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# LOAD ANALYSIS OF RIGID FRAMES # Example 10.6 # •

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. # Solution Assume that only the gravity loads act on the frame.
Assume that the self weight of the girder is included
w D = 1000 × 6 / 1000 = 6.00 kN/m
=
w L
w W =
(Acting on roof)
950 × 6 / 1000
875 × 6 / 1000
= 5.70 kN/m
=
- 5.25 kN/m

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. 1.2w D + 1.6 w L
= 16.32 kN/m
1.2w D + 1.0 w L + 1.3 w W
=
= 6.08 kN/m
0.9w D 1.3 w W
=
- 1.43 kN/m
I 2
h
=
1.5 I 1
6.5 m
L
=
20 m

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. I
2
C
B
h
I 1
I 1
L
D
A
Figure 10.26. Nomenclature for the Analysis of a Portal Frame.

# From Reference-1:

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. k
=
(I 2 / I 1 )  h / L
1.5  6.5 / 20 =
= 2 k + 3
= 3.975
=
=
0.4875
N
=
0
M A
M D
2
wL
=
=
4 N
M B
M C
w  20 2
=
= – 25.16w kN-m
4
3.975

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. 2
wL
 M
=
=
M E
B
8
w  20 2
 25.16 w
=
= +24.84 kN-m
8
V D
=
= w  20 / 2
w L / 2
=
10 w kN
=
H D
=
– M B / h
– (– 25.16 w) / 6.5
=
3.87 w kN
The resulting moment diagram is given in Figure 10.27.

M max

# H A=

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. B
C
+
M
max
A
D
H D
H A
V A
V D
Figure 10.27.
Bending Moment Diagram for Frame Subjected to Gravity Loads.

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. w
=
I 2
1625  6 / 1000
= 9.75 kN/m
=
h
=
1.5 I 1
6.5 m
L
=
20 m
From Reference-1:
k
=
(I 2 / I 1 )  h / L
=
1.5  6.5 / 20 =
= 2 k + 3
= 3.975
0.4875
N

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. M A =
=
0
M D
2
wh
k
9.75
6.5 2 
0.4875
1
 1
=
=
M B
4
 
2  N
 
4
 
2
3.975
 
= 96.67 kN-m
2
wh
k
1
M
=
4
 
2  N
 
C
9.75
6.5 2 
0.4875
 1
=
4
 
2
3.975
 
= – 109.30 kN-m
96.67 109.30
M
 M
B
C
M E =
2
=
2
=
– 6.32 kN/m 2
wh
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
=
V D
2 L
=
=
=
9.75  6.5 2 / (2  20)
– V D
=
10.30 kN
– 10.30 kN
V A
H D =
=
M C / h
(– 109.30) / 6.5
=
– 16.82 kN
H A =
=
– (w h– H D )
– (9.75  6.5 + 16.82)
=
– 80.20 kN
Figure 10.28 provides shape of the bending moment diagram due to
The analysis results are combined together for various load
combinations in Table 10.2.

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. E
C
B
+
M C /V D = 10.61 m
A
D
H A
H D
V A
V D
Figure 10.28.
Bending Moment Diagram for Frame Subjected to Wind Loads.

### Calculation of Design Forces for the Frame of Example 10.6. 109.79
= 163.20
10(16.32)
= 163.20
10(16.32)
H D (kN)
H A (kN)
V D (kN)
V A (kN)
3.87(16.32)
3.87(-1.43)-80.20(1.3)
= -27.40
63.16
3.87(-1.43)-16.82(1.3)
= -14.3(nt)+13.39(lt)
163.20
10(-1.43)+10.30(1.3)
= -14.3(nt) -13.39(lt)
= 63.16
3.87(16.32)
= 63.16
-25.16(16.32)
= - 410.61
– 25.16(16.32)
= - 410.61
Forces
Combinations
Design
Value
& -43.74
= - 43.74
= 405.39
= 142.81
= - 109.79
= 60.8(nt) - 13.39(lt)
10(6.08)+10.30(1.3)
= 60.8(nt)+13.39(lt)
10(6.08)-10.30(1.3)
3.87(6.08)-80.20(1.3)
3.87(6.08)-16.82(1.3)
0.9 D + 1.3 W
1.3 W
-25.16(-1.43)+96.67(1.3)
= - 80.73
= 1.66
1.2 D + 1.6 L
1.2 D + 1.0 L +
-25.16(6.08)+96.67(1.3)
= – 152.97(nt)+125.67(lt)
–25.16(6.08)-109.30(1.3)
= – 152.97(nt)-142.09(lt)
= 35.98(nt)+125.67(lt)
= 35.98(nt)-142.09(lt)
-25.16(-1.43)-109.30(1.3)
– 410.61
& +161.65
– 410.61
M B (kN-m)
M C (kN-m)
M E (kN-m)
24.84(6.08)-6.32(1.3)
405.39
24.84(-1.43)-6.32(1.3)
24.84(16.32)
10(-1.43)-10.30(1.3)
163.20

# Beam Design

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. M max
This
= 410.61 kN-m
moment will be
increased due to sway
moment magnification but reduced due to the
AISC allowed redistribution of moments.
No
modification
is
applied
here
as
a
simplification.
= 163.20 kN
V max
L b
=
2 m
• From beam selection tables of Reference-1,
Section Selected: W61082
I 2
= 56,200  10 4 mm 4

# • Perform all the checks as per the beam design flow chart. Beam-Column Design
Column AB:
P u
V u
= 163.20 kN
= 63.16 kN
M u
= 410.61 kN-m

# Column DC:

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. P u
V u
M u
= 163.20 kN
= 109.79 kN
= 410.61 kN-m
Hence, column DC is more critical and design is
to be carried out for it.
The unbraced length of this column about the x-
direction is 6.5 m, while it is 2.75 m about the
y-direction.

