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WELCOME

A Participating in Class Listening and check ( ) the expressions you hea

ENERGY

0pening activity

Unit Goals

Look at the picture and answer the questions .

1. What city do you think this is ?

UNIT
2. In what ways are people using energy here ?

Block3. 1
Do you

think your city or town uses more or


less energy than the city in this picture ?

In this unit you will l

talk about your energy habits


describe ways to conserve
use the simple present, present
progressive, and simple pa
compare lifestyles of the past an
use and, but, and or to show re
between ideas .
talk about alternative ener

SON A

Vocabulary in Context complete each sentence

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

with

a word or phrase

The television and refrigerator need _____________________ in order to work .


we dont have an electric stove. Our stove uses __________________ for cooking food .
If we ______________________ energy at home , we can save money and help the environment, too .
The lights in the house are very ______________________. They dont use much energy .
battery
Every cell phone has a small ________________________ inside it .
Natural
gas
We dont want to _____________________ energy because its so expensive.
efficient
Oil is one kind of _____________________. It formed millons of years ago .
My family used a lot of energy in the past , but now were trying to ________________ the conserve
amount of energy we use at home .
electricity

HOW DO YOU USE ENERGY V


?ocabulary

Vocabulary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8

_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____

battery
conserve
efficient
electricity
fossil fuel
natural gas
reduce
waste

in

Action Match each


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

word to

its

definition .

to use something carefully to make it last longer


coal, oil , and natural gas that formed millons of years ago
to make something smaller .
device that stores and provides energy for electronic items
to use something carelessly or to use too much of something
describes something that doesnt use too much time or energy
gas from under the earth surface that is burned for energy
form of energy that can be carried by wires

Fossil fuel
waste
reduce

Read the conversation and circle the correct words . Then practice with

Luis : The newspaper says the cost of energy is rising. I guess were all going to have to pay more .
Nayeli : I guess so , but we should also (1) ( conserve / battery ) energy . That way we can (2)
( reduce / conserve ) the amount of money we spend on it .
Luis :
Well, I dont drive a car , so I dont buy gasoline . That comes from oil, and I know its
good to conserve (3) ( batteries / fossil fuels ) .
Nayeli : Thats great ! But do you use a lot of (4) ( electricity / waste ) at home ?
Luis :
Probably. I dont use a lot of lights, but the T. V. And computer are always on
Nayeli : And how about your refrigerator ? Is it new and (5) ( efficient / conserve ) ?
Luis :
No its really old . It probably (6) wastes / reduces ) a lot of energy .
Nayeli : May be you should get a newer one .

Grammar in Context

Study the chart .

Review of the present tenses


Examples____________________________________________________________
Explanations
I use a hair dryer every day
Gasoline costs a lot of money

Use the simple present to talk about re


actions, habits, or things that are always

______________________________________________________________________________
She is watching television right now .

Use the present progressive to talk ab

They are looking for a new apartment .

Things that are happening at this mome

The spelling of
some words
changes when
we add ing. For
example :
move -- moving
run -- running
lie -- lying

things that are happening around thi


___________________________________________

LESSON B
A

ALTERNATIVE

ENERGY

Vocabulary in Context look at the pictures and listen


toTinformation
about alternative energy source .
4

Wind power

Nuclear powe
geothermal power
Vocabulary in action Fill in each blank with the correct type of alterna

Solar power

1. ________________
2. ________________
3. ________________
4. ________________
Hydroelectric
5. ________________
power
6. ________________
7. ________________
8. ________________

uses nuclear reactions to produce electricity .


uses the movement of the ocean to produce electricity .
uses dams and the movement of water in rivers to produce electricity .
are plants such as corn that people burn of fuel or use to produce ethano
is a gas that people can use as fuel in their cars .
uses energy fron the sun to heat water or produce electricity .
uses heat from inside the earth to produce electricity or heats homes.
uses the movement of the wind to produce electricity .

Match each situation to the best alternative energy source in a .

1. ____
We live near a large river .
Tidal
power
2. ____ Farmers grow a lot of sugar here .
3. ____ We live in the desert and its always sunny .
4. ____ The technology here is now very safe and efficient .
5. ____ We live near a volcano . Theres a lot of heat from the earth here .
6. ____ We live near the ocean .
7. ____ We live on high land and its always windy .
8. ____ uses the movement of the wind to produce electricity .

T4
There are several

important alternative
the United States, for example, use much
turn turbines . Finally. Geotherma
energy sources. Solar power uses energy of their corn to produce ethanola kind energy
of
is a possible source of
from the sun to heat water or to make alcohol used for fuel. And with oil getting
power in some places. With
electricity. Wind power of course, uses the
more expensive every year, hydrogen Geothermal
may
, heat from inside th
wind to turn large turbines, and that turning
become a replacement for gasoline in car
earth can heat homes and can
creates electricity. Hydroelectric power isor buses. Tidal power may also be an also be used to make electricity
also important, but huge amonts of money
important alternative energy source in the
are needed to build large damsespecially
future . It uses the movement of the ocean
dams across wide rivers. Biofu ls are alsoto produce electricity , while nuclear power
becoming more important, too. Brazil anduses nuclear reactions to heat water and

Grammar in Context Study the chart .

le present and present progressive : Negative and q

mples
Explanations
__________________________________________________________________________

not / isnt at school today


With the verb to be, form neg
lights energy efficient ?
statements and questions in the
s / Wheres the science classroom ?
present .
_________________________________________________________________

ot / dont have a computer .


With verbs other than to be, u
air conditioner use a lot of energy ?
Simple present and do or does
es the semestre begin ?
negative statements and que
__________________________________________________________________

Lisa are not / arent paying attention .


sting electricity ?
ancho taking the bus to work ?

In the present progressive


statements and questions a
formed with the verb to be

LESSON ENERGY
C

CONSERVATION

bulary in context Read the information and look at the phrasal verbs in b

Easy Ways
to Conserve Energy

Energy conservation doesnt have to be difficult .


You dont need to buy a hydrogenpowered car,
For example or sit in a dark house every night.
Instead try to do Several small things each day
To reduce the amount of energy You use. these
Small things can add up to big saving on your
Energy bill, And they can be a big help to. the
planet as well. Here are a few things you can do :
1.
2.
3.

4. TURN DOWN the thermostat on the water


Always TURN OFF the lights when you leave a room heater and use cooler water.
a room
5. PLUG IN electronic equipment such as a D.V.D.
CUT BACK ON the amount of the time you spendplayer only when you use it
watching television
6. Remember after we USE UP all of the fossil
Only TURN ON electrical fans or other electrical
fuels , they are gone forever .
devices when you really need them.

ocabulary in Action Write a phrasal verb from a next to the correct definiti
_________________ to reduce the amount of something
_________________ to connect an electrical device with a source of electricity
_________________ to stop an electrical device using the on / off control
_________________ to use all of something
_________________ to reduce the temperature setting on a stove, etc.
_________________ to start an electrical device using the on / off control .

Fill in each blank with a phrasal verb from

a.

Did you ______________ the thermostat on the heater ? Its very cold in here.
You need to _________________ the stereo if you want to use it . I always
unplug it if Im not using it .
Maybe you should ____________________ the number of video games you buy .
theyre expensive and you already have a lot of them .
The water in the bathroom is cold.
Could you please ________________ the
water heater ?
You can _____________________ the T. V. Nobody is really watching it .

Grammar in Context Study the chart .

REVIEW OF THE SIMPLE PAST

amples
Explanations
______________________________________________________________________

watched a movie last night .


Use the simple past to talk about complete
el plugged in the television .
Actions or situations in the past .
e winds
turbines were extremely large
______________________________________________________________________

d not buy an electric car .


Use did not or didnt plus the simple form o
didnt
do the homework
assignment .
To make negative statements in the simple past .
___________
___________________________________________________________

you watch a movie last night ?


Form yes / No and Whquestions in the simp
the power plant near the ocean ?
e was the power plant ?
n did_______
you go_ _to______________________________________________________________
Can cun ?

egular
verbs
Irregular verbs
___________________________________________
____________________________

walked
learned
opened

produce produced
waste
wasted
conserve conserved

leave left
eat
ate
go
went

find found
give gave
have had

read
say
make

LESSONWD
HAT D I D PEOPLE USE TO DO ?

Language Builder Study

Used

the chart .

to

Examples

used
dy is
d to
drive

to be a good place to work, but


happy here now .
drive my car every day. Now I
it a few days each week .

Explanations

Use used to plus the simple form o


To talk about (a) situation in the pas
are no longer true , or (b) things we
In the past that we dont do anymo

___________________________________________________________________________

ou use to study at that school ?


didnt use to study there. I used to
classes there .

