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Pemodelan Struktur (Kuliah As3)
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Concepts

STRUKTUR

Struktur Frame/Truss?

Model Struktur

Konsep Struktur

Pemodelan Struktur

Analisis Struktur

Desain Elemen Struktur

Gambar Detail

Anggaran Biaya

Analisis Struktur

Engineer

Software

Engineer + Software

STRUKTUR

Baja (Baut)

Baja (Las)

Sambungan A

Sambungan B

Diagram Momen

(a) Struktur Rangka Dengan Dinding Geser (Shear Wall) - (b) Struktur Rangka Pemikul

Momen (SRPM) - c) Struktur Rangka Dengan Pengaku (Bracing)

Frame & Shear Walls

Sistem Penahan Beban Lateral

(Beban Gempa, Beban Angin)

Sistem Penahan Beban Gravitasi

(Beban Mati , Beban Hidup)

Berfungsi menahan beban gravitasi dan beban vertikal (Balok, Balok Anak, Pelat)

Berfungsi menahan beban lateral/horisontal (kolom, shear walls, bracing)

Sistem struktur yang mentransfer beban lateral pada Sistem Penahan Beban Lateral

PENGARUH LUAR

- Beban (Load)

- Getaran (Vibration)

- Penurunan

(Settlement)

- Temperatur

STRUKTUR

PENGARUH LUAR

- Beban (Load)

- Getaran (Vibration)

- Penurunan

(Settlement)

- Temperatur

RESPON STRUKTUR

- Deformasi

(Displacements)

- Gaya Dalam (Internal

Force)

- Regangan (Strains)

- Tegangan (Stress)

RESPON STRUKTUR

- Deformasi

(Displacements)

- Gaya Dalam (Internal

Force)

- Regangan (Strains)

- Tegangan (Stress)

STRUKTUR

Analysis of Structures

xx yy zz

pvx 0

x

y

z

pv

Differential Equations of various

order

Direct solution is only possible for:

Simple Geometry

Simple Boundary

Simple Loading.

Tested to determine the response

- We can only analyze a Model of the structure

- We therefore need tools to Model the Structure and to

Analyze the Model

Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

A discretized solution to a continuum

problem using FEM

A numerical procedure for solving (partial)

differential equations associated with field

problems, with an accuracy acceptable to

engineers

pv

3D-CONTINUM

MODEL

(Governed by partial

differential equations)

CONTINUOUS MODEL

OF STRUCTURE

(Governed by either

partial or total differential

equations)

DISCRETE MODEL

OF STRUCTURE

(Governed by algebraic

equations)

Classical

Equilibrium

Actual Structure

xx yy zz

pvx 0

x

y

z

Partial Differential

Equations

FEM

Assumptions

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law

Compatibility

Algebraic

Equations

_

dV p u dV p u ds

t

v

t

s

K = Stiffness

r = Response

R = Loads

Loads (F)

Deformations (D)

Fv

F=KD

STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

EXCITATION

pv

Static

Dynamic

Elastic

Inelastic

Linear

Nonlinear

1. Linear-Static

Elastic OR Inelastic

Ku F

2. Linear-Dynamic Elastic

Mu(t ) Cu (t ) Ku (t ) F (t )

3. Nonlinear - Static

Elastic OR Inelastic

Ku FNL F

4. Nonlinear-Dynamic

Elastic OR Inelastic

Mu(t ) Cu (t ) Ku (t ) F (t ) NL F (t )

Evaluate Real Structure

Create Structural Model

Discretize Model in FE

Solve FE Model

Interpret FEA Results

Physical significance of Results

Engineer

Engineer + Software

Software

Discretization of Continuums

General Solid

( Orthogonal dimensions)

Z

Regular Solid

X

Y

Beam Element

Solid Element

Plate/ Shell

Membrane/ Panel

In-Plane, Only Axial

Plate/ Slab

Out of Plane, Only Bending

Shell

In-Plane and Bending

(c) 3D Plate-Frame

(e) 2D Frame

Fig. 1 Various Ways to Model a Real Struture

(d) 3D Frame

(f) Grid-Plate

Dimensions of Elements

1 D Elements (Beam type)

Can be used in 1D, 2D and 2D

2-3 Nodes. A, I etc.

Truss and Beam Elements (1D,2D,3D)

Can be used in 2D and 3D Model

3-9 nodes. Thickness

Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D)

Can be used in 3D Model

6-20 Nodes.

