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LIFT

LIFT

LIFT

For most objects moving through a fluid, the significant fluid force is drag. C L C
For most objects moving through
a fluid, the significant fluid force is drag.
C L
C D
However for some specially shaped
objects the lift force is also important.
LIFT For most objects moving through a fluid, the significant fluid force is drag. C L

LIFT - Some preliminaries:

LIFT - Some preliminaries:
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LIFT

 psin  
psin

p

LIFT  psin   p  cos U o L =  dF = -

w cos

U o

LIFT  psin   p  cos U o L =  dF = -
LIFT  psin   p  cos U o L =  dF = -

L = dF y = -psindA + w cosdA

LIFT

LIFT suction pressure An object moving horizontally will experience lift if that object produces an asymmetrical

suction

LIFT suction pressure An object moving horizontally will experience lift if that object produces an asymmetrical

pressure

LIFT DRAG Note : Lift is defined as the force that is perpendicular to the incoming
LIFT DRAG
LIFT
DRAG

Note: Lift is defined as the force that is perpendicular to the incoming flow and drag parallel to the incoming flow

Lift force is the component of R that is perpendicular to free stream velocity, and drag is the component of R parallel to the free stream velocity. If planes height is not changing then:

Lift = Weight

Lift force is the component of R that is perpendicular to free stream velocity , and

Forces on airplane at level speed and constant height and speed.

Note: F L is not parallel to N F L F D A planform = chord
Note: F L is not
parallel to N
F L
F D
A planform = chord x width of wing
F L
F L

F D

Force generated if we brought fluid

directly approaching

area to rest

F L F D Force generated if we brought fluid directly approaching area to rest C

C L (,Re c ) = F L /( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )

C D (,Re c ) = F D /( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )

  • C L

=

F L /( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )

  • C D

=

F D /( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )

A p = planform area max. proj. of wing

A P A P A p and c are independent of 
A P
A P
A p and c are
independent of 

C D for most bodies (other than airfoils, hydrofoils, vanes) is usually based on the frontal area.

LIFT: Example – flat plate

LIFT: Example – flat plate

Given: Kite in standard air, mass = 0.2 kg; C L = 2sin(); C L /C D = 4. Find

Area = 1 m 2

5 o U  = 10 m/s 0.2kg (g)  = ?
5
o
U  = 10 m/s
0.2kg (g)
 = ?

C L = F L /( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )

C D = F D /( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )

F y = F L – mg –Tsin() = 0 F x = F D –Tcos() = 0

F L U o 5 o F D
F L
U o
5 o
F D

= ?

mg

C L = F L /( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )

C D = F D /( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )

Know: mass = 0.2 kg; C L = 2sin(); C L /C D = 4;

U o = 10 m/s; Find

F y = F

*

  • L – mg –Tsin() = 0

*

*

F x = F D –Tcos() = 0

F L U o 5 o F D
F L
U o
5 o
F D

= ?

mg

F L U  F D mg T  = ? tan () = Tsin()/Tcos() =
F L
U 
F D
mg
T
 = ?
tan () = Tsin()/Tcos()
= (F L – mg)/F D
 = tan -1 {{(F L – mg)/F D }
F L U  F D mg T  = ? tan () = Tsin()/Tcos() =

Know: Area, U , , mg, C L , C L /C D

9.144

9.144 F L U  mg T  = ? F D  F = F

F L

U  mg T  = ?
U 
mg
T
 = ?

F D

F y = F L – mg –Tsin() = 0

9.144 F L U  mg T  = ? F D  F = F

2

F L = C L A ½ U C L = 2sin(5 o ) = 0.548 F L = 33.7N mg = 0.2(9.8)N Tsin () = 33.7N – 0.2(9.8)N

9.144 F L U  mg T  = ? F D  F = F

9.144

9.144 F L U  mg T  = ? F D  F = F

F L

U  mg T  = ?
U 
mg
T
 = ?
9.144 F L U  mg T  = ? F D  F = F

F D

F x = F D –Tcos() = 0

F D = F L /4 = 8.43N Tcos() = 8.43 N

F L U  mg T  = ? F D tan (  ) =

F L

U  mg T  = ?
U 
mg
T
 = ?

F D

   
 

tan () = Tsin()/Tcos()

= tan -1 {{(F L – mg)/F D } = 75.1 o

Newtonian Theory (1687) entire second book of Principia dedicated to fluid mechanics

- assumed particles of fluid lose momentum normal to plate but keep momentum parallel to plate.
- assumed particles of fluid lose momentum
normal to plate but keep momentum parallel to plate.
p 
due to random motion of molecules
p 
p
Aside
Area
Area

Force normal to plate, F = dp/dt Time rate of change of the normal component of momentum = (mass flow) x change in normal component of velocity =

F = (V A sin) x (V sin)

F/A = p – p = (V sin) 2

Aside
Aside

(p

- p ) / ( 1 / 2 V 2 )

=

C L =

2 sin2

Right Answer: C L = 2sin()

Benjamin Robins (1707 – 1751) invented whirling arm for measuring aerodynamic forces. Borda in 1763 experimentally

Benjamin Robins (1707 – 1751) invented whirling arm for measuring aerodynamic forces. Borda in 1763 experimentally showed that lift on a plate varies as U 2 sin and not U 2 sin 2 as Newton suggested.

