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KARO LANGUAGE SHIFT

A Thesis
By
SUSIANA KABAN
0821188310004
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 The Background of


The Study
Theory Phenomena

Gunarwan (2004: 58)
Fasold (1984:213) Lampung language is
Language shift: shifted because of
L1 L2 Indonesian language
pressure
Edwards (1985:71- Siregar (1998)
72) language shift happen in
indications : the youth generation
lost its basis of bilingual society in
domain Medan
the majority Relevant
Adisaputera (2009)
language become study
Malay in Langkat is
dominant shifted to Indonesian Sembiring
used only in the language among the (2008)
rural than in the level of teenagers users indicates
urban area Karo
language
users of 8-
To make a good New 20 years
language planning Phenomenon mostly use
for reversing a
language shift in Karo language shift Indonesian
order to maintain in Medan: language
Karo language 1. Factors
2. Pattern
3. Reason
Focus:
1. What factors influence Karo language shift in Medan?
2. How is the pattern of Karo language shift in Medan?
3. What is the reason of Karonese shift into Indonesian
language?

Objecticves
. to determine the factors influence Karo language
shift in Medan
. to describe the pattern of Karo language shift in the
second and third generation of Karonese family
. to analyze the reason of Karonese shift into
Indonesian language
Significances
To enrich the theories of language planning
especially about Karo language shift
To contribute information about Karo
language shift for student, lectures ,
researcher and government

Scope
Community of Karo language in Medan
Factors influence Karo language shift in
Medan
Language use of second and third
generation of Karo language users in five
domains
The reason of shift into the dominant
language
Chapter II
Review of Literature
Language shift
Definition
Holmes (2001:68)
a process , by which one language displaces
another in a community

Dimensions
Fishman (1972: 110-117)
1. Habitual language use
2. Factors influence stability or change of the
language use
3. Behavior toward language
Bilingualism with
diglossia

Migration

Economic and
Factors influence social factors
language shift

Political factors

Demographic
factors

Value and
attitude
The Pattern of language
shift
religion
family

Welterns, First generation


emplo
Schmid, & educati yment
friend
Romaine: on
ship
Language use in
five domains
Conklin, family friends
hip
Kouritzin, & Second
Myers: Language
generation religio
shift across educati
educati
emplo religio
n
on emplo
generations on
yment
yment
n

fa
mil
domain friendsh
domain
y friendsh
ip
ip
Third generation
employ
employ
ment religio
educati religio
n
ment educati
on n
on
The effect of language
shift
Language Death: no speakers anymore
Critic
Critic
ally
ally
enda
enda
nger
nger
ed
ed
Severely
Severely
endangered
endangered
Endangered

Language endangered Eroding


Eroding

Stable
SS aa f f ee
Reason for language shift
Holmes (2001:56)
Status
Status

Prestige
Dominant language
Social
Social
Succes
Succes
Karonese and Karo
language
Symbol of
Symbol of
identity
identity

Often
Often do
do
code
code
Karonese &Karo language switching
switching

Farmers
Farmers

Traders
Traders
Professionals
Professionals
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
Community : urban village Kwala
Bekala
Informants: karo language users
Subject 2 group :
second generation : 22- 50yrs old
Third generation : 8 -21 yrs old

Instrument Researchers by using


Questionaire
Interview
Data
Data collection
collection Data
Data Collection
Collection
1.Directly
1. Directly give
give 2. interview
2. interview the
the informants
informants by
by
questionnaires: using
questionnaires: using the
the main
main questions.
questions.
-- factors
factors of
of language
language shift the
shift the informant
informant will
will give
give the
the first
first
-- languages
languages useuse answer.
answer.
-- fluency
fluency in
in communicating first
communicating first answer,
answer, clarify
clarify the
the
with
with karo
karo language answer
language answer deeply,
deeply, continuously
continuously
clear
clear

Transcribe the
data
Data reduction
Techni
Classify the data
ques
of data
Data display analysi
s Verify the data

Verification and
conclusion conclude
Triangulation
Denzin (1994:513)
Data triangulation

Investigator triangulation

Theory triangulation

Methodological triangulation

Methodological triangulation use more


than one method to gather data, such as
interviews, questionnaires,
Data
1. What factors analyis
influence Karo Questionnair Miles &
language shift in Holmes Questionnair
e Huberma
Medan? e n