Use did or didnt use to


negative statements .

for questi

______________________________________

T 5
Father: I understand . . . Your friends have
cell phones, so you want a cell phone, too .
But We just dont have the money right now.
You know . . . Nobody had a cell phone
when I was your age .
Daughter: I know, but how did you call your
parents ? If you were out with your friends,
for example, how did call home ?
Father: Well, there use to be a lot of public
phoneson the street, in stores and
restaurants they didnt cost very much,

Listening Listen to the conversation .

and I used them all the time .


1.
Who are the speakers ?
Daughter: Ok, but you had to find a
phone , and you coldnt make phone c
on the bus or in a car .
________________________________________________________
Father: Thats true, but life was even m
2 . What are they talking about ?
difficult for my parents ! When they we
children, they didnt have electricity in t
________________________________________________________
houses, and they used to carry water
C
Read each sentence and circle the correct wash clothes or wash dishes !
Daughter: Well, that does sound like a
word or phrase .
work . Did they have telephones at lea
Then listen again and check your
Father: I dont think so . And they use
to walk everywhere . Your grandparents
answers .
never had a car .
Daughter: OK, I get it . Life is easier now
1. The man says he ( used to / didnt use to ) have a
but I still want to cell phone .
cell phone
Father: I know you do . Ill talk to your
when he was young .
mother about it . Maybe we can get o
2. The girl want to know the man used to call his
next month.
Daughter:
Thanks dad .
( friends / parents ) .

3. The man says he ( used to / didnt used to ) use

LESSONA E VISITOR FROM

ICELAND

A
Look at the picture and discuss the
questions with a partner .
1. What do you know about Iceland ?

For example

where is it ?
how many people live there ?
2. Why do you think the water in the picture is warm
?

T 6

3. What kind of power plant do you see

picture ?

B
conversation .

Listening in Context

Listen to

the

in the

Hanna: Oh yeah. Well, in 1970s, oil beca


really expensive, and most people in
Hanna : Wow I knew that geothermal
Iceland use to heat their houses with
anna: Its so nice to see you and power is important to Iceland but
Camilo: I suppose heating is really
I didnt know anything about
your family again !
important in Iceland .
amilio : Its nice to see you, too ! geothermal power in Mexico .
Hanna: It is ! It gets seriouly cold there
How is everything in Iceland ? Camilo : Oh yeahour country gets
anyway., in the seventies, the goverm
about 40 % of its electricity from
anna : Oh , you know -- its cold
developed these districts, so
a lot of the time , and we have geothermal plants.
everyone in the district can heat thei
Hanna : Thats great ! you know in
problems with a volcano recently,
houses with to hot water.
Iceland, We didnt use to use geothermal
but life is pretty good
Camilo: Is it less expensive than heating
energy very much. A few people headed
amilo : I glad to hear it , but yourre
with oil ?
their houses with hot water, and
probably happy to be here in
Hanna: A lot less expensive and about 9
theres a kind of traditional breadwe
Sinaloa . Were near the Pacific
of the houses in Iceland get their hea
Ocean, and the weather is warm. bake it with geothermal energy .
this way. We also have some geother
: That sounds pretty good
anna : I m having a great time Camilo
here
power plants nowadays, too.
right now . . . Fresh, warm bread . . .
and I saw something really interesting
Camilo: Thats good news, Oil and othe
: We should go and get something
near the airport in Mazatlan, I Hanna
saw
fossil fuels are getting harder to find
to eat .
a huge geothermal power plant.
and more expensive too .
Camilo: OKin a little while. But you were
amilo : Oh sure, That plant produces
Hanna: Youre right about that nowwhe
talking about geothermal power plants.
electricity for this whole region of Mexico.
do you want to eat ?

T 6

sten to the conversation again and choose the correct answer .

1. Mexico gets about ____ of its electricity from geothermal power plants .
a. 20 %
b.
40 %
c.
60 %
2. Iceland developed heating systems in the _____
a. 1960s
b.
1970s
c.
1980s
3. Nowadays, _____ of the houses in Iceland use geothermal heating .
a.
50 %
b.
70 %
c.
90 %

T 7

Pronunciation Listen and repeat the words you hear .

e -- used
duce produced

3. develop developed
4. heat heated

5. waste wast
6. intent -- inten

ESSON READING
F

1. As fossil fuels such as coal


turbines. Wind turbines prod
and oil become more difficult to
clean electricity, and unlike
find and more expensive, people panels they work well or c
are looking for alternative
days. Some people, howeve
sources of energy energy. that
the turbines are noisy and ug
is clean and renewable . But
4. Nuclear power plants pr
which form of alternative
a lot of of electricity , an
energy is the right one ?
Unlike power plants that b
2. Solar panels collect energy
gas or coal, they dont pol
directly from the sun and
the air with carbon. But th
convert it to electrical power .
Disadvantages of nuclear po
Solar energy can also heat
include the high cost of b
water, and steam from the hot
them and concerns about w
water turns turbines to produce
to do with radioactive nuclea
electricity. These processes do
waste.
not produce air pollution, but
5. In the end, no single o
the cost of solar panels is very
of these sources is the ans
High, and at night or on cloudy
to our energy problems. Bu
days, the panels produce less
combination of thesealon
energy .
With other sources such
3. Wind is another way to
tidal or geothermal energy
collect energy from the sun .
maybe the way to meet t
The suns heat causes air to
worlds energy needs with
move and to turn the blades of depending on fossil fuels .

Powering
thefuture

Connect with the Text look at

the pictures

and

answer

the

qu

1. What is happening in the picture ? _______________________________________________

2. Do you think this kind of work is dangerous ? ______________________________________


3. Do you think its important ? _____________________________________________________

and Main Ideas Read the title and look at the pictures and circle the correc
rs . Then read the article to check your answers.

hat time period does the reading focus on ?


The past
b. The present
c. The future
hich three kinds of energy does the reading mostly discuss ?
Geothermal
c. Nuclear
e. Wind
Solar
d. tidal

in Depth Read the article. Then write the answers to the questions

According to the article, what will be the answer to our future energy problems ? ___________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
What is one advantage of solar power ?
___________________________________________________________________________________________
What are some disadvantages of wind power ?
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Are all of the important kinds of alternative energy included in this article ? Explain your answ
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

EDUCATION
AND LEARNING

UNIT
Opening Activity

Unit Goals

ok at the picture and answer the questions

In this unit you will learn

What can you see in this picture ?

What do you think is happening ?

How is this picture related to learning


and education ?

Talk about attending scho

talk about different


talk about different learnin

use the first and ze


use the second conditional

understand modals of

LESSON GAETTING

AN

EDUCATION

ocabulary in Context Read the captions and study the words in bold .

the Soto likes to give Carmen Villareal had to pay a lo


aura Smiths goal is to be a Professor
nurse
tuition to attend an expensiv
lectures. If you ernroll in one ofOfhis
fter she gets her nursing degree,
Collage. Now She is graduating
courses, youll hear a lot of lectures
he will work in a large hospital.
And getting her diploma from th
President of the school .

Vocabulary in Action Match the beginning of each sentence to the correct

hen you enroll in a course , _____


diploma is really _____
ition is ______
hen professors give lectures , _____
ur goal is something ______
ter you get a degree in education , _____
u will graduate if ______

a. They speak to their students .


b. You become a student in that course .
c. You should be a good teacher .
d. You complete all of your courses .
e. The money you pay to attend a school .
f. A piece of paper .
g. You want for your future .

Complete Laura Smiths

e mail with the correct words from b .

I did it , Osvaldo ! I decided to ( 1 ) _______________ at the university . My


( 2 ) ______________ is to become a nurse , so Im talking four science ( 3 )
________________ . Three of them are in the laboratory, and we do a lot of group work
There . But one professor likes to give ( 4 ) _________________, so we just listen to him
Most of the time.

Im attending the state university, so my ( 5 ) _________________ isnt to expensive . It


Will take me four years to ( 6 ) ________________, though, so Im still living with my
Parents . Its cheaper than renting an apartment ! After I get my (7 ) ________________ in
Nursing , Im going to be pretty proud of myself ! Ill probably put my
( 8 ) __________________ on the wall so that everyone can see it .

Grammar in Context Study the chart .

Zero conditional and first conditional

amples

Explanations

have definite goals,


From the zero conditional with an if clause and a
ell in school.
result clause in the simple present .
rs like to give lectures, they
Use the zero conditional to talk about facts or
t like to have class discussions.
things that are generally true .
____________________________________________________________________
a degree, you will get a
From the first conditional with an if clause in the
.
simple present and a result clause in the future .
duate, you will receive
( will or be going to + verb ).
.
Use the first conditional to talk about future possibilities.

