Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
LOAD ANALYSIS OF RIGID FRAMES
• Portal and Gable frames of single span, with or without the provision of cranes, may conveniently be analyzed by using the expressions given in Reference-1.
• The frames are separately solved for various loadings and the results are superimposed according to the possible load combinations.
• After analysis, free-body diagrams of all components may be considered separately, such as beams, columns, beam-columns, tension members and compression members.
• The components may then be designed using the routine procedures for member design.
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
Example 10.6
• A rectangular portal frame has the following data:
• Span = 20 m. Height = 6.5 m. • Pinned at the base. • The center-to-center spacing of the frames is 6 m. • Roof dead load is 1000 N/m 2 . • Live load (or minimum snow load) is 950 N/m 2 . • Total of windward and leeward wind load, assumed to act on the windward side alone, is 1000 N/m 2 .
•
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
• The purlins are placed at every 2 m interval on the girder.
• Bracing is provided for the columns by the longitudinal bracing at 2.75 m and 5.5 m height from the bottom.
• Design the frame assuming the moment of inertia of beam equal to 1.5 times that of the column for initial proportioning.
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
• Perform all the checks as per the beam design flow chart.
Beam-Column Design
Column AB:
P u
V u
= 163.20 kN
= 63.16 kN
M u
= 410.61 kN-m
• Minimum depth check is to be performed for the partially fixed ends condition and not for the simply supported case.
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
Selection of Trial Section
Assume 15% moment magnification.
=
P u + M ux (m x )
P eq
= 163.20 + 1.15 410.61 3.64
=
=
1882 kN
1.0 2.75= 2.75 m
K u L uy
Trial Section 1: W31079
=
r x / r y
2.11
=
2.3 6.5 / 2.11
=
7.09 m
(K u L uy ) eq
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
Trial Section 2: W360134
I 1
I 2 / I 1
= 41,600 10 4 mm 4
= 1.35 (close to the assumed value of
1.5)
•
Because of comparatively larger bending
moment compared with the axial force, the
section may be checked as a beam for the
magnified bending moment of 511 kN-m.
•
Greater depth sections, like W53092, for
such cases where the bending moment is more
pronounced may also be selected.
•
Perform the detailed checks.
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
Miscellaneous Details
• The typical roof details consisting of 20 gage Tufcor
filled with lightweight concrete are given in Figure
10.29.
• The roof finish may be made by using 3 Ply Felt and
Gravel built-up roof.
• The typical details of the longitudinal purlins or steel
joists are also presented.
• A section through an industrial building consisting of portal frames placed at regular spacing is shown in Figure 10.30, which explains the relative position of major components of such buildings.
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
Tufcor Filled By Lightweight Concrete
Joist
False Ceiling
Wall Sheathing
Longitudinal Diagonal
Bracing
Floor
Details
Girt
Foundation Details
Already Provided
Figure 10.30. Typical Section of an Industrial Building.
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
Question 10.6:
A rectangular portal frame has a span of R/60 m, height of R/100 m and is pinned at the base. The center-to- center spacing of the frames is R/120 m, roof dead load is 1000 N/m 2 , live load (or minimum snow load) is 950 N/m 2 and the total of windward and leeward wind load, assumed to act on the windward side alone, is 1000 N/m 2 . The purlins are placed at every 2 m interval on the girder and bracing is provided for the columns at approximately 2.5 m interval by the longitudinal bracing. Design the frame assuming the moment of inertia of beam equal to 1.5 times that of the column for initial proportioning.
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
DESIGN OF BUILTUP PURLIN
The following procedure may be used to design
purlin, consisting of two angles at the top and two
angles at the bottom connected by diagonal plates,
making a truss like arrangement (Fig. 10.31).
*
Assume dead load of the roof as specified
for tar-plus-gravel roofing or by some other
reasonable assumption.
*
Calculate the load acting on the purlin.