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Blood Functions

PRESENTED
By
Dr. khaled Ezam
PhD physiology

REFERENCES:
Medical Physiology by Staff Members of
the Physiology Department: Volume -1 , for
the first year medical students, Physiology of
Blood.
GUYTON & HALL; Textbook of Medical
Physiology ,12TH edition,
Unit-VI,chapter-32 ,Red Blood Cells,Anaemia ,
and Polycythemia, PP 413-421.
Unit-VI-chapter-33,Leukocytes ,Granulocytes,
The Monocytes-Macrophage System, and
Inflammation.PP 423-431.
9/30/16

semester -1 physiology
Dr.khaled Ezam

Introduction
Blood is a reddish fluid that circulates
continuously inside the CVS. by the pumping
action of the heart
It has many important functions which are
essential for life.
Sudden loss of more than 30% of the total
volume leads to death.

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Functions of the blood


1-Transport
function:

O2

O2 & CO2
Nutrients from digestive
system to cells.
Removal of waste
products.
Hormones from endocrine
glands to cells.
Enzymes and vitamins.

Lung

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Tissues

CO2

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2-Regulatory
functions:

PH of the blood: it contains buffer system.


Body temperature: through heat loss from skin.
Regulation of ABP: due to its viscosity.

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3-Protective function:
Gamma globulin which form
antibodies for immunity.
White blood cell (WBC)
phagocytosed microorganism.
Clotting factors prevent blood loss.

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Composition of blood
1. Cellular elements: represents about
45% of the total blood volume.
2. Plasma 55%.

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Haematocrit
Value
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SERUM

PLASMA

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PLASMA

SERUM

Is a clear and
yellowish fluid
part of the
blood.

Is watery fluid
part of the
blood.

It is also found
in the lymph,
intramuscular
fluid.

Formed after
clot formation,
so deficient in
fibrin and other
clotting factors

Contains fibrin
and other
clotting factors.

Mostly water
,protein,hormon
es,minerals and
carbon dioxide.

Formed after
addition of
anticoagulant
to prevent clot
formation.

Very important
source of
electrolytes.

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Cellular elements
RBCs: 5 million/mm3. decrease in No. causes
anemia while increase causes polythycemia.
WBCs: 4000-11000/mm3 decrease No.
leukopenia increase No. leukocytosis.
Platelets: (Thrombocytes):150-400
thousands/mm3 Thrombocytopenia
Thrombvocytosis.

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PLASMA
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Plasma
Water 90%
Organic substance 9%
-Plasma proteins 7%( albumin, globulin,
fibrinogen)
- Other organic substance 2% (metabolic
products urea creatinine , nutritive substance
glucose Amino Acids, Enzymes hormones ,
vitamines
Inorganic substance 1%
- Na, K, Ca, Cl
-Respiratory gases O2, CO2.
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Function of plasma protein


1. Blood coagulation: fibrinogen &prothrombin.
2. Blood viscosity: 2 times more than water
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

maintain diastolic bl. Pressure.


Production of an effective osmotic pressure
maintain body fluid.
Buffering action.
Defense action. Antibodies are gamma globulins
Carrier functions: vitamins, Iron, copper,
cholesterol, phospholipids, hormones e.g.
Thyroxin, cortisol.
Carriage of CO2.
Regulation of capillary permeability.
Protein metabolism.
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RED BLOOD CORPUSCLES


R.B.C

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RBCs
Shape: small circular biconcave
disc.
Diameter: 7.5 micron
Number: male 5- 5.5 million/mm3
female 4.5- 5
million/mm3
Hb content: male 14-18 gm%
female 12-16 gm%
newborn 18 gm%
children 12 gm%
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Function of RBCs
A-Functions of the membrane:
1-Has large surface area in relation to quantity

2-

inside it.
Facilitates gas exchange
Allow passage through narrow capillaries.
In case of hydration the red cell can swell
and become more spherical but dont
rupture.
Contains different channels for passage of
ions to maintain normal ionic composition.
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3- Contains protein antigen which are responsible


for the specific blood group of the person.
4- Keep the Hb and carbonic anhydrase inside the
red cell.
If these substances are set free in plasma it will
be:
- lost in urine
-ppt in kidney as acid haematin leading
to
renal failure.

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Function of RBCs
B-Functions of the content
Hemoglobin (Hb):
Carrier of O2 & CO2.
Blood viscosity.
Acid base balance.

Anemia:
Decrease in Hb or RBCs or both

Effects of Anemia ??
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White Blood
Cells
W.B.C

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W.B.C :
Number : 4000-11000/mm3.
Types: 1-Granular: Neutrophils 60%
Eosinophil 15%
Basophil 0.51%
2-Non granular: Monocyte
3-8%
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lymphocyte 20%

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Functions of W.B.C
(Defense mechanism):

Neutrophil: phagocytosis.
Eosinophil: defense against
parasite.
modulate allergic
reaction.
Basophil: synthesize and liberates
heparin into blood.
Lymphocytes: T and B (immunity)
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PLATELETS

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Function of platelets:
Has a role in haemostasis:
Release of serotonin which produce
vasoconstriction.
Formation of platelet plug.

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Plug formation
Platelet adhesion: to the injured
area, enhanced by collagen&
VonWillebrand factor
Platelet activation: swellingpseudopodia- stickiness
Platelet disintegration: release of
ADP& ThromboxanA2 whish attract
more platelets
Platelet aggregation: the process is
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Plug Formation
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Tha
nk
yo

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