ESSON G
B OING TO SCHOOL

Vocabulary in Action Read the information and study the words in bol
Where
Go to

will she
school ?

In the U.S children usually attend elementery school


for grades 1 6 . They can attend public elementary
at no cost, or their parents can pay for private school
After elementary school, American children spend
the next 2 or 3 years in middle school.
American teenagers graduate from high school
when they finish grade 12 .
After high school, many people get a job, or if they want
to learn special job skills, they attend a technical college
Other students continue their education after high
school in a for - years collage, or if they want to
choose from more courses, in a university

ocabulary in Action Match each word or phrase to the correct sentence .


elementary school
middle school
high school
Public

_ Technical college

_ private
_ college

_ university

a.
b.
c.
d.

This often means grades 9 - 12 .


You can learn jobs skills at this kind of school .
You have to pay a lot of tuition for this kind of school
This is similar to a college, but usually offers more
courses .
e. You dont pay tuition for grades 1 12 at this kind
of school .
f. This often means grades 1 6 .
g. This is similar to university, but usually offers fewer
courses .
h. This often means grades 7 8 .

Write each vocabulary term from b

School for children


and teenagers

in the correct column .

Schools
for adults

Adjectives to Describe
Schools

__________________ __________________
__________________ __________________
__________________ __________________
Grammar in Context

___________________
___________________
___________________

Study the chart .

Subordinate clauses of time

mples
Explanations
____________________________________________________________

r students finish elementary school, they can


Use after, when, before, while and
ll in middle school .
until to show time relationship .
___________________________________________________________

finished middle school before she went to


chool .

These sentences have a main clause


and a subordinate clause of time .

____________________________________________________________

students attend a technical college, they


Use a comma when the subordinate
practical job skills .
clause comes first .
____________________________________________________________

will attend a technical school while his sister


ds a private school .
ing to study until my roommate gets home .

In time clauses about the future, use


the simple present, not will or be
going to .

HOW
LESSON
C DO YOU FEEL ABOUT LEARNING ?

ocabulary in Context

Read the information and study the words in

For me, graduation day was the most


exciting day of my life ! Getting a degree
was a big achievement, but it took a
long time . My parents were always there
to encourage me, and thanks to them ,
I have my diploma. Its a valuable thing
now that Im looking for a job .
History was my favorite subject in school .
It was always interesting, but I have to
Study science, math, and other subjects,
Fortunately, I had great teachers, so I was
Never bored in my class. They helped
Prepare me to do anything in lifeeven
The difficult things .

Vocabulary in Action Complete the sentences with words from a .

something is _______________, it makes you feel very happy or enthusiastic


something is _______________, its worth a lot because its useful or helpfu
you are _______________, you feel tired and impatient .
someone wants to _______________ you for something , they help you get
something is ________________, it attracts you or holds your attention .
n school , a ________________ is an area of study such as music or biology .
you _______________ someone , you say things to give them hope and con
n _______________ is a good thing you finish after a lot of hard work .

municate Write answers to the questions. Then share your answers with a

you what is the most interesting school subject ?


_______________________________________________________________
n do you feel bored at school ?
_______________________________________________________________
encourages you and helps you with your education ?
_______________________________________________________________
is education valuable to you ?
_______________________________________________________________
t is one of your past achievements ?
_______________________________________________________________
t are you doing now to preparate for your future ?
________________________________________________________________

Grammar in Context Study the chart .

Second

conditional

ples
Explanations
__________________________________________________________________

enough money, I would buy that jacket .


have enough money . )

Use the second conditional to talk


about unreal or untrue conditions
in the present or future .
uld be happier If they moved to Monterrey .
Use an if clause with a verb in the
avent moved to Monterrey . )
simple past and a result clause with
would _______
to form the
second conditional.
__________________________________________________
__________

were you, I would attend a different school .


ld like mathematics if it were a more exciting
ct .

Use were when the verb in the if


clause is be with all subjects .

LESSON

MEXICAN PEOPLE IN THE NEWS


A

Language Builder Study the chart .

Modals of possibility

Examples
Explanations
_________________________________________________________

Mr. Vazquez is here today, so you could talk to him .


Use may ( not ) , might
They say its a good movie , but I might not have enough
and could to talk about
Money to________________________________________________________
go .
things that are poss
Ariana may go to Zacatecas this summer .
Use the base form of
science
The school might call you , or they might send you a letter.
after a modal .
________________________

A Love of
d indigenous culture
B Reading Read the article and look at the words in bold .

In 2012, Claudia ngel Perez


In the small village
encouraged her to be proud
made history . She earned
of aSan Juan Jaltepec
of her indigenous backgroun
masters degree i biological
through her research, she
and that helped her throug
sciences from the Universidad
showed that a kind of difficult times . Her goal is
Autnoma Nacional de Mxico
native fish called Lutjanus
To bring low-cost techniques
( UNAM ) . This is a major
is good to eat. This is exciting
or raising that lutjanus fish
achievement since Perez news,
is the and it could help many
her home state. In the futu
first woman from Oaxacapeople
to
in the area.
this fish might be very valua
do this .
In rural areas, getting
as an
food and as a source of
Claudia ngel Perez
education
is a
isnt always income
easy.
for indigenous peopl
Zapotec Indian who grew
upClaudias mother
but

Getting information from a news article Read the article again . Then discuss
hese sentences with a partner and write true ( T ) , False ( F ), or Not Sure ( NS ) .

audia ngel Perezs achievement is important .


he grew up in a big city .
he attended a university in a big city .
er Zapotec heritage is important to her
er father encouraged her to study science .
er work could help people in Oaxaca .

_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____

LESSON

ng in Context

E LEARNING

Listen to

STYLES

the recording

and circle the correct phrase

er is probably ( talking on the telephone / giving a lecture ) .


styles are ( ways we learn / reasons for learning ) .

ng for Main Ideas Listen again . Number the learning styles in the order
ar about them , and cross out the item that is Not a learning style .
sual learning
ysical learning
T 8
ental learning
ditory learning

Pronunciation Listen to each group of words and look at the underlined


letter. Notice the different ways to spell each consonant sound .

T 9

1.
2.
3.

zero
see
measure

phisical
conversation
visual

styles
books
beige

/ z /
/ s /
/ zh /

Listen to the words and write the consonant sound ( z, s, or zh ) that


Then practice saying each word .

T 10

1.
2.
3.

sits
leisure
tries

class
treasure
ears

trips
pleasure
eyes

__________
__________
__________

complete the paragraphs with sentences from the box . Write the letter o
on the line .

or example , I like to do things with my hands such as drawing pictuters .


hats because I remember things well when I hear them .
at way , I cant see anythings and I can concentrate on the profesor s words.
ont think the visual learning style works very well for me .

I think the auditory learning style works best


for me . ( 1 )
For example, If I m listeni
a lecture, I close my eyes. ( 2 )
I might als
a physical learner some of the time. I would ra
be active than to still . ( 3 )
I also use
hands a lot when
I talk !

(4)
I dont like to sit at the from o
class because I dont need to see the teacher .
better for me just to listen . On the other hand ,
like books that have a lot of beautiful pictures
a small part of me could be a visual learner !

LESSON R
Feading

1. Southern Utah in the U.S.A. is a land of extremes. The


desert is sometimes flooded by summer rainstorms. The
are hot and the nights are could in Utahs mountains. Utah
has beautiful parks and forests, so its a great place for
camping, and mountain biking. And for some people, Utah
place where they can learn to survive in the wilderness w
little food or water and no modern equipment.
2. The Boulder outdoor Survival school (BOSS), founded
1968, is the worlds oldest survival school . With its philos
of Know more; carry less, BOSS teachs its students h
to survive outdoors without tents, flas higts, or blanket.
The students learn to make a shelter from leaves or snow
find and purify water, and to eat foods that they find i
wilderness .
3. The School courses are not for everyone. Students m
be healthy . They take long hikes through Utahs deserts
canyons. They learn survival skills from the BOSS instru
and finally, they make a field course. This can last from
week to one month, and it includes solo time, when
students must use every skill they have learned .
For BOSSs students, there is nothing better . If they wa
comfort, they would bring their camping equipment and r
in a park. Instead, these people love the way BOSS challe
their minds and bodies, and learning how to survive withou
lot of technology gives them a great feeling of achievem

SURVIVAL
SCHOOL

Connect with the text Look at the title and pictures. Answer the questio
1. What do you see in the pictures ? ________________________________________________
2. What do you think people at this school learn about ? ____________________________

Scan Quickly look at the text to answer the questions .