Romaine Data
2. How is the pattern Conklin, Questionnair analyis
of Karo language & Questionnair
e Spradley
shift in Medan? Kouritzin e

3. What is the reason Data


for Karonese shift analyis
into Indonesian Holmes Interview Miles &
Interview
language? Huberma
n
CHAPTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
4.1 The Data an Data analysis
4.1.1 Factors that Influenced Karo Language Shift
4.1.1.1 Bilingualism
4.1.1.1 Bilingualism of Karonese in
Medan
Karo Language
Bilingualism Factor Percentage
users

Alternatively use KL and IL in daily 90%


activity 100%
Second Uses IL use in formal situation 50%
Generation Use IL in family domain 10%
Use KL in family domain 40%
Use KLIL in family domain
Alternatively use KL and IL in daily activity 10%
Use IL in formal situation 100%
Use IL in family domain 90%
Third Generation Use KL in family domain 10%
Use KLIL in family domain 10%
Table 4.1.1.2 Migration of Karonese in
Medan

Migration
Karo Language
Origin country Period of migration
users

Second 15-20 years (80%)


Mostly Karo district
Generation Since born (20%)

Third
Mostly Karo district Since born (100%)
Generation
Table 4.1.1.3 Economic Factor that
influence Karo Language Shift in Medan
Economic Factor
Language
Karo Language
Language use that play
Users Aviliation in workplace important
domain role in his/her
job
Civil Officer 20%
Entrepreneur 40%
Second Indonesian Indonesian
Private Employer 10%
Generation Language Language
Housewife 10%

Student 90%
Third Nurse 10% Indonesian Indonesian
Generation Language Language
Table 4.1.1.4 Social Factor in
Karonese society in Medan
Karo Language
Social Factor Percentage
users
IL makes easily interact in the society 100%
Use IL when gather together with friends 50%
Second Use KLIL when gather together with 50%
Generation friends

IL makes easily interact in the society 100%


Use IL when gather together with friends 90%
Use KLIL when gather together with 10%
Third Generation
friends
4.1.1.5 The influence of Political Factor
in Karo Language Shift in Medan

Karo Language
Political Factor Percentage
users
IL is medium of communication at school
IL is medium of teaching/instruction at
Second school
100%
Generation Speak Il in all public service in Medan

IL is medium of communication at school


IL is medium of teaching/instruction at
Third school
Speak IL in all public service in Medan 100%
Generation
4.1.1.6 The influence of Demographic
Factor in Karo Language shift in Medan

Karo Language
Demographic Factors Percentage
users
Seldom speak KL in Medan than in the 50%
origin country
Second Decreasing of speaking KL ability 80%
Generation because of TV, radio, and internet
Intercultural marriage 50%

Seldom speak KL in Medan than in the 90%


origin country
Third Decreasing of speaking KL ability 100%
Generation because of TV, radio, and internet
Intercultural marriage 50%
4.1.1.7 The influence of Value and
Attitude in Karo Language shift in Medan

Karo Language Value and Attitude on Karo


Percentage
users Language
Is not seen Kl as the symbol of 0%
identity
Second Negative language Attitude 60%
Generation Not highly valued 0%

Is not seen Kl as the symbol of 20%


identity
Third Negative language Attitude 100%
Generation Not highly valued 20%
Table 4.1.1.8 Shift into Indonesian
Language because of Lack of Karo
Language Speaking Competence
Shift into IL because of lack of
fluency of Karo language speaking
Karo Language Users competence

Second
10%
Generation

Third
70%
Generation
4.1.2 Pattern of Karo Language
Shift

Table 4.1.1.9 Language Use of


Karonese in Medan
To family members
(Wife/husband/childre

To priest / Islami
Missionaryary

To teacher and

To employer or
To friends

schoolmates

customer
Language Users Family Friendship Religion Education Workpla ce

Second
Generation
S1 IL KL IL IL IL IL
S2 KL IL KL IL IL IL IL
S3 KL IL KL IL IL IL IL
S4 KL IL KL IL KL IL IL
S5 KL KL IL KL IL IL
S6 KL IL IL KL IL IL
S7 IL IL IL IL IL
S8 IL IL IL IL IL
S9 IL IL IL IL IL
S10 IL KL IL IL IL IL
(Wife/husband/childre