Brick Elements

Dy

Dy

Dy

Rz

Dz

Dx

2D Truss

Dx

3D Truss

2D Beam

Ry

Dy

Rz

Dy

Dx

Rz

Dy

Dz

Rx

Dx

Rx

Rz

2D Frame

2D Grid

3D Frame

Ry ?

Ry ?

Dy

Dy

Dy

Rz

Rx

Dx

Membrane

Plate

Dz

Dx

Rz

Shell

Rx

Dy

Dz

Dx

Solid/ Brick

The structure represented by rod or

bar type elements

Does not model the cross-section

dimensions

Suitable for skeletal structures

Sometimes surface type structures

can also be represented by frame

model

The simplest and easiest model to

construct, analyze and interpret

Can be in 2D or in 3D space

2D Frame

3D Frame

2D Grid

Membrane Model

Tension / Compression

In- plane Shear

For in plane loads

Principle Stresses

suitable for very thin

structures / members

Thin Walled Shells,

Specially Suitable for Ferro

Cement Structure

Plain-Strain

Assumptions

x

1 unit

x2

x3

x1

3D Problem

2D Problem

Primarily Bending mode

Moment and Shear are

predominant

Suitable for moderately thick

slabs and plates

For Out-of-plane loads only

Can be used in 3D or 2D models

Suitable for planks and

relatively flat structures

Combined Membrane and Plate

Suitable for general application

to surface structures

Suitable for curved structures

Thick shell and thin shell

implementations available

Membrane thickness and plate

thickness can be specified

separately

Numerous results generated.

Difficult to design the section for

combined actions

Solid Model

Suitable for micro-models

Suitable for very thick plates / solids

May not be applicable much to

ferocement structures

Use 6 to 20 node

elements

Soil-Structure Interaction

Simple Supports

Fix, Pin, Roller etc.

Support Settlement

Elastic Supports

Spring to represent soil

Using Modulus of Sub-grade reaction

Use 2D plane stress elements

Use 3D Solid Elements

Truss

Truss

Frame

Membrane

Shell

Solid

OK

Dz

OK

OK

OK

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Dz

Rx ?

Dx, Dy

Rx ?

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

OK

OK

Dx, Dy

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

OK

Plate

Solid

0

Plate

OK

Membrane

Shell

Frame

What Type of

Analysis should be

Carried Out?

Analysis Type

depends on the Structural System

The Type of Excitation (Loads)

The Type Structure (Material and Geometry)

The Type Response

Excitation Structure Response

Static

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Non-linear Analysis

P-Delta Analysis

Buckling Analysis

Static Pushover Analysis

Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)

Large Displacement Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Free Vibration and Modal Analysis

Response Spectrum Analysis

Steady State Dynamic Analysis

Static Vs Dynamic

Static Excitation

When the Excitation (Load) does not vary rapidly with Time

When the Load can be assumed to be applied Slowly

Dynamic Excitation

When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time

When the Inertial Force becomes significant

Quasi Static

Most Dynamic Excitation can be converted to

Equivalent Static Loads

Elastic Vs Inelastic

Elastic Material

Follows the same path during loading and unloading and returns to initial

state of deformation, stress, strain etc. after removal of load/ excitation

Inelastic Material

Does not follow the same path during loading and unloading and may not

returns to initial state of deformation, stress, strain etc. after removal of

load/ excitation

depending upon level of loading.

Linear Vs Nonlinear

Linearity

The response is directly proportional to excitation

(Deflection doubles if load is doubled)

Non-Linearity

The response is not directly proportional to excitation

(deflection may become 4 times if load is doubled)

Geometric Effects (Geometric non-linearity)

Material Effects (Material non-linearity)

Both

Linear-Elastic

Action

Action

Deformation

Action

Action

Deformation

Linear-Inelastic

Nonlinear-Elastic

Deformation

Nonlinear-Inelastic

Deformation

Modeling, Analysis and Design

Continuum Vs Structure

A continuum extends in all direction, has infinite

particles, with continuous variation of material

properties, deformation characteristics and stress state

A Structure is of finite size and is made up of an

assemblage of substructures, components and members

Dicretization process is used to convert Structure to

Finite Element Models for determining response

Structures can be categorized in many ways.

For modeling and analysis purposes, the overall physical

behavior can be used as basis of categorization

Skeletal or Framed Structures

Surface or Spatial Structures

Solid Structures

Mixed Structures

Structure Types

Cable Structures

Cable Nets

Cable Stayed

Bar Structures

2D/3D Trusses

2D/3D Frames, Grids

Surface Structures

Plate, Shell

In-Plane, Plane Stress

Solid Structures

Structure can considered as an assemblage of Physical

Components called Members

Slabs, Beams, Columns, Footings, etc.