1. Where is the survival school ? ____________________________________________________
2. Whats the name of the survival school ? __________________________________________

NATURAL
RESOURCES

Opening

UNIT
Look at the

1.

pictures and answer the questions.

Where do you think this picture was taken ?

2. What do
BLOCK
1

3.

Activities

you think happended ( or is happening ) here ?.

Do you think this is an important animal ?


Why or why not ?

Unit

Goals

In this unit you wi

talk about the natural world


talk about natural are
talk about the importance of
conservation .
use the passive voice in th
and the past .
understand tag quest

LESSON A

HABITATS

Vocabulary in Context Look at the pictures and read the information .


Many different
SPECIES of a fish
DEPEND ON
coral reef for food
and safety .

Warm tropical
rainforest with plenty
of rainfall provide a
HABITAT for many
plants and
animals

The SAND and


STONES of a dr
desert area are
home to this
lizard .

In the cool SOIL


o f the forest , plants
grow and provide
food for animals
such as this black
bear .

T 11
B Listen to the audio. Number the habitats in a in the order that you hear t
C Vocabulary in action Match each word to its definition .
1. ______
2. ______
3. ______
4. ______
5. ______
6. ______

species
stone
habitat
sand
soil
depend on

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

substance on the surface of the earth in which plants


rocks , pieces of a very hard substance .
specific kind of animal or plant .
natural environment where something lives
to need someone or something in order to live
substance that most deserts and beaches are made of

Grammar in Context

Study the chart .

The passive voice

xamples

sh find food in the coral reef .


verb
object

Explanations

In active sentences, the subject


before the verb and the object .

found by amall fish in the coral reef .


verb agent

In passive sentences, the object


before the verb and agent in th
position at the biginning of th

re eaten by many animals species .

Form the passive with to be +


participle of a verb .

st tree are used ( by birds and


imals ) as safe places to sleep .

The by phrase, which includes t


is optional in the passive voice .

ESSON B CONSERVATION

ocabulary in context

Read the article and study the words in bo

When you have


success, you achieve
something you
want to a chieve .

MexicosBiosphere
SianReserve
Kaan

Located on the Yucatan peninsula in the


Stated of Quintana Roo, the Sian Kaan
Than development . They want to protect the land
Biosphere Reserve is part ocean, part wetland,
water, and animals, after all , those are the things
And part tropical rainforest. Hundress of species
that attract tourists to Sian Ka an .
Of birds, fish and even large mammals such as
The jaguar and puma live in the reserve . What does the future hold for Sian Kaan ? Althoug
ecotourism brings money into the area natural area
Like many natural areas, however, Sian kaan
can beisdamaged by human activity. So for now seve
Threatened by devopment. The reserve has
become
NGOs
(non-government organization) area working
A popular place for ecoturism, so some people
want
to limit development and other kinds of human
To build roads and hotels in the reserve. Other
activity in the reserve. And the animals and plants th
People think that conversation is more importand
live there are depending on the NGOs success .

B Vocabulary in Action
T Conservation
11

Fill in each blank below with a word from the


Development

(1) ____________________ the land

water, and animals from human activity


(2 ) supports (2) _____________________
since ecotourists want to see the land ,
water and animals in the reserve .

(3) ___________________ the land,


water, and animals since people w
build roads and hotels in the reserve .
hurts ecotourism if roads and ho
(4) __________________ natural areas

Listen and repeat each word after you hear it .


1.

threatened

3.

ecotourism

2.

development

4.

conservation

5.
6.

protect
damaged

Grammar in Context study the chart .

Using the passive

Examples

amage the forest habitat every summer . ( active;


on the fire )

Explanations

Use the passive to emphasize th


or the result of the action .

bitat is damaged by forest fires every summer .


phasis is on the forest habitat )

s bird species are found ( by people ) in the reserve .


seldom seen ( by people ) in the wild nowadays .

hbor s cat every day .

Use the passive when the agent


doer ) is not important or not kno

Use active sentences if there


to use the passive .

THECIMPACT OF DEVELOPMENT
ESSON

New homes in Loreto , Baja California Sur

ulary in Context Read the questions and answers and look at the word
Baja california FAQs

Q: Why is the Baja California peninsular popular with ecotourists ?


A: Its on the pacific Ocean and the sea of the cortez, so ecotourists can enjoy se
such as dolphins , whales, and fish . The beautiful mountains and deserts are also
wonderful for hiking and sightseeing .
Q: What kind of development is happening on the Baja California peninsula ?
A: A lot of houses and condominiums. Most families only use these homes during vac
Q: Can anyone own a vacation home here ?
A: Yes. You dont have to be a Mexican citizen to own a home here . Many vacation
are owned by people from other countries, especially Canada and the United sta
Q: Are there a lot of new vacation homes for sale ?
A: Yes, especially in the south near Cabo San Lucas and La Paz . Theyre building ma
houses and hotels quickly there .
Q: Is the development in Baja California sustaineble ?
A: Maybe not . Some people worry about damage to the environment as more and more p
arrive. Its also very dry, so having enough drinking water for everyone is another

cabulary in Action Complete each sentence with one of the words in bo

If you __________________ something , it is yours.


If something is ___________________ , it is very good .
If you enjoy walking , you probably also enjoy _________________
If you love chocolate , __________________ dark chocolate , people might call
you a chocoholic .
If you want to see a new place , you should go ___________________
If something is _________________ , people can do it for a long time without
damaging the earth .
Grammar In Context

The

Study the chart .

passive in

the

past

Examples
Explanation
____________________________________________________________________

home was built by my grandfather


road to the beach was opened in 2009.
ple in the area were asked to conserve
king water last August .

Form the past passi


with was / were + t
past participle form o
the verb .

LESSONCONSERVING
D
OUR NATURAL RESOURCES

A Language Builder

Study the chart .

Tag questions in the simple present


Examples
Explanations
___________________________________________________________________

This kind of farming is sustainable ,


Isnt it ?
Pelicans arent endangered , are they ?

Use tag questions to check your informa


when you believe something is prob
Form tag questions with be after statem
with be .

____________________________________________________________________
They dont grow a lot of rice here , do they ?
We should turn off the lights , shouldnt we ?
Use pronouns in tag questions .

After other verbs, use do or another a


such as should .

____________________________________________________________________

mples

Explanations

njoy sightseeing , dont you ?


cant build houses there , can they ?

Use negative tag questions after alternat


statements . Use affirmative tag questions
after negative statements .

______________________________________________________________________
are tomato plants , arent they ?
they are . / No , they arent .

Answer tag questions in the same way yo


Answer other kinds of questions.

has a sister , doesnt he ?


he does . / No , he doesnt .

Listening

Listen to the conversation and answer the questions .

1. What kind of place are the speakers talking about ? ______________________


2. Where is the place ? _______________________________________________________

C Read the statements . Then listen to the conversation again and check
or false .
True
F
1. The man wants the woman to see a picture .
2. The woman saw a T.V. show about the place .
3. The place has a lot of forest and lakes .
4. Many pandas live in the reserve .
5. The pandas habitat is being destroyed .
6. The speakers talk about the pandas future .

LESSON
E
CONSERVATION
SUCCESS STORIES

Listening in Context Listen to the audio .


T 14
1. Who is the speaker ? _________________________________________
2. What is she talking about ? ____________________________________

ng Prior Knowledge Choose a word in parentheses to complete each. S


en again to check your answers .
I already know . . .
1. Animals are not killed in a nature
a marine reserve .
reserve .

I can guess . . .
1.

Fish are not ( killed / safe ) in


2.

a ( better / worse )
2. Millons of people catch fish for a
living .
3. People are often unhappy when the
( happy /
gevernment tells them what to do .
government created the

More fish to catch means

economy .
3.

fisherman in New Zealand were


unhappy ) when the

unciation Listen to these word pairs and notice how the final consonant s
first word is connected, or linked, to the vowel sound at the beginning o
d word .

1. tired of

2. news about

3. areas of

5. po

4. human activity

6. coas

and repeat these phrases . Speak smoothly and do not pause between
nked words .

