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D IFFER EN T FA C TO R S A FFEC TIN G

S H O R T C IR C U IT B EH A V IO U R O F
W IN D P O W ER P LA N T

Presented By : JINU JOHNSON


(Student , EEE7 NO:16)
Guided By
:AISWARYA .P
(Asst Prof, Dept of EEE)

IN TR O D U C TIO N

Renewable energy sources are future choice of

technologies
Conventional power plant v/s wind power plant
Collection of generated voltage
Wind power technology - a challenging one
Factors affecting SC behavior
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FO CU S
Wind power
Wind turbine
Wind turbine generator
Different type of faults and their contribution
Effect of wind power plant configuration

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WIND POWER - What is it?

All renewable energy (except tidal and geothermal power), ultimately comes from the sun

The earth receives 1.74 x 1017 watts of power (per hour) from the sun

About one or 2 percent of this energy is converted


to wind energy (which is about 50-100 times more than

the energy converted to biomass by all plants on earth


A wind turbine obtains its power input by converting the force of the
wind into a torque (turning force) acting on the rotor blades.
The amount of energy which the wind transfers to the rotor depends
on the density of the air, the rotor area, and the wind speed.

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LARGE TURBINES:
Able to deliver electricity at lower cost than

smaller turbines, because foundation costs,


planning costs, etc. are independent of size.
Well-suited for offshore wind plants.
In areas where it is difficult to find sites, one

large turbine on a tall tower uses the wind


extremely efficiently.

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SMALL TURBINES:
Local electrical grids may not be able to handle the large electrical output
from a large turbine, so smaller turbines may be more suitable.
High costs for foundations for large turbines may not be economical in
some areas.
Landscape considerations

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O PERATIO N O F W IN D TU RBIN E G EN ERATO R

Each turbine is independently and individually protected


Advantage compared with conventional plant
For general fault only 5%-15% generators are disconnected from the grid
For Low voltage level(480-690v) type1 and type2 are used with bank of capacitors
For constant voltage type3 and type4 are used

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Wind power generators convert


wind energy (mechanical energy)
to electrical energy.
The generator is attached at
one end to the wind turbine,
which provides the mechanical
energy.
At the other end, the generator
is connected to the electrical grid.
The generator needs to have a
cooling system to make sure
there is no overheating.

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Type Of Wtg And SC Contribution


a)TYPE1:SQUIRREL
GENERATOR

CAGE

TYPE1 CONNECTED TO THE GRID

INDUCTION

Generate electricity when driven above


synchronous speed
Working slip is between 0% and-1%
For a 3LG fault fault current contribution is 6
times more than rated current
The voltage at the individual wind turbine
terminal will be small but not zero

TO THE
GRID

SC currents of a
type1 WTG

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b)TYPE2:WOUND ROTOR INDUCTION GENERATOR


WITH
VARIABLE EXTERNAL ROTOR RESISTANCE
.

Type2 connected to the grid

3phase rotor winding is connected to ERRC


T,N characteristics can be accordingly shaped
Max pitch angle and min ext resistance for low to
medium wind speed
at rated slip or power pitch angle of blade is kept const
ie, S vary with wind speed
Operating slip is up to -10%
Sc behavior is similar to SCIG
Sc current less than that of SCIG at speed higher than
rated speed

SC current of type 2

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C)TYPE 3:DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR

Type3 connected to the ground

Rotor Speed Is Allowed To Vary Between 0.3 And


-3%
Below rated speed Cp is optimum
Max Energy For Low To Medium Speed
Controls Real And Reactive Powers
For 3lg fault it is 3per unit is the peak
SC current of type3

For 2lg it is 2

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Type4 connected to the grid

dTYPE 4:)FULL CONVERTER WTG


Control Algorithm Is Similar To Type 3
Max Energy Is For Low To Medium Wind Speed
SC Current Contribution For A 3lg Fault Is Limited To Rated
Current
In Any Fault Condition It Is Isolated From The Grid

SC current of type4

It maintaining const power but less than the rated power

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3LG Fault
Least likely to occur in a power system
In squirrel cage induction machine the 3 phase sc is sustained over time
Type 2,3 have better damping and shorter time constant
Type4 using power converter for maintaining balanced current
SLG FAULT
Most likely to occur in a power system
Air gap flux smaller and un balanced
For type2and3 characteristics of this fault is short transient duration and higher
damping
For type4 by using power converter balanced 3 phase current can be maintained
LL And LLG Fault
Maintaining air gap flux
Output power is limited and pulsating due to un balanced condition
Same general characteristics like SLG fault

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EFFECT O F W IN D PO W ER CO N FIG URATIO N


Transformer configuration with a WPP
Substation transformer and its uses
Use of pad mounted transformer
Star/delta connections are used in pad mounted transformers
Zero sequence contribution can be prevented through fault
Sub station transformers are using y/y connection
By using this zero current contribution appears both transmission level and generator

level

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IM PACT O F CAPACITAN CE IN TH E W IN D PLAN T

Type1&2 needs reactive power compensation


Use of capacitance may raise the voltage at the

generator side when SC occurs


The voltage rise at the terminal level during fault
will effect the insulation

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SIN G LE LIN E D IAG RAM O F A W PP

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Importance of wind power


SC contribution of diff generators at diff fault condition
Type1and type 2 have similar behavior
Type3 using power converter at the rotor side
For type4 the generator and the grid are separated by a power converter
Transformer configuration and use of capacitance affect the SC behavior of wpp

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Conclusion
REFEREN CE

20% Wind Energy by 2030Increasing Wind Energys Contribution to

U.S. Electricity Supply, U.S. Dept. Energy, Washington, DC, May 2008,

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

[2] J. C. Smith, M. R. Milligan, E. A. DeMeo, and B. Parsons, Utility wind

integration and operating impact state of the art, IEEE Trans. Power Syst.,

vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 900908, Aug. 2007.

[3] E. Muljadi, Z. Mills, A. Ellis, and R. Foster, Fault analysis at a wind

power plant for a one year of observation, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng.

Soc. Gen. Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA, Jul. 2024, 2008, pp. 17.

[4] E. Muljadi, S. Pasupulati, A. Ellis, and D. Kosterev, Method of equivalencing

for a large wind power plant with multiple turbine representation,

in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Gen. Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA, Jul. 2024,

2008, pp. 19.

[5] E. Muljadi, C. P. Butterfield, A. Ellis, J. Mechenbier, J. Hochheimer,

R. Young, N. Miller, R. Delmerico, R. Zavadil, and J. C. Smith, Equivalencing

the collector system of a large wind power plant, in Proc. IEEE


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THE END

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THANK YOU

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