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ALCOHOLS

ALTERNATE FUELS

WHAT IS AN ALCOHOL?
Organic compound in which a hydroxyl group is
bound to a saturated carbon atom.
Alcohols are attractive alternate fuels because
they can be obtained from both natural and
manufactured sources.
OH

OH

OH

Alcohol are a homologous series with the


general formula CNH2N+1OH, where n is the
number of carbon atoms in a molecule.
The simplest alcohol is methanol, with one
carbon atom.
Alcohols are soluble in water but their solubility
decreases as their molecular size increases.
Although alcohols contain the OH group, they
are not alkalis. In fact, they are all neutral.
Metanol, Ethanol, Propanol and Butanol are
widely used as fuels in IC ENGINES.

ADVANTAGES OF ALCOHOLS
one advantage shared by the first four major alcohol
fuels is their highoctane rating (more compression
before detonating) of more than 100.
this tends to increase their fuel efficiency and
prevents knocking.
Reduces the overall emissions compared to gasoline.
When burnt it gives higher pressure as it forms more
moles of exhaust gas.

METHANOL
used either in combination with gasoline or
directly.
most common blends are m85 and m10.
first produced by the destructive distillation of
wood and hence is commonly called wood
alcohol.
has a high octane rating of 114 and high heat of
vaporization.
due to lower energy content and lower
stoichiometric fuel air ratio of 6.42:1 means that

ADVANTAGES
reduces 10% decrease in gasoline use.
Reduces CO and HC emissions.
used in high speed racing cars.
DISADVANTAGES
it is hygroscopic (tendency to combine with water) due
to which alcohol separates from gasoline resulting in a
non homogeneous mixture causing different A/F
mixtures.
Very high increase in NOx and Formaldehyde emissions.
increased electrical conductivity promotes electric,
galvanic, and ordinary corrosion in the fuel system.

ETHANOL
Used in automobile industry for many years
mostly in Brazil.
All gasoline sold in brazil includes a blend of 18
to 27.5 percent ethanol.
Used mainly as a biofuel and as an additive to
gasoline.
Commonly made from the biomass of corn or
sugarcane.
Ethanol Blends include gasohol(90%gasoline
and 10%ethanol).

BLENDER PUMPS
A blender pump draws two fuels from separate
storage tanks and mixes them together in
various percentages to form a variety of fuel
choices for the stations customers.
Any combination of fuels is possible, and most
blending systems allow changes in the
percentages of ethanol
Ethanol blends exceeding 10% are clearly

FUEL FLEX VEHICLES


Invented as a result of the oil shock in the
1970s.
In order to reduce the gasoline consumption.
FFVs canrun on either gasoline or pure ethanol.
Since 2003, the combination of sugarcane
ethanol and flex fuel vehicles has reduced
brazils emissions of carbon dioxide by more
than 350 million tons.
90 percent of new cars sold today in brazil are
flex fuel due to consumer demand.

EXTRACTION OF
ETHANOL

FERMENTATION OF ETHANOL
duringethanol fermentation, glucoseand other
sugars in the corn (or sugarcane or other crops) are
converted into ethanol andcarbon dioxide.
C12H22O11+ H2O + INVERTASE 2 C6H12O6
C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH+ 2 CO2+ HEAT
The next step is Glycolysis.
Glucose molecule is broken down into
twopyruvatemolecules

SUCROSE

C6H12O6+ 2 ADP + 2 PI+ 2 NAD+ 2 CH3COCOO+ 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O


+ 2 H+

The pyruvate is converted into ethanol in two


steps catalysed using Alcohol Dehydrogenase,
present in Bakers yeast.
CH3COCOO+ H+ CH3CHO + CO2
CH3CHO + NADH+H+

+ NAD+

during combustion, ethanol reacts


withoxygento produce carbon dioxide, water,
and heat

n generalC H OH + 3 O 2 CO + 3 H O +
2

HEAT

D IST IL L AT ION

For the ethanol to be usable as a fuel, the


majority of the water must be removed.
Most of the water is removed bydistillation but
the purity is limited to 9596% due to the
formation of a low-boiling mixture called
Hydrous ethanol.
Hydrous ethanol is not miscible in all ratios with
gasoline
So, the water fraction is typically removed in
further treatment in order to burn it with in

FUEL ECONOMY OF ETHANOL IN ENGINES


Ethanol has close to 34% less energy per volume than
gasoline,consequently fuel economy ratings with
ethanol blends are significantly lower than with pure gasoline
However, since ethanol has a higher octane rating, the
engine can be made more efficient by raising its compression
ratio.
Using aturbocharger, the compression ratio can be
optimized for the fuel, making fuel economy almost constant
for any blend.

COLD START DURING THE WINTER

Highethanol blendspresent a problem to


achieve enoughvapour pressurefor the fuel to
evaporate and spark the ignition during cold
weather.
Since ethanol tends to increase the enthalpy of
vaporization.
To avoid this problem e85 has been adopted as
the maximum blend to be used in the flexible
fuel vehicles, and they are optimized to run at
such a blend.

EMISSION
CHARACTERISTICS

BSFC VS LOAD %

BSFC = FUEL CONSUMPTION RATE


POWER
From the graph it is evident that BSFC increases
as ethanol content increases in the blended fuel.
Heat value of ethanol=2/3 rd of heat value Diesel.
So lesser heat is produced by burning ethanol
than diesel

BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY VS LOAD%

BTE isused to evaluate how well an engine


converts the heat from a fuel to mechanical
energy.
We can see that BTE is improved for all engine
conditions fuelled with ethanol and diesel blends
In general BTE can be improved by increasing the
addition of ethanol fuel to diesel.
This is due to the lower flame temperature of
ethanol than that of diesel.

CO EMISSIONS

NOx EMISSIONS

TOTAL HC EMISSIONS

REFERENCES
1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ethanol_fuel
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/alternative_fuel_vehicle
3. http://www.jesc.ac.cn/jesc_en/ch/reader/view_abstract.aspx?
file_no=20040519
4. http://ethanolrfa.org/how-ethanol-is-made/
5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15559814
Journals
6. Physico-chemical properties of ethanol diesel blend fuels and
its characterstics by degang li, huang zen et al, published 1 st
October, ELSEVIER.
7. Effect of ethanol percentage for diesel engine performance
using virtual engine simulation tool, ELSEVIER.
8. A performance review of ethanol-diesel blended fuel samples