1. tired of hearing bad news

2. news about the environment

3. areas of coastal waters

4. all kind of human acti


5. always a popular idea
6. catch fish in coastal

LESSON FREADING
Coral
Reef

Coral A
reef Connect
are
with the
home to a the
varietyquestions .
of fish species .

text

1 Coral reefs are like wonderful cities under the sea. There you will find
rich variety of life, including many species of fish. The structure of coral r
might look like rocks and colorful plants. But reef are really made of enor
numbers of coral polyps very tiny animals .
2 Coral polyps can truly be called the animals that helped make the w
For millons of year, they have built reefs. These reef are larger than any
made structure on Earth. Over time , a hard, stone-like material is crea
Polyps and eventually becomes limestone has been used to build the Gr
Pyramids of Egypt, as well as churches, castles, train stations, and banks
3 In recent years, there have been threats to coral reef and the specie
live there. For example , illegal fishing has a terrible effects on reef . Ree
also damaged when coral is taken for building material, jewelry, or aqua
decorations. Water pollution also damages reef, and the warming of ocea
water has caused parts of many reef, to turn white-a process called cor
bleaching.
4 These threats to coral reefs are serious, but there is still lope for their
future. If people take action to conserve reefs now, the coral polyps may
able to rebuild damaged reef. Thats good news because many ocean
animals and plants depend on these cities under the sea.

Look at the pictures and read the captions.

1 . Why are the coral reefs important to fish ?


_________________________________________________________
2 . How does the beauty of coral reefs threaten the reefs ?
__________________________________________________________
Understand Paragraphs Scan the reading and choose the cor

Because coral
1.are How many paragraphs are in the reading ?
so beautiful, they are
a. two
b. Three
c . Four
often used for jewelry
or decorations
2.. What is the purpose of the paragraph 2 ?

48

d.

a . To explain why fish and other sea life need coral reefs
b . To describe the large structures made from coral polyps

Five

3 . What is the main idea of paragraph 3 ?


a . Water pollution is harmful to coral reefs .
b . Coral reefs are threatened in several ways .

Read in Depth Read the article . Then write the answers to the question
1. What is the most important idea in the article ?
_________________________________________________________________
2. What are coral reef made of ?
_________________________________________________________________
3. How have coral polips helped make the world in the ocean ?
_________________________________________________________________
4. How have coral polyps helped make the world on land ?
_________________________________________________________________
5. What is the cause of coral bleaching ?
_________________________________________________________________
6. What does the author want people to do now ?
_________________________________________________________________
49

EXPLORATION

Opening Activities

Unit

UNIT

Look at the pictures and answers the questions

In this unit, you will le

1 . What do you see in the picture ?

BLOCK
2
2 . Where

52

do you think this is ?

3 . Why do people want to explore places like this ?

goal

53

talk about explorers and explo

talk about accomplishmen


and challenges .

talk about air and space


understand the simple past and
past progressive .
use the present perfect.
use for and since with the

LESSON A NEW FRONTIERS

bulary in Context

Read the information and study the words in b


17

n 1903, two American


In 1961,
humans beings wer
B Orville
vocabulary in Action Listen to the audio. Number
the
Brothers named
able to leave the earths
And wilbur wrigth words in a in the order that you hear them .
_____ atmosphere and
Traveled a short distance
traveled high above the
n the worlds C
first real
Match the word to the correct definitionearth
. in a ______ spacecraf
_____ airplane It had a
For the first time Yury Gagar
1.____ Airplane
3. _____ mountain
5. _____spacecraft
Gasoline motor , and on
From the Soviet Union was
atmosphere 4. _____ ocean
6. _____underwater
The first day of tests, 2.____
it
The first person in Space.
Stayed in the air fora . Very large body of water such as the Atlantic or Pacific
He returned after 108
59 Seconds .
Minutes .
b . Vehicle for traveling to space

c . Happening below the surface or a lake, river, or ocean


d . Vehicle for traveling through the air
e . Mixture of oxygen and other gases that sorround the earth
f . Very high area of land with steep sides
The highest _____ mountain in
The world, Mount Everest, was
No place for human being s. then
Before 1943, human beings could
A team of expert mountaineers
only stay ____ underwater for a short
Conbined their knowledge. In
time then French explorers Jacques
1953, Edmund Hillary from New
Cousteau and Emile Gagnan introduced
Zealand and Tenzing norgay from
Technology for scuba diving, a new
Nepal became the first people to
ways for People to explore the worlds
54 Stand at the earths highest point.
lake and_______ oceans .

Grammar in Context Study the chart .

SIMPLE PAST VS. PAST PROGRESSIVE


Examples
Explanations
______________________________________________________________________

he satellite returned to earth in 1979


Use the simple past to talk about
ur airplane let the airport at 3:30 P.m.
Complete actions or states in the past
______________________________________________________________________________
n the 1950s both countries were developing
Use the past progressive to talk abo
ew technology.
action that were in progress at a
time in the past .
ugo wasnt at home at 7:15 this morning .
For the past progressive with was /
e was driving to work .
+ the ing form pf a verb.
_______________________________________________________________________________
Millons of people were watching their
Use the past progressive, we often us
elevision when the spacecraft returned
when + a time clause in the simple
o earth .
to express a specific past time .
________________________________________________________________________________
ngineers were talking to Gagarin by radio
Use while with the past progressive
While his spacecraft was orbiting the earth .
Two things in progress at the same
in the past .

55

LESSON
A

B UP

AND

AWAY

Vocabulary in Context Look at the pictures and read the inform

ight engineer astronaut in the internationa l


ce Station experiences weighttlessness.

__ astronaut
__ gravity

____ weightlessness
____ float

A pilot in Wyoming, USA , flies a small plane


Carries only a few passengers .
____ fly
____ flight
____ pilot
____ Passenger

bulary in Action Listen to the audio .Number each set of words in a in the order that . y

C Complete each sentence with one of the words from a .

18
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

In space , people are not heavy . Theyre almost ______________


A person who controls an airplane is called a _________________
A person who travels in an airplane , but does not control the airplane, is a __
Birds and insects can move quickly through the air. They are able to _________
If you throw a ball in the air on earth, it falls because of __________________
A person who flies in a spacecraft is called an _________________
Clouds in the sky seem to ______________ They dont fall from the sky
56
_______________ is the action of flying .

D Grammar in Context Study the chart .

The

present perfect

ples
Explanations
______________________________________________________________________

tists and engineers from several countries have


ed on the International Space station .

Hubble Space Telescope has taken many excellent


graphs of objects in space .

Use the present perfect to talk about th


happened in the past and are imp
relevant in the present .
began in the past and are still t
happened more than once in

_____________________________________________________________________

he space agency decided to travel t mars ?


hey have . No , they havent .

Use has or have to ask a Yes / No que


The present perfect .

______________________________________________________________________

you ever flown in an airplane ?

Use ever in Yes / No questions with th


perfect to ask about any time

_________________________________________________________________________

y has the airplane turned around ?


ere have you seen that man before ?

Use a wh word + has or have to a


Question with the present perfec

57

LESSON

CGOING

PLACES

cabulary in Context Read the information and study the words in bold .

Exploring the Kalimantan region in Indonesian Borneo


easy. There are not roads to the Marang Mountains, but th
where Luc-Henri Fage wanted to go. At first , the trip wa
adventure- an exciting vacation for Fage and his friends.
Them liked to explore caves, and the caves in the Mara
Mountains seemed like a fun challenge .
The mountains are in a hot , Humid jungle region. To g
there , Fage and his friends travel in conoes. They campe
tents, and during one storm , fire ants tried to enter the te
to get out of the rain . After several days., the men reach
the mountains and climbed up to the highest caves. There
found prehistoric cave paintings . The paintings are of hu
hands and some of them are over 10,000 year old
Fage and a team of scientists have now found almost
hand paintings . They have written a book about the pain
and they hope the information results in the protection
of the paintings .

B Write answers using the words and information from a .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

How did the men get to the mountains ? _________________________________________


What did the men do at night ? __________________________________________________
What did the fire ants try to do ? _________________________________________________
How long did it take to reach the Marag Mountains ? _____________________________
How did the men reach the caves ?_________________________________________________
What did the men find in the caves ? _____________________________________________

58

LESSON

ADVENTURE

TRAVEL

language Builder Study the chart .

Present Perfect with

for

and

since

Examples
Explanation
________________________________________________________________

They have been in bussiness for 22 years .


Melissa has owned the restaurant for eight
Months .

Use the present perfect with for + a length


of time to talk about duration , or how long
something has been true .

________________________________________________________________

19

We have known each other since 2004


He has learned a lot about tourism since

Use the present perfect with since + a specific


past time to talk about when something began.

________________________________________________________________
B Listening Listen to the conversation and answer the questions.

