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Chapter 9

Solids and Fluids

Elasticity
Pressure, specific gravity, density
Archimedes Principle
Bernoullis Equation
States of Matter

Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasmas
A fluid, in contrast to a solid, is a substance
that can flow.

Fluids conform to the boundaries of any


container in which we put them. They do so
because a fluid cannot sustain a force that is
tangential to its surface. That is, a fluid is a
substance that flows because it cannot
withstand a shearing stress.

It can, however, exert a force in the direction


perpendicular to its surface.
Solids and Elastic Moduli

All solids are elastic to some degree


A body that is slightly deformed by an applied
force will returns to its original dimensions or
shape when the force is removed
The deformation may not be noticeable for
many materials, but its there.
The elastic properties of solids are commonly
discussed in terms of stress and strain.
Stress and Strain

Stress is a measure of the force causing


deformation
Strain is a relative measure of the deformation
a stress cause
Solids: Stress and Strain

Stress = Measure of force felt by material


Force
Stress
Area

SI units are Pascals, 1 Pa = 1 N/m2


(same as pressure)
Solids: Stress and Strain

Strain = Measure of deformation F

L
Strain L
L A

dimensionless
L
Strain is a unitless
quantity
Elastic Modulus

Stress = elastic modulus x strain

stress
Elastic modulus = strain

SI unit of elastic modulus; netwon per square


meter
Three general types of elastic moduli

Associated with stresses that produce changes


in length, shape and volume

1.Youngs Modulus ( change in Length )


2.Shear modulus ( change in Shape )
3.Bulk modulus ( change in Volume )
Youngs Modulus (Tension) Y

The elastic modulus for tension or


a compression F
tensile stress

Y
F
A L

L L tensile strain
A

Robert Hooke
L

Measure of stiffness
Tensile refers to tension
Youngs Modulus equation

F = Y(L) or Y= F/A
A L L/L

L = (FL) 1 or L 1
(A) Y Y
Sample problem

The femur ( upper leg ) is the longest and


strongest bone in the body. Taking a typical
femur to be approximately circular with a
radius of 2.0 cm, how much force would be
required to extend the bone
Solution to problem

Given: r = 2.0 cm = 0.020 m


L/L = 0.010% = 1.0 x 10-4 ( raised to 4)
Y = 1.5 x 10 raised to 10 N/M Sq.

F = Y(L/L)A = Y(L/L)r sq.


= (1.5 x 10 raised 10 N/m sq)(0.020m) sq
= 1.9 x 10 raised to 3 N
Example 1
King Kong (a 8.0x104-kg monkey) swings from a 320-
m cable from the Empire State building. If the 3.0-
cm diameter cable is made of steel (Y=1.8x1011 Pa),
by how much will the cable stretch?

1.97 m
Shear Modulus
Sheer Stress

S
F
A
x h
X is the relative displacement
of the faces
Sheer Strain
h is the distance between them

The deformation is due to an


applied force that is tangential to
the surface area

Sometime called as
modulus of rigidity
For solids and liquids Bulk Modulus
( incompressible )
F P Change in Pressure
B A
V
V
V
V Volume Strain

BY 3

For gases ( compressible )


K= 1/B
Sample problem

By how much should the pressure on a liter of water be


changed to compress it by 0.10%?

Given: Find: p = F/A


-L/L = 0.0010 ( 0.10% )
original Vol = 1.0 L = 1000 cc
B water = 2.2 x 10 raised to9 N/m sq
solution:
-V = 0.0010 Vorig = 0.0010 (1000 cc) = 1.0 cc
p = B(-V/Vorig)
= ( 2.2 x 10 raised to 9 N/m sq)(0.0010)
= +2.2 x 10 raised to 6 N/m sq
Pascals as units for Pressure

F 1 Pa = 1 N/m2
P
A

1 atm = 101.325KPa = 1.01325 x 10 raised to


5 N/sq. m = 14.7 psi ( lb/sq in)
PASCALS PRINCIPLES
Sample problem

Pressure and force


a) What is the total pressure on the back of a scuba
diver in a lake at a depth of 8.00 m?
b) What is the force on the divers back due to the
water alone, taking the surface of the back to be a
rectangle 60.0 cm by 50.0 cm?
given:
h= 8.00 cm A = 60 cm x 50 cm = 300 cm
= 0.300sq.m
a.) the total pressure is the sum of the pressure due to
the water and the atmospheric pressure(pa)
p= pa + gh
= ( 101000N/sqm) + (1000kg/cubic meter)(8.00m)
= 179000N/sq.m ( or Pa) or 180000 atm
b. The pressure pw due to the water alone is the gh
portion of the preceding equation,
so pw = 78400N/sq m. Then, pw = F/A

F = p water X Area
= 784000 N/ sq.m x 0.300m
= 23520N
Density and Pressure

It is more useful to consider density and pressure


for a fluid, which may take different values for
different parts of the fluid.

