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Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

LOAD ANALYSIS OF RIGID FRAMES

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. LOAD ANALYSIS OF RIGID FRAMES • Portal and Gable frames of single

Portal and Gable frames of single span, with or without the provision of cranes, may conveniently be analyzed by using the expressions given in Reference-1.

The frames are separately solved for various loadings and the results are superimposed according to the possible load combinations.

After analysis, free-body diagrams of all components may be considered separately, such as beams, columns, beam-columns, tension members and compression members.

The components may then be designed using the routine procedures for member design.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

Example 10.6

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. Example 10.6 • A rectangular portal frame has the following data: •

• A rectangular portal frame has the following data:

• Span = 20 m. Height = 6.5 m. • Pinned at the base. • The center-to-center spacing of the frames is 6 m. • Roof dead load is 1000 N/m 2 . • Live load (or minimum snow load) is 950 N/m 2 . • Total of windward and leeward wind load, assumed to act on the windward side alone, is 1000 N/m 2 .

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. • The purlins are placed at every 2 m interval on the

• The purlins are placed at every 2 m interval on the girder.

• Bracing is provided for the columns by the longitudinal bracing at 2.75 m and 5.5 m height from the bottom.

• Design the frame assuming the moment of inertia of beam equal to 1.5 times that of the column for initial proportioning.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

Solution

Gravity Load Analysis Assume that only the gravity loads act on the frame. Assume that the
Gravity Load Analysis
Assume that only the gravity loads act on the frame.
Assume that the self weight of the girder is included
in the given dead load .
w D = 1000 × 6 / 1000 = 6.00 kN/m
=
w L
w W =
(Acting on roof)
950 × 6 / 1000
875 × 6 / 1000
= 5.70 kN/m
=
- 5.25 kN/m

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

1.2w D + 1.6 w L = 16.32 kN/m 1.2w D + 1.0 w L +
1.2w D + 1.6 w L
= 16.32 kN/m
1.2w D + 1.0 w L + 1.3 w W
=
= 6.08 kN/m
0.9w D 1.3 w W
=
- 1.43 kN/m
I 2
h
=
1.5 I 1
6.5 m
L
=
20 m

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

I 2 C B h I 1 I 1 L D A Figure 10.26. Nomenclature for
I
2
C
B
h
I 1
I 1
L
D
A
Figure 10.26. Nomenclature for the Analysis of a Portal Frame.

From Reference-1:

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

k = (I 2 / I 1 )  h / L 1.5  6.5 /
k
=
(I 2 / I 1 )  h / L
1.5  6.5 / 20 =
= 2 k + 3
= 3.975
=
=
0.4875
N
=
0
M A
M D
2
wL
=
=
4 N
M B
M C
w  20 2
=
= – 25.16w kN-m
4
3.975

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

2 wL  M = = M E B 8 w  20 2  25.16
2
wL
 M
=
=
M E
B
8
w  20 2
 25.16 w
=
= +24.84 kN-m
8
V D
=
= w  20 / 2
w L / 2
=
10 w kN
=
H D
=
– M B / h
– (– 25.16 w) / 6.5
=
3.87 w kN
The resulting moment diagram is given in Figure 10.27.

M max

V A

=

H A =

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B – – C + – – M max A D H D H A V
B
C
+
M
max
A
D
H D
H A
V A
V D
Figure 10.27.
Bending Moment Diagram for Frame Subjected to Gravity Loads.

Wind Load Analysis

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

w = I 2 1625  6 / 1000 = 9.75 kN/m = h = 1.5
w
=
I 2
1625  6 / 1000
= 9.75 kN/m
=
h
=
1.5 I 1
6.5 m
L
=
20 m
From Reference-1:
k
=
(I 2 / I 1 )  h / L
=
1.5  6.5 / 20 =
= 2 k + 3
= 3.975
0.4875
N

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

M A = = 0 M D 2 wh  k  9.75  6.5 2
M A =
=
0
M D
2
wh
k
9.75
6.5 2 
0.4875
1
 1
=
=
M B
4
 
2  N
 
4
 
2
3.975
 
= 96.67 kN-m
2
wh
k
1
M
=
4
 
2  N
 
C
9.75
6.5 2 
0.4875
 1
=
4
 
2
3.975
 
= – 109.30 kN-m
96.67 109.30
M
 M
B
C
M E =
2
=
2
=
– 6.32 kN/m
2 wh Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. = V D 2 L = = = 9.75 
2
wh
Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.
=
V D
2 L
=
=
=
9.75  6.5 2 / (2  20)
– V D
=
10.30 kN
– 10.30 kN
V A
H D =
=
M C / h
(– 109.30) / 6.5
=
– 16.82 kN
H A =
=
– (w h– H D )
– (9.75  6.5 + 16.82)
=
– 80.20 kN
Figure 10.28 provides shape of the bending moment diagram due to
the wind load.
The analysis results are combined together for various load
combinations in Table 10.2.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

– E C B – + M C /V D = 10.61 m A D H
E
C
B
+
M C /V D = 10.61 m
A
D
H A
H D
V A
V D
Figure 10.28.
Bending Moment Diagram for Frame Subjected to Wind Loads.