First wind tunnel built in 1884 by Horatio Phillips

LIFT: Camber

LIFT: Camber

IMPORTANCE OF CAMBER

A p b
A p
b

flat plate

bent plate

airfoil

For all cases angle of attack is 4 o and aspect ratio (b 2 /A p ) is 6. Lift to drag ratios of about 20 are common for modern transport planes.

If camber (mean) line and chord line do not overlap, then airfoil is cambered.

If camber (mean) line and chord line do not overlap, then airfoil is cambered.

Otto Lilienthal (1848-96) is universally recognized as the first flying human. His wings were curved. On August 9 th , 1896 Lilienthal suffered a fatal spinal injury, falling 10-15 meters from the sky.

Otto Lilienthal (1848-96) is universally recognized as the first flying human. His wings were curved. On

Otto Lilienthal on a monoplane glider in 1893

Otto Lilienthal (1848-96) is universally recognized as the first flying human. His wings were curved. On

Otto Lilienthal on a biplane glider in 1893

why do airplanes fly?

why do airplanes fly?

Lift = U

“In order for lift to be generated there must be a net circulation around the profile.”
“In order for lift to be generated there
must be a net circulation around the profile.”
PG 448 OUR BOOK

Inviscid flow, = 0 NO LIFT

Inviscid flow, > 0 NO LIFT

Inviscid flow, > 0 + circulation = LIFT

L per unit span =

U

= C v ds = r o 2r o

Inviscid flow,  = 0 NO LIFT Inviscid flow,  > 0 NO LIFT Inviscid flow,
POTENTIAL FLOW
POTENTIAL FLOW

L per unit span =

U

= C v ds = r o 2r o

Lift? Drag?

Lift?

Drag?

U = 4 m/s R = 7.7 cm Re = 4 x 10 4 = 0

U = 4 m/s R = 7.7 cm Re = 4 x 10 4 = 4U/R

U = 4 m/s R = 7.7 cm Re = 4 x 10  = 0
Both develop lift, see streamlines pinched on top (faster speeds, lower pressure) and wider on bottom
Both develop lift, see streamlines pinched on top (faster speeds, lower pressure) and wider on bottom

Both develop lift, see streamlines pinched on top (faster speeds, lower pressure) and wider on bottom (lower speeds and higher pressure)

A CONSEQUENCE OF CIRCULATION AROUND WING IS STARTING VORTEX

Kelvin’s theorem showed that the circulation around any closed curve in an inviscid, isentropic fluid is zero. Consequently there must be circulation around the airfoil in which the magnitude is the same as and whose rotation is opposite to that of the starting vortex.

A CONSEQUENCE OF CIRCULATION AROUND WING IS STARTING VORTEX Kelvin’s theorem showed that the circulation around
LIFT = U   U  
LIFT = U  
U 
“Trailing vortices can be very strong and persistent, possibly being a hazard to other aircraft for

“Trailing vortices can be very strong and persistent, possibly being a hazard to other aircraft for 5 to 10 miles behind a large plane – air speeds of greater than 200 miles have been measured.”

U = 30 cm/s Chord = 180 mm Re = 5 x 10 5 Floating tracer
U = 30 cm/s
Chord = 180 mm
Re = 5 x 10 5
Floating tracer method
Starting vortex
(Munson also, Fig. 9.38) Both figures claim lift, which figure’s streamlines are consistent with lift?
(Munson also, Fig. 9.38) Both figures claim lift, which figure’s streamlines are consistent with lift?

(Munson also, Fig. 9.38)

Both figures claim lift, which figure’s streamlines are consistent with lift?

Lift & Bernoulli’s Equation

Physics 101 – Energy
Physics 101 – Energy

Bernoulli’s Equation via Cons. Of Energy

Steady & Inviscid & Incompressible
Steady & Inviscid & Incompressible

Net work on fluid element when moved through stream tube:

Work = Increase in Mechanical Energy

Bernoulli’s Equation via Cons. Of Energy

Steady & Inviscid Work = p 1 A 1 l 1 - p 2 A 2
Steady & Inviscid
Work = p 1 A 1 l 1 - p 2 A 2 l 2
Increase in Mechanical Energy =
[ 1 / 2  V 2 2 + gz 2 ]dVol - [ 1 / 2  V 1 2 + gz 1 ]dVol
p 2 – p 1 = 1 / 2  V 2 2 + gz 2 - 1 / 2  V 1 2 - gz 1

Lift & Bernoulli’s Equation

E X T R A Momentum Eq.
E
X
T
R
A
Momentum Eq.

