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TOPIC 3

Energy systems

Relationship Between Nutrition, Environment and Health

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Security/Insecurity

Religion

Food

Culture

Security/Insecurity

Education

Economics

Politics

Agriculture

Culture

Food

Religion

Education

Economics

Politics

Agriculture

External Environment

External Environment

Security/Insecurity Religion Food Culture Security/Insecurity Education Economics Politics Agriculture Culture Food Religion Education Economics Politics Agriculture

Health Service

Social Status

Security/Insecurity Religion Food Culture Security/Insecurity Education Economics Politics Agriculture Culture Food Religion Education Economics Politics Agriculture

Nutritional

Nutritional

 

Requirements

Requirements

Growth and Development

Growth and Development

Pregnancy and Lactation

Pregnancy and Lactation

Sport and Exercise

Sport and Exercise

 

Elderly

Elderly

Nutritional Nutritional Requirements Requirements Growth and Development Growth and Development Pregnancy and Lactation Pregnancy and Lactation
Nutritional Nutritional Requirements Requirements Growth and Development Growth and Development Pregnancy and Lactation Pregnancy and Lactation

Food Security/Insecurity

Environment

Environment

Internal

Internal

Central Nervous

Central Nervous

DNA/RNA

DNA/RNA

System

System

Organs

Organs

Cells

Cells

Nutritional Status

Nutritional Status

Optimal Nourished

Optimal Nourished

Under-nourished

Under-nourished

Over-nourished

Over-nourished

Malnourished

Malnourished

Disease

Disease

3.1.1 List the macronutrients and micronutrients.

Macronutrients are nutrients that provide calories or energy and are required in large amounts:

Lipid (fat) carbohydrate and protein.

Micronutrients are nutrients required by humans in small amounts to orchestrate a wide variety of physiological functions but are not made by the organism

Vitamins Minerals Water Fiber

Carbohydrates

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Food Sources Include:

cereals sweeteners body fruit dairy bread rice

Functions:

Fuel for your

Energy storage

5

Fat

Food Sources Include:

Meat Dairy Products oil nuts bacon margarine, butter

Functions:

Fuel storage Hormones Cell storage

Protein

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Food Sources:

Meat Chicken Fish Eggs building blocks Cheese Milk

Functions:

Structure

Storage

Enzymes

Muscle

Water

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Food Sources Beverages Fruits Vegetables Ice Cream Reactions

Functions:

Excretion Lubrication Transport Medium for

Vitamins

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Food Sources Fruits macronutrients Vegetables Fatty Fish

Functions:

Energy release from

Immune function Eyesight

Minerals

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Food Sources:

Fruits and teeth Vegetables

Fatty Fish radicals

Milk

Functions:

Mineralization of bones

Blood oxygen transport Defense against free

Acid base balance

3.1.3 State the chemical composition of a glucose molecule.

Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. It’s chemical formula is C6H12 O6 1:2:1 ratio

3.1.4 Identify a diagram representing the basic structure of a

glucose molecule

3.1.4 Identify a diagram representing the basic structure of a glucose molecule

3.1.5 Explain how glucose molecules can combine to form disaccharides and polysaccharides

3.1.5 Explain how glucose molecules can combine to form disaccharides and polysaccharides

Carbohydrates

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Monosaccarides have one sugar molecule fruits, vegetables and honey

Disaccharides have 2 sugar molecules sugar, milk

Polysaccharides have many sugar molecules rice, potatoes, corn and wheat

Condensation Reaction

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the linking of a monosaccharide to another monosaccharide, disaccharide or polysaccharide by removal of a water molecule

Joule:

a unit of energy. Joule is the

energy obtained from food that is available through cell respiration

Test Your Knowledge:

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Place the major CHO sources with the correct country:

sweet potato maize cassava wheat rice potato

3.1.6 State the composition of a molecule of triglycerol.

Also known as triglyceride which is a lipid/fat

consists of a glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains

Stored in adipose tissue and skeletal muscleCOn

Structure of triglycerol.

glycer Saturated ol Fatty acid Unsaturated Fatty acid
glycer
Saturated
ol
Fatty acid
Unsaturated
Fatty acid

3.1.7 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

What difference do you notice between the two?

3.1.7 Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids What difference do you notice between the two?

Unsaturated vs Saturated

  • 19 Fatty Acids

Unsaturated

Saturated

Double bonds between carbon atoms

No double bonds between carbon atoms

Come from plant based foods

Come from animal sources

Examples include peanuts, cashew nuts, rapeseed and sunflower oil, olive oil and avocado

Tropical oils such as coconut and palm oil. Fat in and around meat, chicken, pork

To Think About: Trans Fat

20

Read pages

in your IB textbook.

Describe a trans fat. Why is this harmful?

Should the government have put a ban on foods with trans fat? Why or why not?

Discuss with your elbow partner.

3.1.8 State the chemical composition of a protein molecule.

Protein molecules consist of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen.

The smallest part of a protein is called an amino acid. There are 20 different amino acids

Compose blood tissue, muscle tissue and enzymes

3.1.9 Distinguish between an essential and a nonessential amino acid.

Essential amino acids cannot by synthesized by the human body and must be obtained by diet

Non-essential amino acids can be synthesized by the human body

How would this impact a vegetarian?