Table 10.2.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

Calculation of Design Forces for the Frame of Example 10.6.

109.79 = 163.20 10(16.32) = 163.20 10(16.32) H D (kN) H A (kN) V D (kN)
109.79
= 163.20
10(16.32)
= 163.20
10(16.32)
H D (kN)
H A (kN)
V D (kN)
V A (kN)
3.87(16.32)
3.87(-1.43)-80.20(1.3)
= -27.40
63.16
3.87(-1.43)-16.82(1.3)
= -14.3(nt)+13.39(lt)
163.20
10(-1.43)+10.30(1.3)
= -14.3(nt) -13.39(lt)
= 63.16
3.87(16.32)
= 63.16
-25.16(16.32)
= - 410.61
– 25.16(16.32)
= - 410.61
Forces
Combinations
Design
Value
& -43.74
= - 43.74
= 405.39
= 142.81
= - 109.79
= 60.8(nt) - 13.39(lt)
10(6.08)+10.30(1.3)
= 60.8(nt)+13.39(lt)
10(6.08)-10.30(1.3)
3.87(6.08)-80.20(1.3)
3.87(6.08)-16.82(1.3)
0.9 D + 1.3 W
1.3 W
-25.16(-1.43)+96.67(1.3)
= - 80.73
= 1.66
1.2 D + 1.6 L
1.2 D + 1.0 L +
-25.16(6.08)+96.67(1.3)
= – 152.97(nt)+125.67(lt)
–25.16(6.08)-109.30(1.3)
= – 152.97(nt)-142.09(lt)
= 35.98(nt)+125.67(lt)
= 35.98(nt)-142.09(lt)
-25.16(-1.43)-109.30(1.3)
– 410.61
& +161.65
– 410.61
M B (kN-m)
M C (kN-m)
M E (kN-m)
24.84(6.08)-6.32(1.3)
405.39
24.84(-1.43)-6.32(1.3)
24.84(16.32)
10(-1.43)-10.30(1.3)
163.20

Beam Design

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

• M max • This = 410.61 kN-m moment will be increased due to sway moment
M max
This
= 410.61 kN-m
moment will be
increased due to sway
moment magnification but reduced due to the
AISC allowed redistribution of moments.
No
modification
is
applied
here
as
a
simplification.
= 163.20 kN
V max
L b
=
2 m
• From beam selection tables of Reference-1,
Section Selected: W61082
I 2
= 56,200  10 4 mm 4

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

• Perform all the checks as per the beam design flow chart.

Beam-Column Design Column AB: P u V u = 163.20 kN = 63.16 kN M u
Beam-Column Design
Column AB:
P u
V u
= 163.20 kN
= 63.16 kN
M u
= 410.61 kN-m

• Minimum depth check is to be performed for the partially fixed ends condition and not for the simply supported case.

Column DC:

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

P u V u M u = 163.20 kN = 109.79 kN = 410.61 kN-m Hence,
P u
V u
M u
= 163.20 kN
= 109.79 kN
= 410.61 kN-m
Hence, column DC is more critical and design is
to be carried out for it.
The unbraced length of this column about the x-
direction is 6.5 m, while it is 2.75 m about the
y-direction.

K-value

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

(I / L of columns) / (I / L of beams)  top = = =
(I / L of columns) / (I / L of beams)
 top =
=
= 2.05
1.0 / 6.5
1.5 / 20
10 for braced columns
 bot =
and 20 for sway columns
K x for braced conditions= 0.92 ( may conservatively be
taken as 1.0)
K y for sway conditions
=
= 2.30
m x
10.0 - 14(d/1000)2 - 0.7 K x L x = 3.64

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

Selection of Trial Section

Assume 15% moment magnification. = P u + M ux (m x ) P eq =
Assume 15% moment magnification.
=
P u + M ux (m x )
P eq
= 163.20 + 1.15  410.61  3.64
=
=
1882 kN
1.0  2.75= 2.75 m
K u L uy
Trial Section 1: W31079
=
r x / r y
2.11
=
2.3  6.5 / 2.11
=
7.09 m
(K u L uy ) eq

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

Trial Section 2: W360134

I 1 I 2 / I 1 = 41,600  10 4 mm 4 = 1.35
I 1
I 2 / I 1
= 41,600  10 4 mm 4
= 1.35 (close to the assumed value of
1.5)
Because of comparatively larger bending
moment compared with the axial force, the
section may be checked as a beam for the
magnified bending moment of 511 kN-m.
Greater depth sections, like W53092, for
such cases where the bending moment is more
pronounced may also be selected.
Perform the detailed checks.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

Miscellaneous Details

• The typical roof details consisting of 20 gage Tufcor filled with lightweight concrete are given
• The typical roof details consisting of 20 gage Tufcor
filled with lightweight concrete are given in Figure
10.29.
• The roof finish may be made by using 3 Ply Felt and
Gravel built-up roof.
• The typical details of the longitudinal purlins or steel
joists are also presented.