Conceptual Components called Elements

1D elements, 2D element, 3D elements

Frame element, plate element, shell element, solid element, etc.

Components relieves the engineers from intricacies and

idiosyncrasy of finite element discretization

Structural Members

Continuum

Regular Solid

(3D)

y

Plate/Shell (2D)

x z

t<<(x,z)

z

x

z

Beam (1D)

b h

L>>(b,h)

h

b

Most loads are basically Volume Loads generated due to

mass contained in a volume

Mechanism and path must be found to transfer these loads to

the Supports through a Medium

Point Loads

Line Loads

Area Loads

Volume Loads

The Load is transferred through a

medium which may be:

A Point

A Line

An Area

A Volume

A system consisting of combination of

several mediums

Point Supports

Line Supports

Area Supports

Volume Supports

Object

Load

Geometry

Medium

Support

Boundary

Point

Point Load

Concentrated Load

Node

Point Support

Column Support

Line

Beam Load

Wall Load

Slab Load

Beam / Truss

Connection Element

Spring Element

Line Support

Wall Support

Beam Support

Area

Slab Load

Wind Load

Plate Element

Shell Element

Panel/ Plane

Soil Support

Volume

Seismic Load

Liquid Load

Solid Element

Soil Support

Complexity of Load Transfer

Mechanism depend on:

Load

Vol.

Complexity of Load

Complexity of Medium

Complexity of Boundary

Area

Line

Point Line

Line

Area

Volume

Boundary

Area

Volume

Medium

Point

Line

Area

Volume

Objects in ETABS

Building Object Specific Classification

Slab One way or Two way slabs

Deck Special one way slabs

Wall Shear Walls, Deep Beams, In-Fill Panel

Frame Column, Beam or Brace

Finite Elements

Shell

Plate

Membrane

Beam

Node

The Actions Corresponding to Six DOF at Both Ends, in

Local Coordinate System

2

+V2

+P

+V3

+V3

+P

+V2

+M2

+T

+M3

3

+M3

+T

+M2

Shell Element

General

Total DOF per Node = 6 (or 5)

Total Displacements per Node = 3

Total Rotations per Node = 3

Used for curved surfaces

U3, R3

U3, R3

U2, R2

Node 3

U2, R2

Node 4

U1, R1

Application

For Modeling surface elements carrying

general loads

systems. But not used generally

U3, R3

1

U3, R3

U2, R2

Node 1

U1, R1

U2, R2

Node 2

U1, R1

Shell

U1, R1

Plate Element

General

Total DOF per Node = 3

Total Displacements per Node = 1

Total Rotations per Node = 2

Plates are for flat surfaces

U3

U3

R2

Node 3

Node 4

R1

Application

For Modeling surface elements carrying

out of plane loads

For representing floor slabs for Vertical

Load Analysis

Model slabs

R1

2

U3

R2

Node 1

R2

U3

R2

Node 2

R1

R1

Plate

Membrane Element

General

Total DOF per Node = 3 (or 2)

Total Displacements per Node = 2

Total Rotations per Node = 1 (or 0)

Membranes are modeled for flat surfaces

Application

For Modeling surface elements carrying

in-plane loads

For representing floor slabs for Lateral

Load Analysis.

Model Shear walls, Floor Diaphragm etc

R3

U2

U2

Node 4

Node 3

U1

3

U1

R3

U2

Node 1

R3

U2

Node 2

U1

Membrane

U1

Zipper

should match with mesh in the wall

to establish connection

establishes connectivity by using

constraints or Zipper elements

Basic Concepts and Considerations

Architecture

Building Services

Construction Eng.

Value Eng.

Aesthetics

Ergonomics Eng.

Structural Eng.

Knowledge Eng.

Economics

Artificial Intelligence

System Eng.

