results
from flow
separation
over a major
section of the
upper surface
of airfoil
Re c = 9 x 10 6
C L = F L /( ½  V 2 A p )
~ 15 o

2-D
*

2-D
*

2-D
* *

# Lift-Drag Polars are often used (Otto Lilienthal) to present airfoil data.

X
Plot is for one particular
Re c number
Plot is for one particular
Re c number

A p

2-D

2-D

# The tendency for flow to leak around the wing tips also produces wing tip vortices downstream of the wing which induce a small downward component of air velocity in the neighborhood of the wing itself.

Not all same strength

# The tendency for flow to leak around the wing tips generally cause streamlines over the top surface of the wing to veer to the wing root and streamlines over the bottom surface veer to the wing tips.

Endplates (winglets) at end
of wing reduces tip vortex

ar = b 2 /A p
c
ar = b/c

Pike
Bass

b 2
p
b
p

V=V 

#  effis angle that wing sees between chord line and relative wind.

D i = L sin( i ) ~ L  i (or L )
C D,I ~ C L  I ;  i ~ C L /( ar) [theory/exp]
C D,I ~ C L 2 /( ar)
*

airfoil
(2D)
wing
(3D)

wing
(3D)
airfoil
(2D)

25% of c
40% of c

 = 25 o
 = 30 o+

25% of c
40% of c
P
E
R
X
O
A
B
M
L
P
E
L
M
E
S

# F D= C D½  V 2A

C D = C D ,  + C D , i = C D ,  + C L 2 /(ar)
C D  , C L  for airfoil
for plane need C D,0

## Assume airfoils should

operate near design lift
coefficients.
(~0.3/47.6)
(~0.2/59.5)

23015
66
2 -215

P
E
R
X
O
A
B
M
L
P
E
L
M
E
S

# Use eq 3 to plug C Linto eq 2, then plug C Dfrom eq 2 into eq 1 Plot F D/V as a function of V between 175-455 mph (stall – 0.6 x c) and find peak.

0
5000
25000
20000
15000
10000
Thrust = Drag(lbf)
400
200
600
500
300
100
0

level flight speed (mph)

optimum cruise speed
70
60
50
40
30
20
~ 325mph for
optimum cruising
10
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
velocity (mph)
drag/velocity
P
E
R
X
O
A
B
M
L
P
E
L
M
E
S

# Find: Power to maintain level flight. P = F DV

R = 1km
Fig from 9.151
F L
F L sin ()
F L cos ()
F L sin () = mV 2 /R
mV
2 /R
R = 1 km
W = F L cos ( )
P = F D V
F D = C D ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )
=
C D, + C L 2 /(ar)
C D
= C D, +
C D,i
C L = F L / ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )
F L = mg / cos()
Determine  from force balance.
Once know C L , can find C D, from Fig. 9-19
F y = F L cos() – mg = 0
F r = -F L sin() = ma r = -mV 2 /R
F L sin() / F L cos() = (mV 2 /R) / mg
tan () = V 2 /(Rg);
 = 26.2 o
F L = mg / cos() = 49.2 kN
C L = F L / ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p ) = 0.754

NACA 23012

1
st jetliner
x
(1903, 30mph)

# F D= W {C D/ C L} = W {F D/ [ 1/ 2 V 2]} /{W/[ 1/ 2 V 2]}

### Aircraft Characteristics

0
0
100
300
500
200
400
Drag F D (1000 lbf)
Power P (1000 hp)
10
15
20
5
5
10
15
20
25
30
P ower (1000 hp)
Optimum line
Drag force (1000 lbf)
0

Speed V (mph)

400
0
50
100
150
500
350
300
250
200
450
323 mph
Drag / Velocity
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0

L per unit span

#  =circulation (Eq. 5-17; V•ds) = Uc[sin()]*  Uc for small   = density of fluid U = velocity of uniform flow L =  U 2c C L=  U 2c/(½ U 2c) = 2

ASIDE
separation
In ideal fluid slope
= 2, viscosity
reduces slope
If no camber then
L = 0 at  = 0
separation

# Use eq 3 to plug C Linto eq 2, then plug C Dfrom eq 2 into eq 1 Plot F D/V as a function of V between 175-455 mph (stall – 0.6 x c) and find peak.

0
5000
25000
20000
15000
10000
Thrust = Drag(lbf)
400
200
600
500
300
100
0

level flight speed (mph)

optimum cruise speed
70
60
50
40
30
20
~ 325mph for
optimum cruising
10
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
velocity (mph)
drag/velocity

# Find: Power to maintain level flight. P = F DV

R = 1km
Fig from 9.151
P = F D V
F D = C D ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )
=
C D, + C L 2 /(ar)
C D
= C D, +
C D,i
C L = F L / ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )
F L = mg / cos()
Determine  from force balance.
Once know C L , can find C D, from Fig. 9-19
F L sin ()
F L cos ()
mV
2 /R

# R = 1 km

F y = F L cos() – mg = 0
F r = -F L sin() = ma r = -mV 2 /R
F L sin() / F L cos() = (mV 2 /R) / mg
tan () = V 2 /(Rg);
 = 26.2 o
F L = mg / cos() = 49.2 kN
C L = F L / ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p ) = 0.754