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AGE:

Acute
Gastroenteritis
Kamar H. Callanga // Jashmir joyce
F. Banua

DEFINITION:
Gastroenteritis is a catchall term for
infection or irritation of the digestive
tract, particularly the stomach and
intestine.

ANATOMY AND
PHYSIOLOGY:

PATHOPHYSILOGY:
Viral spread from person to person occurs by fecaloral transmission of contaminated food and water.
Some viruses, like noroviruses, may be transmitted
by an airborne route. Clinical manifestations are
related to intestinal infection, but the exact
mechanism of the induction of diarrhea is not clear

ETIOLOGY :
Acute gastroenteritis is a common cause of
morbidity and mortality worldwide. Conservative
estimates put diarrhea in the top 5 causes of
deaths worldwide, with most occurring in young
children in nonindustrialized countries.
Etiologies include bacteria, viruses, parasites,
toxins, and drugs. Viruses are responsible for a
significant percentage of cases affecting patients of
all ages. Viral gastroenteritis ranges from a selflimited watery diarrheal illness

RISK FACTORS:
Young children
Older adults
Schoolchildren, churchgoers or
dormitory residents.
Anyone with a weakened immune
system.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:


These include the following:
Diarrhea
Vomiting
Increase or decrease in urinary
frequency
Abdominal pain
Signs and symptoms of infection Presence of fever, chills, myalgias,
rash, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough;
these may be evidence of systemic
infection or sepsis

Changes in appearance and behavior Including weight loss and increased


malaise, lethargy, or irritability, as well as
changes in the amount and frequency of
feeding and in the childs level of thirst
History of recent antibiotic use - Increases
the likelihood of Clostridium difficile
History of travel to endemic areas

TEST:
The symptoms of gastroenteritis are
usually enough to identify the illness.
Workup in pediatric gastroenteritis can
include the following:
Baseline electrolytes
Fecal leukocytes and stool culture
Stool analysis for C difficile toxins
Stool analysis for ova and parasites
Complete blood count (CBC) and
blood cultures

NSG. MANAGEMENT:
Wash hand thoroughly after giving care to
avoid spreading of infection, and use
standard precaution whenever handling
vomitus or stools.
Monitor the patients fluids status carefully.
Assess vital signs at least every 4 hours,
weigh him daily, and record intake and
output.
Teach the patient about gastroenteritis,
describing its symptoms and varied causes.
Teach the patient the proper preventive

MEDICATION:
Probiotics
Zinc
Metronidazole
Tetracycline and doxycycline
Vaccine

NURSING DIAGNOSIS:
Diarrhea related to infectious
process
Fluid Volume Deficit related to
active fluid volume loss
Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity
related to altered fluid status

UPDATES:
CDC finds norovirus the chief
culprit in acute gastroenteritis in
young children

The availability of rotavirus vaccines has made


norovirus the most common cause of medically
attended acute gastroenteritis in American
children younger than 5 years, according to a
2013 study from the US Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC). The report indicates
that norovirus infection resulted in almost 1
million pediatric medical-care visits in the United
States in 2009 and 2010, with treatment costs
reaching hundreds of millions of dollars annually.
Approximately half of the norovirus-related visits

Studies of the rotavirus vaccine have


shown that it can prevent about 74% of
rotavirus infections. More importantly, it
can prevent approximately 98% of severe
infections and 96% of hospitalizations
from rotavirus. In one Massachusetts
hospital, in two years, the number of
people with rotavirus dropped from 65 to
three.

http://
emedicine.medscape.com/article/176515-overview#a5
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/801948-overview