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION Via Momentum Eq.

X-MOMENTUM EQUATION:

INVISCID:

(Du[t,x,y,z]/dt) = - p/x

(u/t) + u(u/x) + v(u/y) + w(u/z) = - p/x

STEADY:

u(u/x) + v(u/y) + w(u/z) = - p/x

dx[u(u/x) + v(u/y) + w(u/z) = - p/x]

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

CONSIDER FLOW ALONG A STREAMLINE:

ds x V = 0

udz-wdx = 0;

vdx-udy = 0

u(u/x)dx + v(u/y)dx + w(u/z)dx = - p/xdx

u(u/x)dx + u(u/y)dy + u(u/z)dz = - p/x dx

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

u(u/x)dx + u(u/y)dy + u(u/z)dz = - p/x dx

u{(u/x)dx + (u/y)dy + (u/z)dz} = - (1/)p/x dx

du

udu - (1/) p/x dx ½ d(u 2 ) = - (1/) p/x dx

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

X-MOMENTUM EQUATION: ½ d(u 2 ) = - (1/) p/x dx Y-MOMENTUM EQUATION: ½ d(v 2 ) = - (1/) p/y dy

Z-MOMENTUM EQUATION:

½ d(w 2 ) = - (1/) p/z dz - gdz

u 2 + v 2 + w 2 = V 2 p/x dx + p/y dy + p/z dz = dp

½ d(V 2 ) = - (1/) dp - gdz

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

½ d(V 2 ) = - (1/) dp - gdz d(V 2 ) = - dp - gdz}

INCOMPRESSIBLE:

½ (V 2 2 ) - ½ (V 1 2 ) = - (p 2 – p 1 ) - g (z 2 –z 1 ) p 2 + ½ (V 2 2 ) + z 2 = p 1 + ½ (V 1 2 ) + z 1

= constant along streamline

I

i

i

l

h

li

h

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

Momentum equation and steady, inviscid and incompressible along a streamline.

p 2 + ½ (V 2 2 ) + gz 2 = p 1 + ½ (V 1 2 ) + gz 1

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION Momentum equation and steady, inviscid and incompressible along a streamline. p + ½ 
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION Momentum equation and steady, inviscid and incompressible along a streamline. p + ½ 

Kinetic Energy / unit volume

If multiply by volume have balance between work done by pressure forces and change in kinetic energy.

interesting that for an incompressible, inviscid flow energy equation is redundant for the momentum equation

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

Momentum equation and unsteady, inviscid and compressible along a streamline.

2 1 V/ t ds + 2 1 dp/+ ½ (V 2 2 – V 1 2 ) + g(z 2 – z 1 ) = 0

Can be shown – White / Fluid Mechanics 3 rd Ed.

Pgs 156-158

Using Bernoulli’s Equation (or not)

Using Bernoulli’s Equation (or not)

“The phenomenon of aerodynamic list is commonly explained by the velocity increase causing pressure

to decrease (Bernoulli effect) over the top surface ”

of the airfoil

..

~

YOUR BOOK PG 448

In spite of popular support, Bernoulli’s Theorem is not responsible for the lift on an airplane wing.”

Norman Smith: Physics Teacher, Nov. 1972, pg 451-455.

WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE?

WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE?
Lift is a result of Newton’s 3 law. Lift must accompany a deflection of air downward.

Lift is a result of Newton’s 3 rd law. Lift must accompany a deflection of air downward.

BERNOULLI EQUATION, B.E., GOOD FOR STREAM TUBES WHERE ENERGY IS NOT BEING ADDED OR SUBTRACTED

BERNOULLI EQUATION, B.E., GOOD FOR STREAM TUBES WHERE ENERGY IS NOT BEING ADDED OR SUBTRACTED Yet

Yet one can argue that B.E. is valid for outer stream tubes so book not wrong.

BERNOULLI EQUATION, B.E., GOOD FOR STREAM TUBES WHERE ENERGY IS NOT BEING ADDED OR SUBTRACTED Yet
? Turbulent flow? ? Turbulent flow? From Fluid Mechanics By Frank White
? Turbulent flow?
? Turbulent flow?
From Fluid Mechanics
By Frank White

LIFT ‘Measurements’

C p = (p-p  )/( 1 / 2  U  2 )
C p = (p-p  )/( 1 / 2  U  2 )

NOTE THESE ARE ‘MEASUREMENTS’ ON AIRFOILS (2-D)

2-D
2-D

= (p-p )/( 1 / 2 U 2 )

Calculated (dots) and measured (circles) pressure coefficients for airfoil at = 7 o.

unfavorable pressure gradient 2-D
unfavorable pressure gradient
2-D

favorable pressure gradient

= (p-p )/( 1 / 2 U 2 )

unfavorable pressure gradient 2-D favorable pressure gradient = (p-p )/( /  U )

*

As angle of attack increases stagnation point moves downstream along bottom surface, causing an

unfavorable pressure gradient at the nose*.