Independent Reading Activity

Read Protein-Energy Malnutrition in Children on page 57 from your IB textbook and answer the following 3 questions that can be found in your workbook.

What are the factors that influence adequate nutrition?

What are the consequences of a lack of carbohydrate, fat and protein diet?

Why are children at greatest risk of suffering from undernutrition?

3.1.10 Describe current recommendations for a healthy
24 balanced diet

Balanced diet: a diet that provides all nutrients in the right amount in order to maintain health and prevent nutrient excess or deficiency diseases

Dietary recommendations:

recommended amounts of essential nutrients in the diet

Dietary guidelines: recommended amounts of foods, food groups or meals

3.1.10 Describe current recommendations for a healthy balanced diet.

My Plate

3.1.13 State the energy content per 100 g of carbohydrate,

lipid and protein.

Carbohydrate = 1600 kJ Protein = 1700 kJ Fat =3700 kJ

Both carbohydrates and lipids can be used for energy storage in humans. Carbohydrates are usually used for energy storage over short periods and lipids for long term storage.

Student Thinking Questions

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Complete the student thinking questions found in your student workbook.

Research of dietary recommendations between two countries of your choice. What are the similarities and differences between the two countries? Why do you think there are differences?

Once you have finished, complete the questions 1- 4 under research of dietary recommendations.

3.1.11 State the approximate energy content per 100g of carbohydrate,

  • 29 lipid and protein

Carbohydrate: 1760 kJ

Lipid:

4000 kJ

Protein:

1720 kJ

Observe the following chart. What do you notice among the nutrients?

Observe the following chart. What do you notice among the nutrients?

3.1.12 Discuss how the recommended energy distribution of the dietary macronutrients differs between endurance athletes and non-athletes.

Using your textbook, complete the chart found on your student workbook.

“the more glycogen, the further and faster the player ran”-what does this quote mean to you?

Review your chart—describe what the information means to you in your daily life? How could you use this information to better train an athlete?

Carbs

During prolonged, aerobic exercise, energy is provided by the muscle glycogen stores – which directly depend on the amount of carbohydrates ingested.

This is not the only reason why dietary carbohydrates play a crucial role in athletic performance; they have also been found to prevent the onset of early muscle fatigue and hypoglycaemia during exercise.

Carbs

By keeping carbohydrate intake high, an athlete therefore replenishes his glycogen energy stores, and reduces the risk of rapid fatigue and a decline in performance.

At the same time, carbohydrate intake should not be so high as to drastically reduce the intake of fat, because the body will use fat as a substrate once glycogen stores are depleted.

Protein

The use of body protein in exercise is usually small, but prolonged exercise in extreme sports can degrade muscle, hence the need for amino acids during the recovery phase.

3.2.1 Outline the terms metabolism, anabolism, aerobic catabolism and aerobic catabolism .

Metabolism: All the biochemical reactions that occur within an organism, including anabolic and catabolic reactions

Anabolism: Energy requiring reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones

Catabolism: Chemical reactions that break down complex organic compounds into simpler ones, with

the net release of energy.

Aerobic catabolism refers

to processes which require oxygen. Anaerobic catabolism is independent of the presence of oxygen.

3.2.2 State what glycogen is and its major storage sites.

Glycogen comes from the Greek world glykr meaning “sweet”

Animals store polysaccharides as glycogen in the liver and muscle.

When the diet provides more glucose than the tissue requires, your body stores glucose as glycogen.

3.2.3 State the major sites of triglyceride storage.

Major storage site of triglycerides are adipose tissue (fat) and skeletal muscle.

3.2.4 Explain the role of insulin in the formation of glycogen and the accumulation of body fat.

Insulin is a hormone that informs the body’s cells that the animal is well fed

Causes liver and muscle cells to take in glucose and store it in the form of glycogen

Causes fat cells to take in blood lipids and turn them into triglycerides

3.2.4

Ingest cabohydrates > increase in blood glucose > insulin is released by pancreas

After a meal, insulin concentrations rise and cells uptake glucose thereby decreasing the level of glucose in the blood

Exercise and Insulin

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In response to exercise, we need muscle to use glycogen and not store it in muslce and liver

When you exercise, insulin concentration goes down

Visual

Visual

3.2.5 Outline the terms glycogenolysis and lipolysis.

Glycogenolysis the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.

In the liver, the breakdown of glycogen results in elevated blood glucose.

In the muscle, the breakdown of glycogen is used by the muscle for energy. There is no release of glucose into the blood stream from the muscle.

This occurs as a result of the hormone glucagon.

Lipolysis

Lipolysis is the process of releasing triglycerides from the body’s fat stores

Excess fat is stored in adipose tissue and muscles

Free fatty acids are released into the blood stream and throughout the body

breakdown of adipose tissue by glucagon and adrenaline to increase blood sugar

3.2.6 Outline the functions of glucagon and adrenaline during fasting and exercise.

3.2.6 Outline the functions of glucagon and adrenaline during fasting and exercise.

3.2.6

During fasting and exercise the blood glucose level drops and therefore the release of glucagon and adrenaline will result in an increase of blood glucose.