# K-value

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. (I / L of columns) / (I / L of beams)
 top =
=
= 2.05
1.0 / 6.5
1.5 / 20
10 for braced columns
 bot =
and 20 for sway columns
K x for braced conditions= 0.92 ( may conservatively be
taken as 1.0)
K y for sway conditions
=
= 2.30
m x
10.0 - 14(d/1000)2 - 0.7 K x L x = 3.64

# Selection of Trial Section Assume 15% moment magnification.
=
P u + M ux (m x )
P eq
= 163.20 + 1.15  410.61  3.64
=
=
1882 kN
1.0  2.75= 2.75 m
K u L uy
Trial Section 1: W31079
=
r x / r y
2.11
=
2.3  6.5 / 2.11
=
7.09 m
(K u L uy ) eq

# Trial Section 2: W360134 I 1
I 2 / I 1
= 41,600  10 4 mm 4
= 1.35 (close to the assumed value of
1.5)
Because of comparatively larger bending
moment compared with the axial force, the
section may be checked as a beam for the
magnified bending moment of 511 kN-m.
Greater depth sections, like W53092, for
such cases where the bending moment is more
pronounced may also be selected.
Perform the detailed checks.

# Miscellaneous Details • The typical roof details consisting of 20 gage Tufcor
filled with lightweight concrete are given in Figure
10.29.
• The roof finish may be made by using 3 Ply Felt and
Gravel built-up roof.
• The typical details of the longitudinal purlins or steel
joists are also presented.

# • A section through an industrial building consisting of portal frames placed at regular spacing is shown in Figure 10.30, which explains the relative position of major components of such buildings.

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. Tufcor Filled By Lightweight Concrete
Joist
False Ceiling
Wall Sheathing
Longitudinal Diagonal
Bracing
Floor
Details
Girt
Foundation Details

## Figure 10.30. Typical Section of an Industrial Building.

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. 3 Ply Felt And Gravel Built–Up Roof
Steel Joist
Lightweight Insulating Concrete
Tufcor
20 Gage
Hanger For
False Ceiling
False Ceiling
Frame For False
Ceiling
Figure 10.29. Roof and Insulation Details.

# Question 10.6: # DESIGN OF BUILTUP PURLIN The following procedure may be used to design
purlin, consisting of two angles at the top and two
angles at the bottom connected by diagonal plates,
making a truss like arrangement (Fig. 10.31).
*
for tar-plus-gravel roofing or by some other
reasonable assumption.
*
Calculate the load acting on the purlin.

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. *
Assume self-weight of the purlin (usually 10
per cent of the total unfactored load).
*
The vertical distance between the centroids
of the angle sections (denoted by d) may
approximately be taken equal to S / 20, lesser
or equal to the girder depth.
*
equal
The gap between the two angles is kept
to twice the thickness of the diagonal
members.

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. *
The tension or compression in the top and
bottom chords may be calculated as under:
(
M
)
x
max. unfactored
T or C
=
d
*
*
L b for the top chord angles may be taken equal
to S / 4 (to be on conservative side). Design
top chord for a compression of 1.45C, using
the flow chart for a compression member.
Design bottom chord for tension, having
T  1.45
factored force in one angle of
(approximately equal to 0.8T / F y ).
2
0.9 F
y

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. b
t
d
(b) Diagonal Member
(a)
Details of Cross Section
Figure 10.31. Built-Up Purlin Section.

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. To design the diagonal strips, the following steps
will be required:
*
Find the factored shear force in the purlin
at the end, equal to 1.45 times the unfactored
shear.
d / sin where
=
45
e
=
V u / sin =
F u
2.05 V unfact
The minimum thickness to satisfy the
maximum slenderness ratio is calculated.
*

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. d / 0.707
/ r
140
140
e
0.289
t
d / t
 28.6
=
d / 28.6
5 mm
t min
(round the answer to next available size)
*
The minimum width required for strength
is calculated.
*
Similarly b min to make a rivet / bolt hole is
evaluated.

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. ( e / r) prov =
Calculate  c F
4.9  d / t,
for this 
/ r
ratio.
cr
e
2.05 V
unfact
b  t
=
F
c
cr
b min = 3  diameter of fastener
*
The maximum width for local stability is
calculated. If any criterion is not satisfied,
the thickness is increased. The value of b is
rounded.
b
=
10.8 t

## max

### Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. *
The diameter of fastener is calculated for
the force in the diagonal member.