* 2-D
*
2-D
Stagnation Point favorable unfavorable favorable to unfavorable may cause lam. to turb. trans.

Stagnation Point

favorable unfavorable favorable to unfavorable may cause lam. to turb. trans.
favorable
unfavorable
favorable to unfavorable
may cause lam. to turb. trans.

LIFT ‘Measurements’

C L = F L /( ½  V 2 A p ) C D =
C L = F L /( ½  V 2 A p )
C D = F D /( ½  V 2 A p )

NOTE THESE ARE ‘MEASUREMENTS’ ON AIRFOILS (2-D)

Re c = 9 x 10 6 C L = F L /( ½ V 2 A p )

Because of the asymmetry of a cambered airfoil, the pressure distribution on the upper and lower surfaces are different.

Must have camber to get lift at zero angle of attack.

2-D
2-D

C L = F L /( ½ V 2 A p )

Typical lift coefficient is of the order unity. Hence typical lift force is about equal to the product of the dynamic pressure times the planform area. F L ~ ½ V 2 A p

Wing loading = F L /A p

1903 Wright Flyer = 1.5 lb/ft 2 Boeing 747 = 150 lb/ft 2 bumble bee = 1 lb/ft 2

2-D
2-D

Re = 9 x 10 6

Re = 9 x 10 C = F /( ½  V A ) Laminar flow

C L = F L /( ½ V 2 A p )

Laminar flow sections designed to fly at low angles of attack, so less drag but also less maximum lift.

2-D

Lam. – Turb.

Turbulent

C D = F D /( ½ V 2 A p )

Re = 9 x 10 C = F /( ½  V A ) Laminar flow

LIFT - SEPARATION

LIFT - SEPARATION
Stall results from flow separation over a major section of the upper surface of airfoil Re
Stall results from flow separation over a major section of the upper surface of airfoil Re
Stall results
from flow
separation
over a major
section of the
upper surface
of airfoil
Re c = 9 x 10 6
C L = F L /( ½  V 2 A p )
~ 15 o
Stall results from flow separation over a major section of the upper surface of airfoil Re
Stall results from flow separation over a major section of the upper surface of airfoil Re

2-D

2-D *
2-D
*

= 2 o

2-D *  = 2
2-D *
2-D
*

= 10 o

2-D *  = 10
2-D * *
2-D
* *
2-D * *  = 15 -  Check angle =15 separation at leading edge 

= 15 o -

Check angle =15

separation at leading edge

2-D * *  = 15 -  Check angle =15 separation at leading edge 

= 15 o +

Separation caused by unfavorable pressure gradient resulting from reduction in external flow.

Separation caused by unfavorable pressure gradient resulting from reduction in external flow.

Separation caused by unfavorable pressure gradient resulting from reduction in external flow.

LIFT – DRAG POLARS

LIFT – DRAG POLARS

Lift-Drag Polars are often used (Otto Lilienthal) to present airfoil data.

X Plot is for one particular Re c number
X
Plot is for one particular
Re c number
Plot is for one particular Re c number
Plot is for one particular
Re c number

L/D ~ 400 for ar (b 2 /A p ) = L/D ~ 40 for sailplane with ar (b 2 /A p ) = 40 L/D ~ 20 for typical light plane with ar (b 2 /A p ) = 12

Plot is for one particular Re c number L/D ~ 400 for ar (b /A )

b

Plot is for one particular Re c number L/D ~ 400 for ar (b /A )
A p
A p

LIFT – DRAG POLAR

2-D

2-D
2-D

Higher the C L /C D the better!

LIFT – DRAG POLAR

C L proportional to load

Note that x and y axis Have different scales

C D related to drag that plane must overcome to achieve lift. (does not include fuselage drag, etc.)

Graph for one Re # different angles of attack

2-D
2-D

LIFT – Wings (3-D) vs. Airfoils (2-D)

LIFT – Wings (3-D) vs. Airfoils (2-D) Wing Tip Vortices

Wing Tip Vortices

Wing tip vortices

Wing tip vortices (crop duster)

(crop duster)

Schematic of subsonic flow over the top of a delta wing at an angle of attack.

Two primary leading edge vortices made visible by air bubbles in water.

(Van Dyke Album of Fluid Motion)

All real airfoils of finite span, wings, have more drag and less lift than what 2-D airfoil section would indicate.

All real airfoils of finite span, wings, have more drag and less lift than what 2-D

Trailing vortices reduce lift because pressure difference is reduced.

The tendency for flow to leak around the wing tips also produces wing tip vortices downstream of the wing which induce a small downward component of air velocity in the neighborhood of the wing itself.