Common Sense

Construction

Engineering

Structural

System Selection

Artificial Intelligence

The Analytical Hierarchy Approach

A weighted importance and suitability value analysis to

determine the comparative value of a system or option

Value of

an Option

Vl Ai S i

i 1

Global

Importance

Weights and

Scores

B S C

j 1

ij

ij

Sub

Importance

Weights and

Scores

k 1

ijkl

S ijk

Suitability

Value and

Score

The Suitability Equation

m

i 1

C

S

ijkl ijk

k 1

Vl Ai S i

Bij Sij

j 1

Slab Systems

Main Criteria Ai

Sub Criteria Bij

Item k

Am

Sub Criteria Bin

Item p

Item k

Bmn

Item p

Item p

Wt

Score

Wt

Score

Wt

Score

Wt

Score

Score

Cijkl

Sijkl

Cijnl

Sijpl

Cinkl

Sinkl

Cinnl

Sinpl

Smnpl

System 1

System l

System - q

System

Value

(V)

Score or Weight

Representation of Suitability

10

8,9

6,7

4,3

1,2

Function has considerable effect on the selection

of structural system

Based on Function/Occupancy of Tall Buildings:

Residential Buildings

Apartments

Hotels

Dormitories

Mixed Occupancy Commercial + Residential

Industrial Buildings and Parking Garages

Column lines generally matches architectural layout

Typical spans 15-22 ft

Tall buildings economy in achieved using the thinnest slab

One way pre-cast or flat slab popular

Lateral load resistance provided by frame or shear walls

More or less fixed M/E system layouts

Typical spans 20-35 ft

Need for flexible M/E layouts

Post-tension or ribbed and flat slab with drop panel

popular

systems: sufficient shear walls to limit the resultant

tension under gravity plus wind

Lateral load resistance varies significantly

Vertical Load

Resisting Systems

The Components Needed to

Complete the Load-Transfer Path

for Vertical Gravity Loads

Purpose

To Transfer Gravity Loads Applied at the Floor Levels

down to the Foundation Level

Slab Supported on Load Bearing Walls

Slab Supported on Columns

Slab Supported on Beams

Beams Supported on Other Beams

Beams Supported on Walls or Columns

1. Slabs supported on Long Rigid Supports

One-way and Two-way Slabs

Main consideration is flexural reinforcement

Flat Slab Floor systems

Main consideration is shear transfer, moment distribution in various

parts, lateral load resistance

Footings, Mat etc. Heavy concentrated loads

Vertical Load

Behavior and Response

Direct Load Transfer Systems (Single load transfer path)

Beam-Slab

Waffle Slab

Wall Joist

Beam, Slab

Girder, Beam, Slab

Girder, Joist

Conventional Approach

For Wall Supported Slabs

Assume load transfer in One-Way or Two-Way manner

Uniform, Triangular or Trapezoidal Load on Walls

Assume beams to support the slabs in similar ways as walls

Design slabs as edge supported on beams

Transfer load to beams and design beams for slab load

Assume load transfer in strips directly to columns

Single Path

Single Path

Slab On Walls

Slab on Columns

Dual Path

Slab On Beams,

Beams on Columns

Mixed Path

Complex Path

Slab On Walls

Slab On Beams

Beams on Walls

Slab on Beams

Slab on Walls

Beams on Beams

Beams on Columns

Slab On Ribs

Ribs On Beams

Beams on Columns

To Lines

To Points

D

B

Slab T = 200 mm

Beam Width, B = 300 mm

Beam Depth, D

a) 300 mm

b) 500 mm

c) 1000 mm

5 .0 m

Effect of Beam Size on

Moment Distribution

Effect of Beam Size on Moment Distribution

Vertical Loads

Does not change much for different floors

1. Use Direct Design Methods

Slab analysis and design by using Coefficients

Beam analysis as continuous beams

Model, analyze and design Floor by Floor, With columns

Analyze un-symmetrical loads, geometry, openings etc.

Design Strip

Design Strip

Middle Strip

Column Strip

Middle Strip

Design Strip

Middle Strip

L2

Column Strip

Middle Strip

Drop Panels

Longitudinal Beams

Transverse Beams

L1

L2

Lateral Load

Resisting Systems

The Components Needed to

Complete the Load-Transfer Path

for Lateral Loads

Purpose

To Transfer Lateral Loads Applied at any location in the

structure down to the Foundation Level

Single System

Braced Frames

Shear Walls

Tubular Systems

Dual System

Shear Wall - Frames

Tube + Frame + Shear Wall

Lateral Loads

Primary Lateral Loads

Load generated by Wind Pressure

Load generated due to Seismic Excitation

Load generated due to horizontal component of Gravity

Loads in Inclined Systems and in Un-symmetrical

structures

Load due to lateral soil pressure, liquid and material

retention

Bearing wall system

Light frames with shear panels

Load bearing shear walls

Shear Walls (SW)

Diagonal Bracing (DB)

Special Moment-Resisting Frames (SMRF)

Concrete Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF)

Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMRF)

Shear Walls + Frames (SWF)

Ordinary Braced Frame (OBF)

Special Braced Frame (SBF)

The Load is transferred by

shear in columns, that

produces moment in

columns and in beams

The Beam-Column

connection is crucial for the

system to work

The moments and shear

from later loads must be

added to those from gravity

loads

The lateral loads is

primarily resisted by the

shear in the walls, in turn

producing bending moment

The openings in wall

become areas of high stress

concentration and need to

be handled carefully

Partial loads is resisted by

the frames

Traditionally 75/25

distribution haws been used

The Walls are part of the

frame and act together with

the frame members

The lateral loads is

primarily resisted by the

shear in the walls, in turn

producing bending moment.

Partial loads is resisted by

the frame members in

moment and shear

Braced Frame

The lateral loads is primarily

resisted by the Axial Force in

the braces, columns and

beams in the braced zone.

The frame away from the

braced zone does not have

significant moments

Bracing does not have to be

provided in every bay, but

should be provided in every

story

Tubular Structure

The system is formed by using

closely spaced columns and deep

spandrel beams

The lateral loads is primarily

resisted by the entire building

acting as a big cantilever with a

tubular/ box cross-section

There is a shear lag problem

between opposite faces of the tube

due to in-efficiency of column

beam connection

The height to width ratio should

be more than 5

Diagonal Braces are added to

the basic tubular structure

This modification of the

Tubular System reduces shear

lag between opposite faces

Lateral Load

Resisting

System

Behavior, Response

and Modeling

1. 2D Frame Models

Suitable for symmetrical loads and geometry

2. 3D Frame Model

Can be open floor model or braced floor model

A special model suitable for buildings that uses the concept of Rigid

Floor Diaphragm

Modeling as 2D Frame(s)

Convert 3D Building to an assemblage of 2D Frames

Using Independent Frames

Using Linked Frames

Using Sub-Structuring Concept

Advantages

Easier to model, analyze and interpret

Fairly accurate for Gravity Load Analysis

Main Problems:

Difficult to consider building torsional effects

Several Frames may need to be modeled in each direction

Difficult to model non-rectangular framing system

2. Select and

isolate Typical

2D Structure

Plan and 3D View

4. Obtain results

3. Discretize

the Model,

apply loads

F1

Linked Elements

Shear Wall

F2

F3

Modeling

Plan

F1

F2

F3

axial force from one end to other end. It has moment

discontinuity at both ends

one frame to another frame, representing the effect of

Rigid Floor.

The columns and beams are modeled by using

beam elements

The slabs and shear walls are modeled by using

plate elements

At least 9 or 16 elements in each slab panel must be

used if gravity loads are applied to the slabs

If the model is only for lateral analysis, one element

per slab panel may be sufficient to model the inplane stiffness

Shear walls may be modeled by plate or panel or

plane stress element. The out of plane bending is

not significant

Example:

Uses more than 4000

beam and plate elements

Suitable for analysis for

gravity and lateral loads

Results can be used for

design of columns and

beams

Slab reinforcement

difficult to determine

from plate results

Use Plate Elements

Panels, Plane Stress

Use Diagonal

Bracing

Use Diagonals

In 3D Frame Models

Diaphragm

Link Frames in 2D

Master DOF in 3D

Use Approximately

Use Plate

Elements

Combines the simplicity and advantages of the 2D Frame

models with the accuracy of the 3D models

Basic Concept:

The building structure is represented by vertical units (2D Frames,

3D Frames and Shear Walls), connected by the invisible rigid

diaphragm

The lateral movement of all vertical units are connected to three

master degree of freedom

This takes into account the building rotation and its effect on the

vertical units.

The modeling and analysis is greatly simplified and made efficient

Modeled as Rigid Horizontal Plane of infinite

in-plane stiffness (in X-Y plane)

Assumed to have a hinge connection with

frame member or shear wall, so flexural

influence of all floors to lateral stiff ness is

neglected

All column lines of all frames at particular

level can not deform independent of each

other

The floor levels of all frames must be at the

same elevation and base line, but they need

not have same number of stories

uilding d.o.f.s

F1 , 1

UL

r

rY

F3 , 3

UL3

X

UL2

rx

UL1

F3 , 2

F2 , 1

and Auto Load Transfer

(In ETABS)