1. What are the speakers trying to decide ? _________________________________________


2. What does the man want to do ? ________________________________________________

Write answers to questions . Then listen again and check your answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

How long has the man wanted to go to Machu Picchu ? _______________________________


How long has the company given hiking tours on the Inca Trail ? _____________________
How many days do people hike on the hiking tour ? __________________________________
What do people on the hiking tour do at night ? _____________________________________
How long has the train taken tourists to Machu Picchu ? _____________________________
What do the speakers decide to do ? ________________________________________________

60

LESSON

EXPLORING FAR

AND

NEAR

A Listening in Context Listen to the audio . Answer the questio


20

1. What are the friends looking at ? ___________________________________________


2. What modern Mexican city are they talking about ? _____________________________

n again and write the letter of the photo that matches each sent

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Claudia has visited Monte Alban .


Jenny likes to walk around the university campus .
Jenny explored a place that was part garden and part museun .
The university campus is a good place for people watching .
Claudia went on a long car trip last winter .
El Orchidario has a lot of information about orchids .

ation Listen to each sentence and look at the underlined letters . Notice th
1. have you seen
this picture ?
_
21
2. I never go very
_ far_ .
3. Ive heard _of that notice .

62

21and repeat each word .


ten
1. very
4. valuable
7. never
10. arrive
2. virus
5. private
8. university
11. save
3. variety
6. ever
9. have
12. above
writing Complete the paragraph with the sentences in the box. Write the
letter of the correct sentence on the line .
I saw a coral reef, an old ship on the bottom of the ocean, and a lot of fish.
The hotel, meals , transportation, and scuba lessons all cost money .
Last month I had a wonderful adventure .
When you go scuba diving , you wear a special suit, and you carry your own
air in tanks on your backs .

___ I travel to the island of


Cozumel, and I went scuba
Diving ! I have always loved
The ocean, but going underwater
And staying underwater were
New experiences for me. I took
Some diving lessons first , and
I learned how to use the
Equipment. ____ the lessons
Were challenging, but there were
Some really interesting things
To see underwater. ____ The
Only bad part of the trip was
The cost. _____ The experience
Was valuable, however, so Im
Glad I went .

63

LESSON F READING

1 Burt Rutan was a teenager when the Soviet and


American began sending
satellites and then people into a space . He wanted to travel to
Space ,too. As
an adult, thouhg, Rutan realized that government were not
going to send ordinary people into the space .If my dream was going to come
true-of floating
weightless in the black sky and being thrilled by the sight of
the Earth from
outside our atmosphere--Id have to get things started
myself , said Rutan .
2 The history of airplanes encouraged Rutan to build his
own spacecraft. Not
many years after the Wright brothers first flight in 1903,
private factories in
France, England, and Germany were producing hundreds, and
then thousands
of airplanes a year. So Rutan decided to build his own
spacecraft, SpaceShipOne
3 In
2004,at
Rutan
space and the
returned
with the text
Look
thesuccessfully
pictures entered
and answers
ques
to Earth twice
in two weeks, and won the ten- millonsd ollar Ansari X Prize
to encourage
Do these vehicles
look like airplanes or spacecraft to you ?
the development of private space travel. His success got
_______________________________________________________________
the worlds
attention,
ideas traveling
for private in
space
travelvehicles
began to ?
How would you
feeland
about
these
appear .
_______________________________________________________________
4 One private company, Virgin Galactic, plans to build a
spacecraft in which
passangers will float weightless in space for six thrilling
minutes and view

Private
Space
Flight

A Connect
1.
2.

64

Virgin galactics Space ship two, at 18 meters


long ( 60 feet ) , will be Twice as long as the
original Space Ship one. It will carry six
Passangers and two pilots .at

ng Visuals Look again at the picture on the next page and read the
on . Answers the questions .

hich vehicle was made first ? How do you know ?


_______________________________________________________________

ow much longer is Space ship Two than Space ship One ?


________________________________________________________________

d in Depth Read the article again . Then circle the correct answer to the
What was Burt Rutan able to build ?

a. his own airplane


b. his own factory
. his own spacecraft

Why was Rutan encouraged by the history of airplane ?

. They were made by private companies .


. They wee made by governments .

ccording to the article. Which statement about Virgin Galactics private es


avel is true ?

. Theyre offering it now .


. They plan to offer it in the future .

65

HE

PAST

UNIT
Look at

BLOCK 2

Opening Activity

the picture and answer the questions .

1. What do you see in the picture ?


2. Where do you think this is ?
3. When do you think this place was built ?

70

Unit Goals

In this unit you will

talk about world archeologica


talk about visiting a his
talk about and ancient emp
use the past perfect .
use the thirt conditional .
talk about animals of th

SON

ARCHEOLOGY

A Vocabulary in Context Read the information and look at the word


.
The Great Pyramid at Giza was a monument to an Egyptian pharaoh
probably the pharaoh Khufu . It took 20 years to construct the pyramid.
Archeology

Words :

The Great Wall of China began as several smaller walls that were
joind together over time . The wall is evidence of a history of conflict

and even war with civilizations to the north.

The ruins at Tikal and the other archeological sites tell us much

about the daily lives of the people who lived there.

The temples at Angkor are quite beautiful , but the engineers of the
Khmer Empire also built huge structures called reservoirs . These held
water for people to use diring the dry season .

ruins
evidence
monument
structures
tools
construct
sites
wall

People of the early Inca civilization used only simple tools to cut and fit
together large pieces of stone , but their walls and buildings were very well made.

B Vocabulary in Action Circle the correct word or phrase to complete each


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

A monument is built in order to ( remember / forget ) someone .


Structures are things that people ( build / learn ) .
Sites are ( people / places ) .
Evidence is anything that gives us ( information / happiness ) about past
When you construct something , you ( reach / built ) it .
A wall in a house or apartment often has a ( bed / Window ) in it .
Tools are things you can use to ( build / buy ) something .
When we see ruins, theyre usually from a very ( old / new ) building o

72

Complete each sentence with a word in bold from

a.

Tlatelolco , Cempoala, and El Cerrito are some of the archeological _____________in M


People built several _____________ at El Cerrito , including a pyramid and a palace .
This statue is a ______________ to Benito Juarez . I think it looks exactly like him .
The city plans to _______________ a new building acrossnnfrom the plaza .
There was a beautiful temple here in the past , but now you can only see the ____
Most of the living room will be white, but one ________________ will be blue .

Grammar in Context

Study the chart .

Past perfect with the simple past

Examples
explanations
_____________________________________________________________________

hey arrived at the train station, the train had left

Form the past perfect with had + t


participle of a verb .
_________________________________________________________________
an explorer Hiram Bingham told the world about
Use the past perfect with the simple past
hu in 1911. Few people knew about the village at
the sequence of past events or situations
use no one had lived there since 1572 .
The event or situation in the past p
earlier before another past time

___________________________________________________________________

e (had) fought in many wars before they built


Wall .

_____________________________________

When words such as before or after mak


sequence of past events clear, the
often used instead of the past perf
_________________________________

ou seen pictures of the Great Pyramid at Giza before today ?


long had Machu Picchu been abandoned when Hiram
am first saw it .
adnt been there very long when it began to rain .

Form yes / No questions, Wh questi


negative statements with the past

73

ON B

LEARNING FROM THE PAST

Vocabulary in Context

Look at the picture and read the words .

T 23
Negative

Feelings

tiring , boring , confusing

Positive

amazing , surprising , fascinating

bulary in Action Listen to the conversations and complete each sentence with a wo

The man in conversation 1 thinks the tour is _________________.


The woman in conversation 1 thinks the tour is __________________.
Both speakers in conversation 1 think the map is _________________.
The woman in conversation 2 thinks the tour is _________________.
The man in conversation 2 thinks the pyramid is _________________.
Both speakers in conversation 2 think the age of the temple is _________
74

d the sentences. Then listen again and circle the correct word or

omething is tiring , it ( gives you / takes away your ) energy .

omething is fascinating , it ( holds / doesnt hold ) your attention .

omething is confusing , its meaning ( is / isnt ) clear .

ou say that something is amazing , you probably think its ( wonderful / terrible )

ou say that something is surprising , it means you ( knew / didnt know ) about
before .
omething is boring , it ( holds / doesnt hold ) your attention .

Grammar in Context Study the chart .

Time expression with the past perfect


Examples
Explanations
__________________________________________________________________________

randfather died , we took the train to Los Mochis


had always enjoyed traveling by train .

The time expressions always, never , alre


( not ) yet are often used with the p

week , I had never visited the museum .

The time expression usually comes


had and the past participle o

unch with Gisela because I had ( already ) eaten already .


arrived , the party hadnt ( yet ) started yet .

Already and yet may also come after th


Participle of the verb .
75

LESSON

C THE RISE AND FALL OF AN EMPIRE

A Vocabulary in
context Read the
text and study the
words in bold .