To priest /Islamic
To family members

To teacher and

To employer or
schoolmates
Missionary
To friends

customer
n)
Language Users Family Friendship Religion Education Workplace

Third
Generation
S1 IL IL IL IL IL
S2 IL IL IL IL IL
S3 IL IL IL IL IL
S4 IL IL KL IL IL
S5 KL KL IL KL IL IL
S6 IL IL KL IL IL
S7 IL IL IL IL IL
S8 IL IL IL IL IL
S9 L IL IL IL IL
S 10 IL IL IL IL IL
4.1.3 The Data of Reason of
Karonese shift into Indonesian
Language
Language Reason of Shifting into Perce
Indonesian Language ntage
users

Second 1. Status of Indonesian language 40%


generation 2. Social Success 80%

Third 1. Status of Indonesian language 100%


generation 2. Social Success 70%
Findings
1. Bilingualism, migration, economic factor, social factor, political factor,
demographic factor are the significant factors which influence the
second generation of Karonese in Medan shift into Indonesian Language.
Political factor, social factor, demographic factor, value, attitude, and
lack of Karo language speaking competence are factors, which influence
the third generation of Karonese in Medan, shift into Indonesian
Language.
2. Two patterns of karo language shift in the second generation; (1) the
second generation alternatively speaks Indonesian language and Karo
language in the family domain and friendship domain, (2) they no longer
use Karo language in those five domains although they still understand
and fluently speak Karo language.
The pattern of Karo language shift in the third generation is; the
subjects begin monolingual in Indonesian language in the five domains.
3. The Karonese shift into Indonesia because of the status of Indonesian
language and social success
Discussion
1 .Factors Influenced Karo Language Shift in the Second and
Third Generation of Karonese in Medan
1.1 Bilingualism factor
The second generation of Karonese in Medan uses two languages;
Indonesian and karo language. But the they prefer to use Indonesian
Language to Karo language.
1.2 Migration factor
All the subjects in the second generation are migrants. The origin
countries of the subjects are mostly from Karo District.
1.3 Economic factor
They speak Indonesian language during work time in their workplace. In
addition, all the subjects say that Indonesian language is very crucial in
their job.
1.4 Social factor
The second and the third subjects need Indonesian language to
communicate among others people around them. They choose
Indonesian language in which they are fluency to use it and it is used in
the wider society.
1.5 Political factor
It deals with government policies concerning language and
education. Indonesian language is used as medium of instruction
at school and public service.
1.6 Demographic factor
Most of the subjects of the second and third generation seldom
use Karo language in Medan. And their karo language ability
reduces because of television, radio, and internet. Moreover,
those subjects come from intercultural marriage families.

1.7 Value and attitude factor


Most of the subjects of the second and third generation actually
have a positive value on Karo language. but they lost their loyalty
on karo language use. They rarely use their karo language.

1.8 Lack of karo language speaking competence


Lack of karo language speaking competence causes the negative
value of karo language speaker. And parents encourage them to
speak indonesian language.
The Pattern of Karo Language Shift in the Second Generation of Karonese in
Medan

Two patterns of Karo language shift in the


second generation of Karonese.
They become bilingual. They speak well

both Indonesian language and Karo


language in family and friendship domain.
The subjects of the second generation

speak well both Indonesian language and


Karo language. Nevertheless, they use
only Indonesian Language in family
domain
The Pattern of Karo Language Shift in
the Third Generation of Karonese in
Medan

There is only one pattern of Karo language


shift in the third generation of Karonese.
The third generation of karonese in Medan
begins monolingual in Indonesian
language in the five domains.
Religion domain becomes the last domain
karonese maintain karo language.
The Reason of Karonese Shift into
Indonesian Language
The Karonese shifts into Indonesia
language because of the status of
Indonesian language and social success
The status of Indonesian language as
official language and national language
has made it as the lingua franca among
varieties of people in Indonesia.
to be easily interacting with the different
ethnics people, Karonese dominantly use
Indonesian language
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSSION & SUGGESTION
CONCLUSSION
Karo language shift in the second and third generation is
influenced by bilingualism, migration, economic factor,
political factor, demographic factor, value, attitude and lack
of Karo language speaking competence.
The pattern of Karo Language Shift is done through the shift
of Karo language to Indonesian Language in the second and
third generation of Karonese in Medan.
The reasons of the Karo Language Shift are social success
and the status of Indonesian language.
Suggestions
The third generation of Karonese learn
and speak more Karo language

Local Government and Language Centre


apply a program of reversing Karo Language
shift

researchers research of Karo Language

language experts write more books or


references of Karo language.
THANK YOU