By default uses two-way load transfer

mechanism

Simple RC solid slab

Can also be used to model one way slabs

Use one-way load transfer mechanism

Metallic Composite Slabs

Includes shear studs

Generally used in association with

composite beams

Deck slabs may be

o Filled Deck

o Unfilled Deck

o Solid Slab Deck

By default use one-way load transfer

mechanism

Generally used to model pre-cast slabs

Can also be simple RC solid slab

First step to Auto Load Transfer

Points

Columns

Load Points

Boundary Point

Lines

Beams

Areas

Deck:

Represents a Steel Metal Deck, One way Load Transfer

Plank : Represents clearly on-way slab portion

Slab:

Represents one-way or two-way slab portion

Opening: Represents Openings in Floor

Automatic Meshing

ETABS automatically meshes all line objects with frame

section properties into the analysis model

ETABS meshes all floor type (horizontal) area objects (deck

or slab) into the analysis model

Meshing does not change the number of objects in the

model

To mesh line objects with section properties use Edit menu

> Divide Lines

To mesh area objects with section properties use Edit menu

> Mesh Areas

Automatic Meshing

AutomaticMeshingofLineObjects

Frameelementsaremeshedatlocationswhereotherframe

elementsattachtoorcrossthemandatlocationswherepoint

objectslieonthem.

Lineobjectsassignedlinkpropertiesareneverautomatically

meshedintotheanalysismodelbyETABS

ETABSautomaticallymeshes(divides)thebracesatthepoint

wheretheycrossintheanalysismodel

Noendreleasesareintroduced.

AutomaticMeshingofLineObjects

Beam 1

Girder A

Beam 2

Beam 1

Piece 1

Piece 2

Beam 2

Piece 3

the ETABS Analysis Model

Girder B

a) Floor Plan

Example showing how beams are automatically divided (meshed) where they

support other beams for the ETABS analysis model

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects

ETABSautomaticallymeshesafloortypeareaobjectupintofour

sided(quadrilateral)elements

Eachsideofeachelementofthemeshhasabeam(RealorImaginary)

orwallrunningalongit

ETABStreatsawallliketwocolumnsandabeamwherethecolumns

arelocatedattheendsofthewallandthebeamconnectsthecolumns.

Eachcolumnisassumedtohavefourbeamsconnectingtoit

Thefloorisbrokenupatallwallsandallrealandimaginarybeamsto

createameshoffoursidedelements

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects

Girder B

a) Floor Plan

Beam 3

Beam 2

Beam 1

Girder A

Beam 3

Beam 2

Beam 1

Girder A

Girder B

b) ETABS Imaginary Beams Shown Dashed c) ETABS Automatic Floor Meshing

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects

Example of ETABS

automatically generated mesh

for floor-type area objects

Columns Shown Dashed

Edge of Floor Shown Dashed

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects

ForfloorsthatareautomaticallymeshedbyETABSitis

recommendedthatmodelbeams(oratleastnulltypelineobjects)

areconnectingcolumnsratherthannobeams(orlineobjects)

Thismakestheautomaticmeshingfortheanalysismodelcleaner,

fasterandmorepredictable

Includingbeamsand/ornulltypelineobjectsbetweenall

columnsinyourmodelmakesautomaticfloormeshingmore

predictable

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects

C4

C3

C4

C3

C4

C3

C1

a)

C2

C1

b)

C2

C1

c)

C2

C4

C3

C4

C3

C4

C3

C1

d)

C2

C1

e)

C2

C1

f)

C2

C4

C3

C4

C3

C4

C3

C1

g)

C2

C1

h)

C2

C1

i)

C2

creates the distribution of

imaginary beams

Transfer of Floor Loads to

Appropriate Elements

(Using the Auto Meshed Geometry)

Load Transformation

Themainissue:

Howpointloads,lineloadsandarealoadsthatlieonanarea

objectinyourobjectbasedETABSmodelarerepresentedin

theanalysismodel

There are four distinct types of load transformation in

ETABS for out-of-plane load transformation for floor-type

area objects

withdecksectionproperties

withslabsectionpropertiesthathavemembranebehavioronly

allothertypesofareaobjects

Inplaneloadtransformationforalltypesofareaobjects

Load Transformation

AreaObjects

loadtransformationoccursafterany

automaticmeshingintotheanalysis

model

ETABSnormalizesthecoordinatesof

thefourcornerpointsofthearea

object

Thenormalizationisthekey

assumptioninthismethod

Itisaperfectlyvalidassumptionifthe

quadrilateralisasquare,rectangularor

aparallelogram

a) Quadrilateral Element

s

(-1, 1)

(-1, -1)

(-1, 1)

(1, 1)

2

4

(1, -1)

(-1, -1)

(1, 1)

(r, s)

1

r

P

4

(1, -1)

d) Point Load, P

for other area objects

Load Transformation

Theloaddistributionfordecksectionsisoneway,in

contrasttoslabsectionswhichareassumedtospanintwo

directions

ETABSfirstautomaticallymeshesthedeckinto

quadrilateralelements

OncethemeshingiscompleteETABSdeterminesthe

meshedshellelementsthathaverealbeamsalongthemand

thosethathaveimaginarybeams

Italsodetermineswhichedgesofthemeshedshellelements

arealsoedgesofthedeck.