Not all same strength
Not all same strength

Trailing vortices can be a hazard (200 mph) to small air craft 5-10 miles behind large aircraft

The tendency for flow to leak around the wing tips generally cause streamlines over the top surface of the wing to veer to the wing root and streamlines over the bottom surface veer to the wing tips.

Endplates (winglets) at end of wing reduces tip vortex
Endplates (winglets) at end
of wing reduces tip vortex

Winglet is a vertical or angled extension of the wing tips for reducing lift-induced drag.

Winglet is a vertical or angled extension of the wing tips for reducing lift-induced drag.

Winglets work by increasing the effective area of the wing without increasing the span.

The vortex which rotates around from below the wing strikes the winglet, generating a small lift force.

Winglets work by increasing the effective area of the wing without increasing the span. The vortex
Loss of lift and increase in drag caused by finite-span effects are concentrated near the tip

Loss of lift and increase in drag caused by finite-span effects are concentrated near the tip of the wing; hence short stubby wings will experience these effects more severely than a very long wing.

“New” glider by Wright brothers which was astoundingly successful had an increase in wingspan to chord ratio from 3 to 6.

ar = b 2 /A p c ar = b/c
ar = b 2 /A p
c
ar = b/c

Expect induced drag effects to scale with wing aspect ratio = b 2 /A p

Soaring birds - high aspect ratios Maneuvering birds - low aspect ratios

Soaring birds - high aspect ratios

Maneuvering birds - low aspect ratios

Pike Bass Tuna Butterfly Fish
Pike Bass
Pike
Bass

Tuna

Butterfly Fish

LIFT – Wings vs. Airfoils

LIFT – Wings vs. Airfoils Induced Drag

Induced Drag

b 2 p b p
b 2
p
b
p

“This causes the lift force to lean backwards a little, resulting in some of the lift appearing as drag.” Fox et al.

V=V 
V=V 

eff is angle that wing sees between chord line and relative wind.

D i = L sin( i ) ~ L  i (or L ) C D,I
D i = L sin( i ) ~ L  i (or L )
C D,I ~ C L  I ;  i ~ C L /( ar) [theory/exp]
C D,I ~ C L 2 /( ar)
*

* Fundamentals of Aerodynamics by Anderson

airfoil (2D) wing (3D)
airfoil
(2D)
wing
(3D)

To get same lift (same C L ) as infinite ar must increase ~ C L /(ar); [linear]

wing (3D) airfoil (2D)
wing
(3D)
airfoil
(2D)

For same lift as infinite ar, C Di ~ C L = C L 2 /(ar); [quadratic]

FOR INFINITE WING

C D, = F D /( ½ U 2 A p ) C L, = F L /( ½ U 2 A p )

FOR WING

C D = C D, + C D,i = C D, + C L 2 /(ar)

FOR AIRCRAFT

C D = C D,0 + C D,i = C D,0 + C L 2 /(ar)

C L ~ W /( ½ U 2 A p ) for steady state flight

PARTING NOTES

• Induced drag was derived from inviscid, incompressible flow theory – • Induced drag only for finite wing • No skin friction or separation • D’Alembert’s paradox does not occur for finite wing!

• Induced drag can be as much as pressure and skin-friction drag (depends on speed)

• Induced drag can be as much as pressure and skin-friction drag (depends on speed)

• Induced drag can be as much as pressure and skin-friction drag (depends on speed) Components
• Induced drag can be as much as pressure and skin-friction drag (depends on speed) Components

Components of the total drag of a modern airliner

HIGH-LIFT DEVICES

HIGH-LIFT DEVICES

FLAPS

FLAPS W = F = C /  V A; V occurs for C ; V

W = F L = C L 1 / 2 V 2 A; V min occurs for C Lmax ; V min = [2W/ C Lmax A] 1/2

TRAILING EDGE FLAPS-VARIES CAMBER

= 0 = 0

TRAILING EDGE FLAPS-VARIES CAMBER  = 0  = 0  = 0  = 15

= 0 = 15

TRAILING EDGE FLAPS-VARIES CAMBER  = 0  = 0  = 0  = 15
TRAILING EDGE FLAPS-VARIES CAMBER  = 0  = 0  = 0  = 15

W = F L = C L 1 / 2 V 2 A; V min occurs for C Lmax ; V min = [2W/ C Lmax A] 1/2 increase A to reduce V min ; V min V stall

W = F = C /  V A; V occurs for C ; V =
25% of c 40% of c
25% of c
40% of c
Maximum Lift:  = 20 C ~ 4 – 4.5

Maximum Lift:

= 20 o

C L ~ 4 – 4.5

LEADING EDGE SLATS-POSTPONES STALL

= 10 o

= 30 o-

 = 25 o  = 30 o+
 = 25 o
 = 30 o+

LEADING EDGE SLATS-POSTPONES STALL

Not stalling yet with leading edge slats

Stall at 15 o+ without leading edge slats

25% of c 40% of c
25% of c
40% of c
P E R X O A B M L P E L M E S
P
E
R
X
O
A
B
M
L
P
E
L
M
E
S

A light plane has 10 m effective wingspan and 1.8m chord (regardless or airfoil chosen). It was originally designed to use a conventional (NACA 23015) airfoil section. With this airfoil, its cruising speed on a standard day near sea level is 225 km/hr. A conversion to a laminar flow (NACA 66 2 -215)

section airfoil is proposed. Determine cruising speed that could be achieved for the same power.