T 24

Angkor The City and Its Water

By, it
the 16th century, however, Angkors
ven in ruins , Angkor is a fascinating city . For hundreds of years
Economy had changed from farming
as the capital of the Khmer Empirenow part of Cambodia . There
To trading by the sea . Then , in the
e 50 temples , including Angkors largest and most famous templeEarly 1700s, Vietnam took control of
ngkor wat .
owadays , youll mostly see tourists at Angkor , but in the 13th The Mekong river , and Khmer
entury , around 750,000 people lived there. They needed food Boats
and could no longer reach the
South
ater , but Southeast Asia only gets a large amount of rain during
a china sea . The khmer people
use the river to buy and sell
w months of the year. In order to have water for its populationCouldnt
and
Food and other goods , so they moved
r farming , Angkors engineers built enormous structures to store
Away from Angkor .
ater and to move it from place to place .

bulary in Action Listen to the audio . Circle the words in the box that y
76

Match each word to its definition .

1. ____
2. ____
3. ____
4. ____
5. ____
6. ____
7. ____
8. ____

amont
century
economy
empire
farming
goods
population
trading

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

time period of 100 years


buying and selling, exchanging one thing for another
the money, industry, and commerce of a country or region
growimg food crops for people or animals to eat
quantity, how much of something there is
all of the people who live in a certain place
things that are made to be sold
several nations or groups under the control of one powerfu
leader or group

Grammar in Context study the chart .

Third conditional

Examples
Explanations
_________________________________________________________

brandon had gotten to class on


me he would have heard the
achers instructions .

people had stayed in Angkor ,


ey would not have been able
make a living .

Use the third conditional to talk


about unreal or untrue conditions
In the past.
Use an if clause with a verb in
the past perfect and a result
clause with would + a verb in the
present perfect to form the third
conditional .

______________________________________________________

he had been the king , he would


ve had a monument built in his
nor .

Always use the simple form of


the verb have after the modal
would .

77

LESSON

Language

Builder

LOSING

THE

Study the chart .

PAST ?

Transitions
Examples

Our language reveals a lot about our culture

n addition, it gives us a personal identity .

When language dies , it is lost forever .


Furthermore, much of the knowledge and
wisdom of the people who spoke it is also
Lost .

Explanations
Use transitions to show relationships
between ideas .
Use in addition . . . to add another idea .
Use furthermore, . . . to add an
explanation .

____________________________________________________________

ome indigenous languages are still widely


Use for example , . . . Or for instance , . .
poken . For example , / For instance , more
to introduce an example .
han eight million people speak the Quechua
nguages .
______________________________________________________________

Many alderly Navajo people speak the


Language . In contrast, most young Navajo
speak only English .

Use In contrast , . . . Or On the other


hand , . . . To introduce a contrasting or
opposing adeas .

Some children want to learn indigenous


Languages . On the other hands , they are
not permitted to speak those languages at
School .

stening

Listen to the audio and answer the questions .

1. Approximately how many of the worlds languages do we lose each year ?


__________________________________________________________________
2. Besides Spanish , how many national languages are there in Mexico ?
78 __________________________________________________________________

again and choose

True ( T )

or

False ( F )

for each sentence

T 25

True
6,000 languages are spoken in the world today .

ge loss occurs when languages are not spoken anymore .

ge loss is also the loss of the culture and knowledge .

ri people of Sonora have more than 60 words for family


ships.
ome languages are dying, Spanish, English, and chinese
owing .
ndigenous languages in the classroom is bad for those
ges .

78

LESSON BERINGING

THE

PAST

TO

LIFE

echnicians works on
a Tyrannosaurus Rex
model used in a movie

T 26

Listening in Context

Listen to the conversation and answer the questions .

1. Who is talking ? ________________________________________________


. What are they talking about ? ____________________________________

Listen again and choose True ( T ) or False ( F ) for each sentence .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

leticia thought the movie was confusing .


Sergio thinks it might be possible to bring dinosaurs back to life .
Sergio thinks dinosaurs lived at the same time as human beings .
Sergio would like to see real dinosaurs .
All of the manmade dinosaurs at the New Jersey park have
people inside them .
6. 80
Leticia and Sergio have at least one daughter .

True

False

nunciation Listen to each group of words and look at the underli


T 27 Notice which syllable gets the most stress or emphasis .
ers.
fascinating possible dinosaurs
become
extinct
confusing

ten to each group of words and write which syllable gets the mo
effects
T 28
become
conserve
_________

2.

answer
robot
millions
__________

3.

interesting
4. prepare
dangerous
adventure
sister
construct
___________
____________

At field Station
Dinosaurs in New
Jersey, USA, visitors
learn about dinosaurs
biology and behavior .

aking What do you know about dinosaurs ? In your notebook , w


tences. Tell your classmates .
81

LESSON

F READING

Sea
monsters

fossils, n remains of

ancient plants and animals


tribes n groups of people
who share a language and
culture .
snakes and lizards,n long,
thin animals in the reptile
class.

bones, n hard parts inside th


body, together they form the
Skeleton

AT 15 meters long.
Tylosaurs was an
Enormous mosasaur .

Stories about sea monsters are told in


ny parts of the world perhaps because
3- Some Native American famous tribes tell stories
ople think the stories might be true. After
about the Unktehila. They say these monsters looked
lakes and oceans can be dark, mysterious
like giant snakes or lizards, and they ate everything
ces. But there may also be scientific reason
including each other ! And although the Unktehila may
believe the stories .
, terrible sea creatures called mosasaurs di
the worlds most famous sea monster imaginary
has
be Nessie. According to stories, she liveslive in North America millions of years ago. In fact, N
had found fossilized bones from mosasaurs
Scotland in a large lake called Loch Ness Americans
.
the 1700s, scientists began to find fossilslong before any scientist knew about them .
4.
Nessie and the Unktehila are just some of the
m ancient sea animals in the area . Perhaps
ssie was some kind of dinosaur that had monster from stories and legends. Could a few prehist
sea creatures have survived long enough for people to
vived into modern times . It might sound
about them ? Or have the fossils of these animals
ikely, but many people say they have seen
inspired the stories ? We may never know for sure .
82
e monster .

ESSON

Sea
monsters
Could an animal like
Plesiosaurs have
survived into modern
times in Loch ness

At 15 meters long
Tylosaurus was an
enormous mosasaurs .

A Connect with the text Look at the pictures and answer the ques
Do you think the picture show real animals or imaginary animals ?
why do you think so ? ____________________________________________

Understand
Main Ideas Read the title and first paregraph. Then ans
Some peopleB say
this
the Loch
questions .
is a photo of the
1.
What
is the topic of the article ? __________________________________
Ness monster .
2. what possibility does the article discuss ? ___________________________
C

Read in Depth Read the article. Then write the answers to the qu
1. what did scientists find in the area around Loch Ness ?
_____________________________________________________________
2. Who were the first people to find fossils of mosasaurs in North Americ
______________________________________________________________
3. The author implies that stories about sea monsters _____
a. Are true
b. May be true
c. Are not true. 83

SCIENCE

Opening Activity
UNIT

BLOCKLook
2 at the picture and answer the questions .
1. What do you see in the picture ?
2. Where is this happening ?
3. What are some things scientists
are working on now ?

Unit Goals

In this unit , you will learn

undertand the scientific pro


talk about heredity .
talk about GMOs .
talk about genetic di
understand and use relativ
Clauses .
use modals of necess

LESSON TA
HE SCIENTIFIC PROCESS
A

Vocabulary in context Look a


the pictures and read the words.

Collocations are words that often


occur together.
reach + conclusion
form+ hypothesis
do + research

B
Make an observation
C

T 29

Vocabulary in Action Listen to the


recording . Number the pictures in a
in the order your first hear about them .

Form a hypothes

Complete each sentence with a word from


the box. You wont need all the words .

Observation
1. I think I can explain this observation .
Conclusion I ve formed a ____________________
Research2. In the social sciences, interviews are one way
Do research
Laboratory to do ______________ and collect information.
Work in a laboratory
Results 3. Youve been studying this for a long time.
Publish
Have you reached a _________________ yet ?
hypothesis
4. Dr Aguirre made an interesting _____________
Nobody had ever noticed it before .
5. We have very good equipment in our
_______________________, so
6. Now that the research is completed, Dr Leske
is ready to ________________ the results.
Reach a conclusion

88

Publish the result

Grammar in Context

Study the chart .

ative clauses : Subjects and objects

mples
Explanations
_______________________________________________________

orks in a laboratory . The laboratory


xcellent scientific equipment .
orks in a laboratory that has
t scientific equipment .

Use relative Clauses to connect ideas


In informal
speaking , people
and to give more information about nouns.
A sentence with a relative clause issometimes
called use
Who
instead of
a complex sentence .