The SI unit of density is kg/m3.

The SI unit of pressure is N/m2, which is given a


special name, the pascal (Pa).
1 atmosphere (atm) = 1.01x105 Pa =760 torr = 760
mm Hg = 14.7 lb/in.2 = 1.01 bar = 1013 mbar
(mb).
Example 2

A large solid steel (Y=1.8x1011 Pa) block (L 5 m, W=4 m,


H=3 m) is submerged in the Mariana Trench where the
pressure is 7.5x107 Pa.

a) By what percentage does the length change?


-0.041 %
b) What are the changes in the length, width and height?
-2.08 mm, -1.67 mm, -1.25 mm

c) By what percentage does the volume change?


-0.125%
Solids and Liquids

Solids have Youngs, Bulk, and Shear moduli


Liquids have only bulk moduli
Ultimate Strength
Maximum F/A before fracture or crumbling
Different for compression and tension
Densities

V
Density and Specific Gravity

Densities depend on temperature, pressure...


Specific gravity = ratio of density to density of
H2O at 4 C.
Example 3

The specific gravity of gold is 19.3. What is the mass


(in kg) and weight (in lbs.) of 1 cubic meter of gold?

19,300 kg
42549 lbs
Pressure & Pascals Principle
F
P Pressure applied to any part of
A
an enclosed fluid is transmitted
undimished to every point of the
fluid and to the walls of the
container

Each face feels same force


PASCALS PRINCIPLES
A change in the pressure applied to an enclosed
incompressible fluid is transmitted undiminished to every
portion of the fluid and to the walls of its container.
Transmitting
Hydraulic press
force
F1 F2
P
A1 A2

An applied force F1 can


be amplified:

A2
F2 F1
A1
Examples: hydraulic brakes,
forklifts, car lifts, etc.
Pressure and Depth
w is weight
w Mg Vg Ahg

Sum forces to zero,


PA P0 A w 0

Factor A
P P0 gh
Example 4
Find the pressure at 10,000 m of water.
DATA: Atmospheric pressure = 1.015x105 Pa.

9.82x107 Pa
Example 5

Assume the ultimate strength of legos is 4.0x104


Pa. If the density of legos is 150 kg/m3, what is
the maximum possible height for a lego tower?

27.2 m
Example 6
Estimate the mass of the Earths atmosphere given
that atmospheric pressure is 1.015x105 Pa.
Data: Rearth=6.36x106 m

5.26x1018 kg
Archimedes Principle
Any object completely or partially submerged in a fluid
is buoyed up by a force whose magnitude is equal to
the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

Fb = mf g (b Fb = mf g (buoyant
force),

where mf is the mass of the fluid that


is displaced by the body uoyant force),

where mf is the mass of the fluid that


is displaced by the body.
Archimedes Principle: Floating and Apparent Weight

When a body floats in a fluid, the magnitude Fb of the buoyant


force on the body is equal to the magnitude Fg of the
gravitational force on the body.

That means, when a body floats in a fluid, the magnitude F g of


the gravitational force on the body is equal to the weight mfg
of the fluid that has been displaced by the body, where mf is
the mass of the fluid displaced.

That is, a floating body displaces its own weight of fluid.

The apparent weight of an object in a fluid is less than the


actual weight of the object in vacuum, and is equal to the
difference between the actual weight of a body and the
buoyant force on the body.
Example, Floating, buoyancy, and density
Example 7
A helicopter lowers a probe into Lake Michigan which
is suspended on a cable. The probe has a mass of 500
kg and its average density is 1400 kg/m3. What is the
tension in the cable?

1401 N
Example 8a
A wooden ball of mass M and volume V floats on a
swimming pool. The density of the wood is wood < H20.
The buoyant force acting on the ball is:

a) Mg upward
b) H20gV upward
c) ( H20- wood)gV upward
Example 8b
A steel ball of mass M and volume V rests on the
bottom of a swimming pool. The density of the steel
is steel > H20. The buoyant force acting on the ball is:

a) Mg upward
b) H20gV upward
c) ( steel- H20)gV upward
Example 8 c
A small swimming pool has an area of 10 square
meters. A wooden 4000-kg statue of density 500
kg/m3 is then floated on top of the pool. How far
does the water rise?