A light plane has 10 m effective wingspan and 1.8m chord (regardless or airfoil chosen). It was originally designed to use a conventional (NACA 23015) airfoil section. With this airfoil, its cruising speed on a standard day near sea level is 225 km/hr. A conversion to a laminar flow (NACA 66 2 -215) section airfoil is

proposed. Determine cruising speed that could be achieved for the same power.

assume efficiency same

A light plane has 10 m effective wingspan and 1.8m chord (regardless or airfoil chosen). It

{F D V} 23015 = P p = {F D V} 66-215

F D = C D ½ V 2 A

C D = C D ,  + C D , i = C D ,
C D = C D ,  + C D , i = C D ,  + C L 2 /(ar)
C D  , C L  for airfoil for plane need C D,0
C D  , C L  for airfoil
for plane need C D,0

Assume airfoils should

operate near design lift coefficients. (~0.3/47.6) (~0.2/59.5)
operate near design lift
coefficients.
(~0.3/47.6)
(~0.2/59.5)

C D = C D , + C D , i = C D , + C L 2 /(ar)

23015 66 2 -215
23015
66
2 -215

{C D ½ V 3 A} 23015 = {C D ½ V 3 A} 66-215

V 66-215 = V D23015 (C D23015 /C D66-215 ) 1/3

C = C , + C , = C , + C /(  ar) 23015

{~28% increase}

P E R X O A B M L P E L M E S
P
E
R
X
O
A
B
M
L
P
E
L
M
E
S

Ex. 9.8: Given: W=150,000lbf, A=1600ft 2 , ar=6.5, C D,0 =0.0182, =.00238 slug/ft 2 , V stall =175mph, M0.6, c=759mph; steady level flight

Find optimum cruise speed – Ex. 9.8

Optimum cruise speed = speed when F D /V vs V is minimum.

(1) F D = C D ( ½ V 2 A p )

(2) C D =

C D,0 + C L 2 /(ar)

(3) C L = W/( ½ V 2 A p )

Use eq 3 to plug C L into eq 2, then plug C D from eq 2 into eq 1 Plot F D /V as a function of V between 175-455 mph (stall – 0.6 x c) and find peak.

0 5000 25000 20000 15000 10000 Thrust = Drag(lbf) 400 200 600 500 300 100 0
0
5000
25000
20000
15000
10000
Thrust = Drag(lbf)
400
200
600
500
300
100
0

level flight speed (mph)

optimum cruise speed 70 60 50 40 30 20 ~ 325mph for optimum cruising 10 0
optimum cruise speed
70
60
50
40
30
20
~ 325mph for
optimum cruising
10
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
velocity (mph)
drag/velocity
P E R X O A B M L P E L M E S
P
E
R
X
O
A
B
M
L
P
E
L
M
E
S

Aircraft with gross mass, m=4500 kg, flown in a circular path of 1 km radius at 250 kph. The plane has a NACA 23015 With ar = 7 and lift area = 22 m 2 .

Find: Power to maintain level flight. P = F D V

R = 1km Fig from 9.151
R = 1km
Fig from 9.151
F L F L sin () F L cos () F L sin () = mV
F L
F L sin ()
F L cos ()
F L sin () = mV 2 /R
mV
2 /R
R = 1 km
W = F L cos ( )
P = F D V F D = C D ( 1 / 2 V 2
P = F D V
F D = C D ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )
=
C D, + C L 2 /(ar)
C D
= C D, +
C D,i
C L = F L / ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )
F L = mg / cos()
Determine  from force balance. Once know C L , can find C D, from Fig.
Determine  from force balance.
Once know C L , can find C D, from Fig. 9-19
F y = F L cos() – mg = 0 F r = -F L sin()
F y = F L cos() – mg = 0
F r = -F L sin() = ma r = -mV 2 /R
F L sin() / F L cos() = (mV 2 /R) / mg
tan () = V 2 /(Rg);
 = 26.2 o
F L = mg / cos() = 49.2 kN
C L = F L / ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p ) = 0.754

C D = C D, + C L 2 /(ar)

Don’t know if flying at design C L , (and corresponding C D ) but know weight and speed so can figure out C L , which is 0.754, then find C D from graph.