_____________________________________________________

email to Cecilia . Cecilia lives


.
email to Cecilia , who lives
.
ed a book. The book changed
.
ed a book which / that changed
.

Whom in object
relative clauses .

in subject relative clauses , the relative


pronoun ( who, that, or which ) replaces a
subject .
Use who or that for people, and that or
which or things.

______________________________________________________

er a book. The book was about

In

object relative clauses , the relative


pronoun ( whom , that , or which ) replaces
k that I give her was about insects.
An object.
io last year . Julio studies Physics.
Use whom or that for people, and that or
om I met last year, studies physics.
Which for things .
_______________________________________________________________________
othesis ( that ) they formed turned
in some cases, the relative pronoun is
e correct .
optional in object relative clauses .

LESSON BNATURA

ocabulary in Context

OR

NURTURE

Read the article and study the words in

hat makes us who we are ? If heredity is more importan t, then


from our parents will determine much about us appearance ,
igence and health , for example . If lifestyle is more importand,
our jobs, the places where we live, and our diet and exercise
s have a greater effect .
dentical twins , unlike most people , inherit exactly the same genes
their parents , so we expect them to look very much alike . Yet twins
who were separated as babies can also have other similarities . In
ase , twins boys were both named Jim by different families , as adults
had similar jobs and were both 183 cm tall and weighed 82 kilos .
both married women named Linda -- and got divorced . Their second
were both named second wives were both named Betty , and they
their sons almost the same name; James Allan and James alan

abulary in Action

hereditary
DNA
determine
lifestyle
twins
nherit
genes

Match each word with its definition .

a. Short form for a chemical called deoxyribonucleic acid


b. Two babies from one mother who are born at the
same time .
c. Control what will happen
d. Be born with a characteristic that ones parents of
grandparents had
e. The way in which one lives
f. The passing of characteristics from parents of
grandparents to children
g. Pieces of DNA in a specific sequence ; they control hereditary

bo

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Complete each sentence with a word from b .

Your hair and eye color are both the result of ___________________
Our children might _______________ my good health or my husbands diabetes .
I think I have the ________________ for a long life . My grandparents lived to be quite old .
___________________ is an acid with a complex structure .
He has a very healthy ___________________. He eats and sleeps well and gets a lot of exercise
Juan and Marco look almost exactly the same . Theyre identical _______________________
A babys genes will _________________ how tall or short he or she is as an adult .

Grammar in Context

ative Clauses :

Study the chart .

Identiflying and Non - identifying

amples

Explanations

_______________________________________________________________

woman whose smart phone


nd was very happy to get it back
the place where your mother
I met .
ere surprised when we had twins .

Use whose as a relative pronoun to show


possession .
Use where and when as relative pronoun
to talk about places and times .

_______________________________________________________________

s that have twins usually gets less


and experience more stress than
parents .

If a relative clause is necesary to identify


noun , no special punctuation is needed . This
type of relative clause is called identifying

______________________________________________________________

o where I grew up , is on the


oast .
wo brothers and one sister. My
who lives in jalapa has three children.

If the noun is identified in some ether way .


the relative clauses just provides extra
information about the noun . This type of clause
Is called non identiflying . And it requires com

_____________________________________________________________________

hkek , ( that ) which is the capital of


gyzstan , is in the northern part of the country.

The relative pronoun that is not used


nonidentifying relative clauses .

LESSON E
CNGINEERING

ocabulary in Context

ound too good to be true :


at stay fresh for weekens, or
t contain a sustance that
getting sick from a virus .
nd other amazing things are
with genetic engineering.
lly modified organisms, or
the result of

LIFE

Read the information and look at the words in bo

Hywx tusx Food

manmade changes to a plant or


animals DNA . In the case of Bt corn,
for example , scientists can insert
genetic information from a bacterium
that kills insects into the corn genes.
Insects that eat the Bt corn plant ,die
so farmer dont have to use chemicals
pesticides on their crops .

Despite the possible benefi


are quite controversial. A
to some people , not eno
has been done, so we dont
long term effects of GMOs
or the environment. In fac
crops are not grown or sold
countries due to safe

B Vocabulary in Action complete each sentence


with a word in bold from a.
1. If something is _____________, people do notagree on it.
2. To _______________ something means to put it inside another
thing .
3. Farmer grow _______________ such as corn, beans, rice and melons
4. If you have ________________, you are worried about certain things
5. _______________ are not completly natural because people have
changed their DNA .
6. A _________________ study of something would happen over a long
period of time .
7. A _________________ is any kind of material solid , liquid, or gas.
8. If you change a plants DNA, you change its __________________
Information .

Listen to the conversation and answer the questions .


1. What GMO are the people talking about ?
___________________________________________________________
2. What does the woman think about GMOs ?
___________________________________________________________
3. What does the man think about GMOs ?
___________________________________________________________

Grammar in Context study the chart :

odal verbs for possibility ( may, might, could

amples
Explanations
____________________________________________________________________

mpanies must get permission from the


ernment before they can sell GMOs .
has to find a new job .
need to go to the store before it closes

To talk about necessary , use must to


or need to plus the simple form of
in every day speaking , we use h
need to more often than must .

_______________________________________________________________________

Tomato plants have got to have a lot of


sunlight in order to grow .

Use have got to for extra em

______________________________________________________________________

o food products with GMO ingredients


have to / need to ) have special labels ?
hy do we have to go to Martinas house ?

Use do / does plus have to or ne


Questions .

___________________________________________________________________

mers dont ( have to / need to ) tell the


ic that theyre growing GMOs .

To talk about a lack of necessity,


does not plus have to or need to

LESSON D SCIENCE
A

Language Builder

Talking

HEALTH

AND

Study the chart .

about

the

future

Examples
Explanations
__________________________________________________________

Genetic engineering will become more


Use will plus the simple form of a
common __________________________________________________
in the future .
make predictions.
_______

My twin brother Jim is going to meet us


Use be going to plus the simple f
at the restaurant .
verb to talk about future plans .
__________________________________________________________
The company is introducing a new kind
of corn next month .

We may use the present progres


Context makes the future mea

__________________________________________________________
Profesor Bartell arrives on Thursday
morning .

We may use the simple prese


scheduled future events.
_____________________________

T 31
B Listening Listen to the news report and circle the correct answer to th
1.
2.

Which two diseases does the reporter mention ?


a. Dengue fever
b. Malaria
c. River blindness
What kind of mosquitos does the company in England produce ?
a. Male
b. Female
c. Both male and female

Listen again and circle the word or fhrase that you hear.
1.
2.
3.
4.

The diseases will probably become even ( more / less ) common in the future .
The GMO mosquito ( may / may not ) be coming to your country soon .
On the island of the Key West , the company is ( going to / not going to ) rele
mosquitoes .
If some of the people who live on Wey West, have their way, this will ( neve
94
happend / happend soon )

LESSONWorking
E
in the Sciences

Listening in Context Listen to the conversation and answer the qu


T 32 1. Who is talking ? _________________________________________________________

2. What does the student want to know ? ___________________________________

Note talking Listen again and complete each sentence .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Most people who want to work in the sciences have ______________________


The teacher suggests working hard in _________________________
The teacher says Luisa needs to think about _______________________
Luisa prefers to work ___________________, and she loves to ________________
Luisa is not interested in ____________________.

onunciation Listen to each word and underline the syllable that gets

T 33
Science
Problem

advantage
wanted

the

travel
university

sten again and look at the underlined letters. In many unstressed syllable
English , the vowel is pronounced as a schwa / sound .

Science
roblem

riting

a.
b.

d.

advantage
wanted

travel
university

Complete the news article with the letter of the sentences in the b

Its one of the most famous institutions in the world for marine biology
They do this by swimming together in large groups and causing ocean
water to move .
Sometimes she doesnt get much sleep because the animals that she studi
are active at night .
One part of the field work is going into the ocean and collecting data .

The

life

of

Bioengineer

Meet Dr Kakani Katija . Shes an engineer who knows a lot


about fluid dynanics they way water and other liquids behave
Shes also an expert on ocean life , so her title is bioengineer .
For Dr Katija, field work is the most exiting part of her job.
_______ On the other hand, her job has disadvantages, too.
_______ Dr Katija does her laboratory at the Woods Hole
oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
_______ She is trying to determine how the oceans animal life
affects the movement of the ocaen water . Jellyfish, which are
found all over the world , are the focus of her research .

It may sound unlikely, but small animals such as jelly fish ma


influence the earths climate. _______ This movement of ocean water
is important because of it s effects on climate as well as on ocean lif

LESSON

READING

Domesticated
Animals