Load Transformation

RectangularInteriorMeshedElementwithUniformLoad

x/2

Edge 3

x/2

wx / 2

Edge 3

Edge 2

Edge 4

Edge 2

Edge 4

Ifthesupportingmember

attheendpointofan

imaginarybeamisitself

imaginary,thentheload

fromtheimaginarybeam

tributarytothatendpoint

islost,thatis,itis

ignoredbyETABS

Uniform load = w

Edge 1

a) Rectangular Interior Element

of Meshed Floor

Edge 1

b) Distribution of Uniform Load

Exampleofrectangularinteriormeshed

elementwithauniformload

Load Transformation

RectangularInteriorMeshedElementwithPointLoad

ETABSdistributesthepointloadtotheappropriateedgebeams

(basedonthedirectionofthedeckspan)

IfthebeamsalongedgesarerealbeamsETABStransferstheloadonto

adjacentbeams

x1

x2

P * x1

x1 + x2

Edge 3

Point load, P

Edge 2

Edge 4

Ifthesupporting

memberattheendpoint

ofanimaginarybeamis

itselfimaginary,thenthe

loadfromtheimaginary

beamtributarytothat

endpointislost,thatis,

itisignoredbyETABS

Edge 1

a) Rectangular Interior Element

of Meshed Floor

Edge 4

x1

Edge 2

x2

c) Loading on Edge 2

P * x2

P * x2

P * x1

x1 + x2

x1 + x2

x1 + x2

d) Loading on Edge 4

Load Transformation

RectangularInteriorMeshedElementwithLineLoad

Alineloadistransformedinasimilarfashiontothatforapointload

usinganumericalintegrationtechnique

Thelineloadisdiscreditedasaseriesofpointloadswhichare

transformedtosurroundingbeams

Theseriesofpointloadsisthenconvertedbacktoalineloadonthe

surroundingbeams

Anarealoadthatdoesnotcovertheentireelementisalsotransformed

inasimilarfashiontothatforapointloadusinganumericalintegration

technique.

GeneralInteriorMeshedElement

Uniform load

Midpoint

Midpoint

Line 3 P3

P3

P2

P2

P1

Meshed Floor Deck

Meshed Floor Deck

b)

c)

Line 2

P1

Line 1

b)

d)

f) Loading on Edge 1

Exampleofgeneralinteriormeshed

elementwithapointload

g) Loading on Edge 2

h) Loading on Edge 3

i) Loading on Edge 4

Exampleofgeneralinteriormeshedelementwitha

uniformload

ExteriorMeshedElement

D

B eam 2b

B eam 2a

Beam 3b

D

Beam 3a

Imaginary

Beam 6

Beam 3a

Beam 1b

No beam at

edge of deck

b) Deck Meshing

Beam 2b

Beam 1b

a) Floor Plan

No beam at

edge of deck

Beam 4a

a) Floor Plan

b) Deck Meshing

Imaginary Beam 5

Beam 1a

Beam 2a

Beam 3b

Beam 1a

Exampleofexteriormeshedelements

withcantileverbeamsextendingto

edgeofdeck

Beam 1b

B eam 2b

Edge of deck is at

center of spandrel

beam, typical in this

example

Beam 1a

B eam 2a

Beam 1b

Beam 2b

Exampleofexteriormeshed

elementswithrealbeamsonall

sides

Beam 4b

Beam 3b

Imaginary Beam 5

Beam 3a

ImaginaryBeam 6

Beam 2a

No beam at

edge of deck

a) Floor Plan

b) Deck Meshing

E2

Beam 2b

Exampleofexterior

meshedelements

withcantilever

beamsextendingto

edgeofaskewed

deck

Beam 1b

Beam 3a

Edge (Areas D and E)

