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Word

Presenting By :
Agam Prakash
Akriti
Srivastava

Contents

INTRODUCTION

PARTS OF WORD

TYPES OF WORDS

1.

PRIMARY WORDS

2.

COMPOUND WORDS

3.

PRIMARY DERIVATIVES

4.

SECONDARY DERIVATIVES

REFERENCES

Introduction
A single distinct meaningful element of speech
or writing, used with others to form a sentence
is a word.

Parts of Word in English


Word
1.

parts include

Affixes (prefixes and suffixes): Affixes are word


parts that are "fixed to" either the beginnings of words
(prefixes) or the ending of words (suffixes).

2.

Root word: A basicwordto which affixes are added


is called aroot word because it forms the basis of a
newword. Theroot wordis also awordin its own right.

Types of Words
Words

can be categorized into four main types:

1.

Primary words,

2.

Compound words,

3.

Primary derivatives and

4.

Secondary derivatives.

Primary words

English language consists of innumerable words which are not


derived, combined or developed from other languages. Such
words are known as Primary words.
Most of the words in English language are only Primary Words.

Examples:
Moon, sun, day, night, school, boy, girl, road, write, walk, net,
dash, dot, month, book, pin, he, she, it, etc.

Compound words
The Compound Words are formed by joining two or more Primary
Words.
There are three forms of compound words:

Closed Form :

Hyphenated Form:

Open Form:

In which the words are melded together, such


as firefly, redhead, keyboard, makeup, notebook, softball, etc..
In this words are joined as six-pack,
daughter-in-law, master-at-arms, over-the-counter, six-year-old,
mass-produced, Second-hand, etc..
Such as post office, real estate, middle class, full
moon, half sister, attorney general, etc.

Formation of Compound words


Compound
a)
b)
c)
d)

Words are the most part of

Nouns
Adjectives
Verbs and
Adverbs

Contd

Noun + Noun

Moon + light
Arm + chair
Post + man
Shoe + maker

=
=
=
=

Moonlight
Armchair
Postman
Shoemaker

Adjective + Noun

Sweet + heart
Noble + man
Black + board
Quick + silver

= Sweetheart
= Nobleman
= Blackboard
= Quicksilver

Contd

Verb + Noun

= Spendthrift
= Makeshift
= Breakfast
= Pick-packet

Gerund + Noun

Spend + thrift
Make + shift
Break + fast
Pick + packet
Drawing + room
Writing + desk
Walking + stick
Blotting + paper

= Drawing-room
= Writing-desk
= Walking-stick
= Blotting-paper

Adverb (or Preposition) + Noun

Out + law
After + noon
Fore + sight
Over + coat

= Outlaw
= Afternoon
= Foresight
= Overcoat

Contd

Verb +Adverb

Draw + back
Lock + up
Die + hard
Send + off

=
=
=
=

Drawback
Lock-up
Die-hard
Send-of

Adverb + Verb

Out + set
Up + keep
In + come
Out + come

= Outset
= Upkeep
= Income
= Outcome

Contd

Noun + Adjectives

Blood + red
Sky + blue
Snow + white
Pitch + dark
Breast + high

=
=
=
=
=

Blood-red
Sky-blue
Snow-white
Pitch-dark
Breast-high

Adjective + Adjective

Red + hot
Blue + black
White + hot
Dull + grey
Luke + warm

=
=
=
=
=

Red-hot
Blue-black
White-hot
Dull-grey
Lukewarm

Contd

Adverb + Participle

Long + suffering
Ever + lasting
Never + ending
Thorough + bred
Well + deserved

= Longsufering
= Everlasting
= Never-ending
= Thorough-bred
= Well-deserved

Noun + Verb

Way + lay
Back + bite
Type + write
Brow + beat
Ear + mark

= Waylay
= Backbite
= Typewrite
= Browbeat
= Earmark

Contd

Adjective + Verb
Safe + guard
White + wash
Full + fill

= Safeguard
= Whitewash
= Fulfil

Adverb + Verb

Over + throw
Over + take
Fore + tell
Under + take
Under + go

= Overthrow
= Overtake
= Foretell
= Undertake
= Undergo

Primary Derivatives

These words are formed by making some changes in


the body of the Primary Words. These words are
made by making some internal changes.

Examples:

Bond from bind


Breach from break
Life from live
Son from sun

Contd
i. Formation of Nouns from Verbs:

Examples:

Choice from choose

Bliss from bless


Chip from chop
Breach from break
Dole from deal
Dike from dig
Fleet from float

ii. Formation of Nouns from Adjectives:

Examples:
Dolt from dull
Heat from hot
Pride from proud

Contd
iii.

Formation of Adjectives from Verbs:


Examples:

Fleet from float


Low from lie

iv.

Formation of Adjectives from Nouns:


Examples:

Thirsty from thirst


Wise from wit

v.

Formation of Verbs from Nouns:

Examples:

Bathe from bath


Bleed from blood
Clothe from cloth
Drip from drop
Feed from food

Contd
vi.

Formation of Adjectives from Verbs:


Examples:
Cool from chill
Hale from heal

vii.

Formation of Nouns from Verbs:


Examples:

Gold from gild


Grass from graze
Half from halve
Knot from knit
Sale from sell
Sooth from soothe
Tale from tell
Thief from thieve

Secondary Derivatives

Secondary derivatives of a word are formed by adding


either a prefix or a suffix to the word.

Examples:
Income is a secondary derivative of the word come.
Here the addition in is a prefix.
Undergo is a secondary derivative of the word go.
Here the addition under is a prefix.

Friendship is a secondary derivative of the word friend.


Here the addition ship is a suffix.
Darkness is a secondary derivative of the word dark.
Here the addition ness is a suffix.

References
www.wikipedia.com
www.englishpractice.com
www.english-for-students.com
learnersdictionary.com