• A section through an industrial building consisting of portal frames placed at regular spacing is shown in Figure 10.30, which explains the relative position of major components of such buildings.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

Tufcor Filled By Lightweight Concrete Joist False Ceiling Wall Sheathing Longitudinal Diagonal Bracing Floor Details Girt
Tufcor Filled By Lightweight Concrete
Joist
False Ceiling
Wall Sheathing
Longitudinal Diagonal
Bracing
Floor
Details
Girt
Foundation Details
Already Provided

Figure 10.30. Typical Section of an Industrial Building.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

3 Ply Felt And Gravel Built–Up Roof Steel Joist Lightweight Insulating Concrete Tufcor 20 Gage Hanger
3 Ply Felt And Gravel Built–Up Roof
Steel Joist
Lightweight Insulating Concrete
Tufcor
20 Gage
Hanger For
False Ceiling
False Ceiling
Frame For False
Ceiling
Figure 10.29. Roof and Insulation Details.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

Question 10.6:

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch. Question 10.6: A rectangular portal frame has a span of R/60 m,

A rectangular portal frame has a span of R/60 m, height of R/100 m and is pinned at the base. The center-to- center spacing of the frames is R/120 m, roof dead load is 1000 N/m 2 , live load (or minimum snow load) is 950 N/m 2 and the total of windward and leeward wind load, assumed to act on the windward side alone, is 1000 N/m 2 . The purlins are placed at every 2 m interval on the girder and bracing is provided for the columns at approximately 2.5 m interval by the longitudinal bracing. Design the frame assuming the moment of inertia of beam equal to 1.5 times that of the column for initial proportioning.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

DESIGN OF BUILTUP PURLIN

The following procedure may be used to design purlin, consisting of two angles at the top
The following procedure may be used to design
purlin, consisting of two angles at the top and two
angles at the bottom connected by diagonal plates,
making a truss like arrangement (Fig. 10.31).
*
Assume dead load of the roof as specified
for tar-plus-gravel roofing or by some other
reasonable assumption.
*
Calculate the load acting on the purlin.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

* Assume self-weight of the purlin (usually 10 per cent of the total unfactored load). *
*
Assume self-weight of the purlin (usually 10
per cent of the total unfactored load).
*
The vertical distance between the centroids
of the angle sections (denoted by d) may
approximately be taken equal to S / 20, lesser
or equal to the girder depth.
*
equal
The gap between the two angles is kept
to twice the thickness of the diagonal
members.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

* The tension or compression in the top and bottom chords may be calculated as under:
*
The tension or compression in the top and
bottom chords may be calculated as under:
(
M
)
x
max. unfactored
T or C
=
d
*
*
L b for the top chord angles may be taken equal
to S / 4 (to be on conservative side). Design
top chord for a compression of 1.45C, using
the flow chart for a compression member.
Design bottom chord for tension, having
T  1.45
factored force in one angle of
(approximately equal to 0.8T / F y ).
2
0.9 F
y

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

b t d (b) Diagonal Member (a) Details of Cross Section Figure 10.31. Built-Up Purlin Section.
b
t
d
(b) Diagonal Member
(a)
Details of Cross Section
Figure 10.31. Built-Up Purlin Section.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

To design the diagonal strips, the following steps will be required: * Find the factored shear
To design the diagonal strips, the following steps
will be required:
*
Find the factored shear force in the purlin
at the end, equal to 1.45 times the unfactored
shear.
d / sin where
=
45
e
=
V u / sin =
F u
2.05 V unfact
The minimum thickness to satisfy the
maximum slenderness ratio is calculated.
*

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

d / 0.707  / r  140   140 e 0.289 t  d
d / 0.707
/ r
140
140
e
0.289
t
d / t
 28.6
=
d / 28.6
5 mm
t min
(round the answer to next available size)
*
The minimum width required for strength
is calculated.
*
Similarly b min to make a rivet / bolt hole is
evaluated.

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

( e / r) prov = Calculate  c F 4.9  d / t, for
( e / r) prov =
Calculate  c F
4.9  d / t,
for this 
/ r
ratio.
cr
e
2.05 V
unfact
b  t
=
F
c
cr
b min = 3  diameter of fastener
*
The maximum width for local stability is
calculated. If any criterion is not satisfied,
the thickness is increased. The value of b is
rounded.
b
=
10.8 t

max

Prof. Mahboob Ali Ch.

* The diameter of fastener is calculated for the force in the diagonal member.
*
The diameter of fastener is calculated for
the force in the diagonal member.