E1

Beam 3b

ImaginaryBeam 6

Beam 2a

Beam 2b

Beam 1b

Beam 3b

Beam 1a

Beam 3a

Beam 2b

No beam at

edge of deck

Beam 1a

Beam 1b

ExteriorMeshedElement

ExteriorMeshedElement

Edge of deck

D

Beam 1

Beam 1

a) Floor Plan

Column 1

Beam 2

Beam 2

Column 1

b) Deck Meshing

ExteriorMeshedElement

a) Floor Plan

Beam 1b

b) Deck Meshing

Beam 3b

I

J

Beam 3a

Beam 1a

Beam 2b

Beam 1b

Beam 2a

Beam 2a

Beam 1a

Beam 2b

EffectofDeckOpenings

6'

14'

psf. Opening is either loaded or

unloaded as noted in c, d, e and f

which are loading diagrams for

Beam 1.

6'

4'

6'

14'

4'

4'

0.6 klf

2'

0.2 klf

Beam 1

a) Floor Plan with Unframed Opening

4'

6'

14'

d) Unframed, loaded opening

0.7k

0.7k

0.1 klf

0.6 klf

6'

0.6 klf

2'

4'

Beam 1

b) Floor Plan with Framed Opening

(Beams on all Sides)

0.6 klf

1.5k

1.5k

0.1 klf

0.6 klf

on distribution of load over

deck sections

Load Transformation

VerticalLoadTransformationforFloorswithMembrane

SlabProperties

onlyappliestofloortypeareaobjectswithslabsection

propertiesthathavemembranebehavioronly

Theloaddistributionformembraneslabsectionsistwoway

Theactualdistributionofloadsontheseelementsisquite

complex

ETABSusestheconceptoftributaryloadsasasimplifying

assumptionfortransformingtheloads

3 3

1

midpoints

FloorswithMembraneSlabProperties

1

h) Real beams on two

adjacent sides plus

one vertical support

element at corner point

plus one vertical

support element at

corner point

4 4

2 2

1

1

a) Real beams on all sides

3 3

2 2

1

b) Case 1 of real beams on

three sides

3

4

3 3

1

1

c) Case 2 of real beams on

three sides

1

d) Real beams on two

adjacent sides

1

e) Real beams on two

opposite sides

2

midpoint

1

1

2

2

1

h) Real beams on two

adjacent sides plus

one vertical support

element at corner point

3

2

3

1

2

k) Vertical support

elements at three

corner points (no real

beams)

1

2

l) Vertical support

elements at two

adjacent corner points

(no real beams)

1

Real beam at shell edge

1

n) Vertical support

elements at one

corner point (no

real beams)

Tributary area dividing line

Vertical support element

Legend

3 3

plus one vertical

support element at

corner point

4

1

m)Vertical support

elements at two

opposite corner points

(no real beams)

3

3

midpoints

1

i) Real beam on one side

plus two vertical

support elements at

corner points

1

f) Real beam on one side

1

2

j) Vertical support

elements at all corner

points (no real beams)

1

1

2

2 2

1

i) Real beam on one side

plus two vertical

support elements at

corner points

conditions of a membrane slab

FloorswithMembraneSlabProperties

3

4 4

2 2

4 4

2 2

1

1

a) Full uniform load

transformation

1

b) Partial uniform load

transformation

4 4

a membrane slab

2 2

4 4

2 2

1

c) Line load transformation

1

d) Point load transformation

A

6

5

6.0

4

6.0

3

2

1

2.8

2.8

4.0

4.0

5.5

5.5

4.0

4.0

A

6

5

C2

C1

C2 = 0.3 x 0.4

6.0

4

B1 = 0.25 x 0.4

B2 = 0.25 x 0.5

B1

6.0

B2

S1 = 0.15

3

2

1

2.8

2.8

4.0

4.0

5.5

5.5

4.0

4.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.5

2.0

6

Section

5

7.0

4

8.0

3

8.0

2

Plan

Typical Floor

(B1, B2, 4-35)

7.0

1

A

6.0

6.0

8.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

5

7.0

4

8.0

3

8.0

2

Plan

Floor 1-2

7.0

1

A

6.0

6.0

8.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

5

7.0

4

8.0

3

8.0

2

Plan

Floor 3

7.0

1

A

6.0

6.0

8.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

32 @ 3.5

2@

5.0

2 @ 2.8

Section at

C and D

5

32 @ 3.5

2@

5.0

2 @ 2.8

Section at

B and E

5

32 @ 3.5

2@

5.0

2 @ 2.8

Section at

A and G

5

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