Data: Density of water = 1000 kg/m3

40 cm
Floating Coke Demo
The can will

a) Float
b) Sink
Paint Thinner Demo
When I pour in the paint thinner, the cylinder will:

a) Rise
b) Fall
Equation of Continuity
What goes in must come out!
mass density
M Ax Avt

Mass that passes a point


in pipe during time t

Eq.ofContinuity

1 A1v1 2 A2 v2
Ideal Fluids in Motion
Realistic fluids are complicated. We usually study ideal
fluids as a model to obtain many useful results. An ideal
fluid is a fluid with the following four assumptions:
1. Steady flow: In steady (or laminar) flow, the velocity of the
moving fluid at any fixed point does not change with time.

2. Incompressible flow: We assume, as for fluids at rest, that our


ideal fluid is incompressible; that is, its density has a constant,
uniform value.

3. Nonviscous flow: The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of how


resistive the fluid is to flow; viscosity is the fluid analog of
friction between solids. An object moving through a nonviscous fluid
would experience no viscous drag forcethat is, no resistive force
due to viscosity; it could move at constant speed through the fluid.

4. Irrotational flow: In irrotational flow a test body suspended in the


fluid will not rotate about an axis through its own center of mass.
The Equation of Continuity

(incompressible fluids )

(a more general statement)


Example 9
Water flows through a 4.0 cm diameter pipe at 5
cm/s. The pipe then narrows downstream and has a
diameter of of 2.0 cm. What is the velocity of the
water through the smaller pipe?

20 cm/s
Laminar or Streamline Flow

Fluid elements move


along smooth paths
Friction in laminar flow
is called viscosity
Turbulence

Fluid elements move along irregular paths


Sets in for high velocity gradients (small pipes)
Ideal Fluids
Laminar Flow -> No turbulence
Non-viscous -> No friction between fluid layers
Incompressible -> Density is same everywhere
Bernoullis Equation

1 2
P v gy constant
2
Sum of P, KE/V and PE/V is constant

How can we derive this?

If the speed of a fluid element increases as the element travels


along a horizontal streamline, the pressure of the fluid must
decrease, and conversely.
Bernoullis Equation: derivation
Consider a volume V of mass M of incompressible fluid,
1 1
KE Mv2 Mv12
2
2 2
1 1
Vv2 Vv12
2
2 2
PE Mgy2 Mgy1
Vgy2 Vgy1
W F1x1 F2 x2
P1 A1x1 P2 A2 x2
P1V P2 V
1 2 1 2
P1 gh1 v1 P2 gh2 v2
2 2
The change in kinetic energy of the system is the
Bernoullis
work done on the system.
equation
Proof
If the density of the fluid is ,

The work done by gravitational forces is:

The net work done by the (outside) fluid is:

Therefore,

Finally,
Example 10

A very large pipe carries Venturi Meter


water with a very slow
velocity and empties into a
small pipe with a high
velocity. If P2 is 7000 Pa
lower than P1, what is the
velocity of the water in
the small pipe?

3.74 m/s
Applications of Bernoullis Equation

Venturi meter
Curve balls
Airplanes

Beach Ball & Straws Demos


Example 11a

Consider an ideal incompressible fluid,


choose >, < or =

1 ____ 2

a) =
b) <
c) >
Example 11b

Consider an ideal incompressible fluid,


choose >, < or =

Mass that passes 1 in one second


_____ mass that passes 2 in one second
a) =
b) <
c) >
Example 11c

Consider an ideal incompressible fluid,


choose >, < or =

v1 ____ v2

a) =
b) <
c) >
Example 11d

Consider an ideal incompressible fluid,


choose >, < or =

P1 ____ P2
a) =
b) <
c) >
Example 12 a
Water drains out of the bottom of a
cooler at 3 m/s, what is the depth of
the water above the valve? b

45.9 cm
Three Vocabulary Words

Viscosity
Diffusion
Osmosis
Viscosity
v
F A
d

Friction between the layers


Pressure drop required to
force water through pipes
(Poiselles Law)
At high enough v/d,
turbulence sets in
Diffusion
Molecules move from region of high concentration
to region of low concentration
Ficks Law:
Mass C2 C1
Diffusion rate DA
time L

D = diffusion
coefficient
Osmosis
Movement of water through a boundary while
denying passage to specific molecules, e.g.
salts