C D ~ 0.007 for C L = 0.754 from Fig 9.19

C L = 0.754

C ~ 0.007 for C = 0.754 from Fig 9.19 C = 0.754 C = 0.007

C D = 0.007

C D

= C D,

+ C D,i

=

C D, + C L 2 /(ar)

C D ~ 0.007 for C L = 0.754 from Fig 9.19

C D = 0.007 + (0.754) 2 /(7) = 0.0329

F D = F L C D /C L = 49.2kN x 0.0329 / 0.754 = 2.15kN

Power = F D V

= 2.15kN x 250[km/hr] [1000(m/km)/3600(s/hr)] = 149 kW

?

?

9.143

Airplane with effective lift area of 25 m 2 is fitted with airfoils of NACA 23012 Section – conf. 2 (Fig. 9.23). Neglecting added lift due to ground effects determine the maximum mass of airplane if takeoff speed is 150 km/hr?

150 km/hr

9.143 Airplane with effective lift area of 25 m is fitted with airfoils of NACA 23012

C L = F L /( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )

W

1.23 kg/m 3

9.143 Airplane with effective lift area of 25 m is fitted with airfoils of NACA 23012
9.143 Airplane with effective lift area of 25 m is fitted with airfoils of NACA 23012

25 m 2

9.143 Airplane with effective lift area of 25 m is fitted with airfoils of NACA 23012

Fig. 9.23

NACA 23012
NACA 23012

Assume C L at lift off is C L max.

C L = 2.67; C L ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p ) = W m = C L ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )/g = 7260 kg

1 st jetliner x (1903, 30mph)
1
st jetliner
x
(1903, 30mph)

Ex. 9.8

GIVEN:

W = 150,000 lbs;

A = 1600 ft 2 ;

ar = 6.5;

C D,0 = 0.0182; V stall = 175 mph

FIND: (a) Drag from 175 mph to M = 0.6 (b) optimum cruise speed at sea level (c) V stall and optimum cruise speed at

30,000 ft altitude

(a) Drag from 175 mph to M = 0.6

F DRAG

1600 ft 2

0.00238 slug/ft 3

(a) Drag from 175 mph to M = 0.6 F 1600 ft 0.00238 slug/ft = C
(a) Drag from 175 mph to M = 0.6 F 1600 ft 0.00238 slug/ft = C

= C D A ( 1 / 2 ) V 2

(a) Drag from 175 mph to M = 0.6 F 1600 ft 0.00238 slug/ft = C

175,…., 455 mph (M=0.6)

C D = C D,0 + C L 2 /(ar) C L = W/( 1 / 2 V 2 )

(a) Drag from 175 mph to M = 0.6 F 1600 ft 0.00238 slug/ft = C
(a) Drag from 175 mph to M = 0.6 F 1600 ft 0.00238 slug/ft = C
(a) Drag from 175 mph to M = 0.6 F 1600 ft 0.00238 slug/ft = C

6.5

0.0182

(a) Drag from 175 mph to M = 0.6 F 1600 ft 0.00238 slug/ft = C

150,000 lbf

175,…., 455 mph (M=0.6)

0.00238 slug/ft 3

F D = W {C D / C L } = W {F D / [ 1 / 2 V 2 ]} /{W/[ 1 / 2 V 2 ]}

V (mph)

175

200

  • CL 1.195874 0.915591

225

250

275

300

325

350

375

400

425

450

455

0.72343 0.585978 0.484279 0.406929 0.346733 0.298968 0.260435 0.228898 0.202761 0.180857 0.176904

CD

0.088234 0.059253 0.043829 0.035015 0.029685 0.026309 0.024087 0.022577 0.021522 0.020766 0.020213 0.019802 0.019733

FD (1000 l 11.06728 9.707257 9.087726 8.963245

9.19457 9.697927 10.42047

11.3275 12.39552 13.60812 14.95355 16.42327 16.73153

P (1000 hp 5.164729 5.177204 5.452635 5.975497 6.742685 7.758342

9.03107 10.57234 12.39552 14.51533 16.94736 19.70792 20.30093

Aircraft Characteristics

0 0 100 300 500 200 400 Drag F D (1000 lbf) Power P (1000 hp)
0
0
100
300
500
200
400
Drag F D (1000 lbf)
Power P (1000 hp)
10
15
20
5
5
10
15
20
25
30
P ower (1000 hp)
Optimum line
Drag force (1000 lbf)
0

Speed V (mph)

Optimum cruise speed at sea level, minimize F D /V

(b) optimum cruise speed at sea level

400 0 50 100 150 500 350 300 250 200 450 323 mph Drag / Velocity
400
0
50
100
150
500
350
300
250
200
450
323 mph
Drag / Velocity
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0

velocity (mph)

(c) optimum cruise and stall speed at 30,000 ft

F LIFT = W = C L A ( 1 / 2 ) SL V SL

2

F LIFT = W = C L A ( 1 / 2 ) 30,000 V 30,000

2

(c) optimum cruise and stall speed at 30,000 ft F = W = C A (

V 30,000 /V SL = [ SL / 30,000 ] 1/2

= 1.63

V 30,000 stall = 1.63 V SL stall ;

V 30,000 op. cr. = 1.63 V SL op. cr.