Glucagon and adrenaline stimulate the breakdown of glycogen in the liver to increase blood glucose levels during long periods of exercise and times of fasting

3.2.7 Explain the role of insulin and muscle contraction on glucose uptake during exercise.

Insulin will result in an increased uptake of blood glucose into the liver and muscle.

Muscle contraction will also result in an increase of blood glucose uptake from the blood due to higher energy demands.

3.3.1 Draw a diagram to show the ultrastructure of a generalized animal cell.

With ribosomes Apparatu s
With
ribosomes
Apparatu
s

3.3.2 Draw a diagram to show the ultrastructure of a mitochondrion.

3.3.2 Draw a diagram to show the ultrastructure of a mitochondrion.

3.3.3 Define the term cell respiration.

The controlled release of energy in the form of ATP

Cell and Energy Metabolism

Cell and Energy Metabolism

3.3.4 Explain how adenosine can gain and lose a phosphate molecule.

ATP is made up of adenosine and three phosphate groups

ATP releases a great deal of energy when their bonds are broken

ATP is the energy currency of the cell

ATP

Draw the following diagram

  • 53 in your workbook

ENERGY IN

Draw the following diagram 53 in your workbook  ENERGY IN ADENOSINE ADENOSINE  P P
Draw the following diagram 53 in your workbook  ENERGY IN ADENOSINE ADENOSINE  P P

ADENOSINE

ADENOSINE

P P P P P P P P P P P P +
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
+

ADENOSINE

ADENOSINE

P P P P P P P P P P P P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P

ENERGY OUT

3.3.5 Explain the role of ATP in muscle contraction.

Muscle contraction requires lots of energy

All muscle fibers have the capacity to produce ATP using carbohydrates and fats

The release of energy caused by the breakdown of ATP to ADP provides the energy for muscle contraction.

In muscle there is sufficient ATP present to allow just two seconds of muscle activity

ATP in Muscle Contraction

After the two seconds, the muscle must use ATP from another source

This energy (ATP) comes from different energy systems

3.3.6 Describe the re-synthesis of ATP by the ATP-CP system (creatinine phosphate system)

Creatine phosphate (a high energy molecule) is broken down to provide a phosphate molecule for the re-synthesis of ATP during the initial stages of exercise

Occurs quickly and is important during hard exercise

Short lived—works for 20 seconds and then you need another way of getting ATP

Give an example of during what sport you may use this energy system?

3.3.6 Describe the re-synthesis of ATP by the ATP–CP system.

3.3.6 Describe the re-synthesis of ATP by the ATP–CP system.

3.3.7 Describe the production of ATP by the lactic acid system

Also known as anaerobic glycolysis—the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate without the use of oxygen. Pyruvate is then converted into lactic acid, which limits the amount of ATP produced (2 ATP molecules).

The lactic acid system is generally used for high to medium intensity activities lasting no longer than 2 minutes.

Lactic acid accumulates in the muscle and causes discomfort and reduces the ability of muscle to contract > slow down

3.3.7 Describe the production of ATP by the lactic acid system.

3.3.7 Describe the production of ATP by the lactic acid system.

3.3.8 Explain the phenomena of oxygen deficit and oxygen debt

Oxygen debt now excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) These terms refer to a lack of oxygen while training Oxygen Deficit. While exercising intensely the body is sometimes unable to fulfill all of its energy needs. In order to make up the difference without sacrificing the output, the body must tap into its anaerobic metabolism.

This where the body goes into a mix of aerobic and anaerobic energy production.

While not hugely detrimental, oxygen deficits can grow to a level that the anaerobic energy system cannot cover.

This can cause performance to deteriorate.

Oxygen Debt

This term describes how the body pays back its debt incurred above after the exercise is over.

You will notice that even after you have finished racing you will continue to breath hard.

At this point your body is still trying to repay the oxygen debt that was created when you were working hard.

Technically, it is excessive post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC).

Describe the differences between these two diagrams

3.3.9 Describe the production of ATP from glucose and fatty acids by the aerobic system.

Within the Mitochondria is the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain > produce ATP from all main food groups- usually carbs and fats

Proteins are used for 15 percent of resting energy metabolism

Fats are broken down by beta oxidation that also liberates electrons to produce ATP (energy)

3.3.9 Key Points

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Beginning of exercise:

anaerobic system that dominates energy provision

ATP within muscle provides energy for 2 seconds

Creatine phosphate fades after 20 seconds

Then lactic acid system dominates but is short lived

Finally aerobic energy system dominates Fats are only used during aerobic activities

Aerobic system

Aerobic system

A comparison of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis-Draw this in your workbook

A comparison of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis-Draw this in your workbook

3.3.10 Discuss the characteristics of the three energy systems and their relative contributions during exercise

3.3.11 Evaluate the relative contributions of the three energy systems during different types of exercise.

Independent research:

Using the diagrams in your student workbook, your textbook and the internet, compare the three energy systems with 3 different types of exercise:

ATP-PC LACTIC ACID OXYGEN