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Working with

ALGEBRA 2
MS. LOPEZ

Rational Expressions

Rational Expressions
Rational expressions can be written

in the form
where P and Q are both
polynomials and Q 0.

3x 2 2 x 4
4x 5

4x 3y
2
2
2 x 3 xy 4 y

3x 2
4

Simplifying Rational Expressions


Simplifying a rational expression means
writing it in lowest terms or simplest form.
To do this, we need to use the
Fundamental Principle of Rational
Expressions
If P, Q, and R are polynomials, and Q and R are not 0,

PR P

QR Q

Simplifying Rational Expressions


Simplifying a Rational Expression

1) Completely factor the numerator and denominator.


2) Apply the Fundamental Principle of Rational
Expressions to eliminate common factors in the
numerator and denominator.
Only common FACTORS can be eliminated from the
numerator and denominator. Make sure any
expression you eliminate is a factor.

Simplify the following expression

x 3 x 4 ( x 4)( x 1) x 1

2
x5
x x 20 ( x 5)( x 4)
2

Multiplying Rational Expressions


Multiply the following rational expressions.

( m n)
m
(m n)( m n) m
2

( m n) m( m n )
m n m mn
2

mn
mn

Dividing Rational Expressions


Divide the following rational expression.

25
( x 3) 5 x 15 ( x 3)

5
5 x 15
5
25
2

( x 3)( x 3) 5 5
x3
5 5( x 3)

Dividing Rational Expressions


When the division cannot be completed by factoring,
polynomial long division is used and closely resembles
whole number division

In the division process, zero place holders are


sometimes used to ensure that like place values will
line up as we carry out the algorithm

Find the quotient of 8 x 3 27 and 2 x 3

Dividing Rational Expressions


(using long division)
Find the quotient of 8 x 3 27 and 2 x 3

2 x 3 8 x 27
3

2 x 3 8 x 0 x 0 x 27
3

Factors
If one number divides evenly into another, it must be a factor of the
original number
The same idea holds for
polynomials
This means that division can be used as a tool for
factoring
We need to do two things first
a. Find a more efficient method for
division
b. Find divisors that give a remainder of
zero

Synthetic Division

2 x 13 x 17 x 5
2

1 -2 -13

-17

15

10

remainder

Try it yourself

x 12 x 34 x 7
x7
3

The Remainder Theorem

The Remainder Theorem


If a polynomial P(x) is divided by a linear
factor (x-r), the remainder is identical to
P(r) the original function evaluated at r.
Use the remainder theorem to find the value of H(-5) for

H x x 3x 8 x 5 x 6
4

Using the Remainder Theorem

Use the remainder theorem to find the


value of P(1/2) for

P x x 2 x 3x 2
3

Finding solutions (finding the zeroes)


We say that x=r is a root or zero of a polynomial, p(x), if
p(r)=0.
In other words, x=r is a root or zero of a polynomial if it is a
solution to the equation p(x)=0.

Using Remainder and Factor


Theorem

Complex numbers, coefficients, and the Remainder and Factor Theorem

Show x=2i is a zero of:

P x x 3 x 4 x 12
3

Roots of mulitplicities
Roots of multiplicity

Some equations produce repeated roots.

Polynomial zeroes theorem


A polynomial equation of
degree n has exactly n
roots, (real and complex)
where roots of multiplicity
m are counted m times.

The Fundamental Theorem of


Algebra
The Fundamental Theorem of
Algebra
Every complex polynomial of degree n1 has at least one complex
root.
Our search for a solution will not be fruitless
or wasted, solutions for all polynomials exist.
The fundamental theorem combined with the factor
theorem enables to state the linear factorization theorem.

The Rational Roots Theorem


The Rational Roots Theorem
(RRT)

Given a real polynomial P(x) with degree n 1 and integer


coefficients, the rational roots of P (if they exist) must be of the
form p/q, where p is a factor of the constant term and q is a
factor of the lead coefficient (p/q must be written in lowest terms)

List the possible rational roots


for

3 x 14 x x 42 x 24 0
4

The End Behavior of a polynomial


graph
If the degree of the polynomial is odd, the ends will point in opposite directions:
1. Positive lead coefficient: down on left, up on right (like y=x 3)
2. Negative lead coefficient: up on left, down on right (like y=-x 3)

If the degree of the polynomial is even, the ends will point in the same direction:
3. Positive lead coefficient: up on left, up on right (like y=x 2)
4. Negative lead coefficient: down on left, down on right (like y=-x 2)

Graphs with roots of multiplicity


Zeroes of odd multiplicity will cross through the x-axis
Zeroes of even multiplicity will bounce off the x-axis
2

f x x 3 x 2

Cross through
bounce

Estimate the equation based on the


graph

g(x) = (x - 2) (x + 1) (x 1)