Lift force acting on an airfoil section can be evaluated using circulation theory (Kutta-1902;

Joukowski-1906)

For an ideal fluid with no viscosity and a thin uncambered airfoil of chord length c :

L per unit span

= U

=circulation (Eq. 5-17; Vds) = Uc[sin()]*  Ucfor small   = density of fluid U = velocity of uniform flow L = U 2 cC L = U 2 c/(½U 2 c) = 2

ASIDE separation In ideal fluid slope = 2, viscosity reduces slope If no camber then L
ASIDE
separation
In ideal fluid slope
= 2, viscosity
reduces slope
If no camber then
L = 0 at  = 0
separation

*Proving this is beyond our scope but can be found in Anderson’s book: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, pg 272

Lift Problem Examples – Relevant Equations

Lift Problem Examples – Relevant Equations C and C values from wind tunnels are for 2-D

C L and C D values from wind tunnels are for 2-D airfoils

C L = F L /( ½ V 2 A p )

C D = F D /( ½ V 2 A p

) A p = max projection of wing

C D for finite wing

C D = C D, + C D,I = C D, + C L 2 /(ar)

C D = C D,0 + C D,I = C D,0 + C L 2 /(ar)

ar = b 2 /A p

If steady flight: T = D and W = L = C L ½ V 2 A p

Ex. 9.8: Given: W=150,000lbf, A=1600ft 2 , ar=6.5, C D,0 =0.0182, =.00238 slug/ft 2 , V stall =175mph, M0.6, c=759mph; steady level flight

Find optimum cruise speed.

Optimum cruise speed = speed when F D /V vs V is minimum.

(1) F D = C D ( ½ V 2 A p )

(2) C D =

C D,0 + C L 2 /(ar)

(3) C L = W/( ½ V 2 A p )

Use eq 3 to plug C L into eq 2, then plug C D from eq 2 into eq 1 Plot F D /V as a function of V between 175-455 mph (stall – 0.6 x c) and find peak.

0 5000 25000 20000 15000 10000 Thrust = Drag(lbf) 400 200 600 500 300 100 0
0
5000
25000
20000
15000
10000
Thrust = Drag(lbf)
400
200
600
500
300
100
0

level flight speed (mph)

optimum cruise speed 70 60 50 40 30 20 ~ 325mph for optimum cruising 10 0
optimum cruise speed
70
60
50
40
30
20
~ 325mph for
optimum cruising
10
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
velocity (mph)
drag/velocity

Aircraft with gross mass, m=4500 kg, flown in a circular path of 1 km radius at 250 kph. The plane has a NACA 23015 With ar = 7 and lift area = 22 m 2 .

Find: Power to maintain level flight. P = F D V

R = 1km Fig from 9.151
R = 1km
Fig from 9.151
P = F D V F D = C D ( 1 / 2 V 2
P = F D V
F D = C D ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )
=
C D, + C L 2 /(ar)
C D
= C D, +
C D,i
C L = F L / ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p )
F L = mg / cos()
Determine  from force balance. Once know C L , can find C D, from Fig.
Determine  from force balance.
Once know C L , can find C D, from Fig. 9-19
F L sin () F L cos () mV 2 /R
F L sin ()
F L cos ()
mV
2 /R

R = 1 km

F y = F L cos() – mg = 0 F r = -F L sin()
F y = F L cos() – mg = 0
F r = -F L sin() = ma r = -mV 2 /R
F L sin() / F L cos() = (mV 2 /R) / mg
tan () = V 2 /(Rg);
 = 26.2 o
F L = mg / cos() = 49.2 kN
C L = F L / ( 1 / 2 V 2 A p ) = 0.754

C D = C D, + C L 2 /(ar)

Don’t know if flying at design C L , (and corresponding C D ) but know weight and speed so can figure out C L , then find C D from graph.

C D ~ 0.007 for C L = 0.754 from Fig 9.19

C L = 0.754

C ~ 0.007 for C = 0.754 from Fig 9.19 C = 0.754 C = 0.007

C D = 0.007

C D

= C D,

+ C D,i

=

C D, + C L 2 /(ar)

C D ~ 0.007 for C L = 0.754 from Fig 9.19

C D = 0.007 + (0.754) 2 /(7) = 0.0329

F D = F L C D /C L = 49.2kN x 0.0329 / 0.754 = 2.15kN

Power = F D V

= 2.15kN x 250[km/hr] [1000(m/km)/3600(s/hr)]

= 149 kW

The End

The End