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BATTERIES AND BATTERY

CHARGERS

by
S.GANESH BABU

09/07/16

s.ganesh babu.

BATTERIES
AND BATTERY
CHARGERS
by
S.GANESH BABU
09/07/16

s.ganesh babu.

Introduction
D.C as a source to isolate a fault in a
grid system assumes greater
significance in a system that is at
the threshold of loosing its
stability, with the possibility of grid
disturbance as a consequence.

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D.C is generally used in sub-station for the


following purposes:
Protection Circuits
Control Circuits
Illumination
Alarm & Annunciation
Communication
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SOURCES OF D.C.
Batteries:
D.C made available by means of a Battery
needs no filtration and can be treated as
pure D.C.
How ever D.C voltage obtained from
battery has a drooping characteristic
against time and hence it cannot be
treated as a constant voltage source.
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CHARGERS:

A.C Voltage is converted D.C Voltage by means of a


rectifier unit.
How ever, this voltage cannot be called a flawless D.C
Voltage as the Voltage consists of ripples.
There is, hence the need to introduce a filter in the
system to prevent ripples and harmonics being
introduced in the out put.
Generally, the charger out put is used to supply the D.C
loads, since, the characteristic of this output is nondrooping in nature and a constant voltage is made
available over a period of time.
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The charger consist of two functionary parts


namely the float charger and the boost
charger.
The float charger feeds the load and also
compensates for the leakage current in the
batteries.
During the period the float charger takes the
load, the batteries remain in-operative and in a
state of float.
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How ever, the batteries will be receiving a small


quantum of DC to offset the leakage current which is
inherent in the battery system.
The boost charger, on the other hand, mostly remains
switched off, during this process.
The boost charger is generally switched on when:
The cell voltage is found to be less than 2V.

The batteries are put on load for a prolonged period due


to the failure of AC supply, for some reason or other.
And in emergencies when the float charger is non
functional due to some or other component failure.
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THE D.C FEED SCHEME :


The D.C feed scheme consists of a float charger, and
a set of batteries in parallel connected to the DC DB.
The DC DB in turn feeds various load components,
compartmentalized in terms of feeder breakers,
transformer breakers, emergency lamps etc..
Every feed point in the DCDB consists of a double pole
switch, a fuse on positive side and a link on the negative
side

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Every feed to various equipments are


further subdivided into sections both in
the panel controlling the feeder and the
breaker mechanism control cubicle, such
as indication, control, alarm and
annunciation etc..
The DCDB may also be provided with a DC
volt meter and ammeter, if specified by
the customer.

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FUNCTIONING OF THE SCHEME :


Through the loads are connected from two
sources namely from float / trickle charger and
from the batteries, the loads for generally fed
from the float charger / trickle charger.
The voltage at the float charger generally
hovers around 235 to 238 volts, and is
dependent on AC voltage available at the
substation.
The DC voltage at the battery terminal will be
about 232 volts in case of 220volts DC system.

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The load is fed from the float charger


owing to the bias maintained at the
charger end.
The float charger, in addition to the load,
also compensates the leakage current that
occurs in the batteries.
As long as the AC supply is available, the
batteries are in a float mode / stand bye
mode.
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The batteries automatically take over the load


in the event of the failure of a AC supply.
Any insufficient in charging of the batteries will
result in reduced voltage at the battery terminals
and hence it is essential to monitor the battery
conditions for a effective performance.
Despite the compensation that is provided by
the float charger, there is a loss of cell voltage as
well as sp. gr. of the cell.
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The loss of voltage and sp. gr., in other words mean a


loss of charge in the cell.
This condition of the cell is regularly monitored by
means of pilot cell sampling in every shift by the
substation operators.
The pilot cell reading is to be taken by switching off the
float / trickle charger.

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The reading of all the 110 cells, in which the cell


voltage and sp. gravities of the batteries are
measured.
Based on the readings obtained, the maintenance
engineer opts to keep the batteries under boost
charge.
Boost charging is a process by which a high rate of
current is injected into the batteries for a period of
time during which the batteries pick up charge.

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FUNCTIONS OF A FLOAT CHARGER;


The float charger contributes the load current at
appropriate voltages.
The float charger also contributes the compensating
current towards battery leakage.
The charging current is generally kept at 2 to 5
percent of the capacity of the batteries depending on
its age since commissioning.
This current gradually diminishes due to the build up
of back emf in the batteries.
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The charging current is constantly


monitored and adjusted to the said value
by means of the dimmer stat.
The dimmer stat can be operated
electrically, manually or even in auto mode.
Switching off of float charger results in
the ammeter needle deflecting to the
opposite side indicating the DC load.
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FUNCTIONS OF A BOOST CHARGER :


The function of a boost charger is to inject a high current into the
set of the batteries that needs to be charged.
The quantum of current to be injected is generally about 10 percent
of the capacity of the battery.
The purpose of this charge is to dislodge the positive and negative
ions embedded in the plates, back into the electrolyte, thereby
increasing the acid concentration.
The volts per cell (vpc) of the battery will also consequently rise,
leading to a better terminal voltage on the batteries.

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The following methods of charging are


adopted :
Constant Voltage method.
Constant Current method.

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CONSTANT VOLTAGE METHOD :


In this method, charging voltage is maintained
constant through out the process.
Initially, the charging current is high due to
discharged condition of the battery, and as the
battery develops back e.m.f, the tendency of the
current will be to drop over a period of time.
This method of charging is commonly used in battery
charging shops and automotive equipment.
This method is also used in charging HSMF batteries
used in UPS and sub-stations.

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CONSTANT CURRENT METHOD :


This method involves injecting a high rate of current
at 10% of capacity of the batteries, till the batteries
are fully charged.
The draw back in this method is the condition of
charge in the battery is not taken into consideration
How ever, it would be prudent to reduce the rate of
charge as the battery reaches the state of full
charge.
Further in this method condition of batteries is not
taken in to consideration.
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In case the former drawback is to be


considered, the batteries may be kept is a
reduced rate known as finishing charge
rate as the charge nears completion.
A battery is treated as completely
charged when all the cells are gassing
freely and the cell voltages remain
constant for the following three
consecutive hourly readings.
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PREPARATORY WORK BEFORE CHARGING

Since boost charging involves higher rate of


injection of charging current, it is preferable to
check all the terminal connecting strips for non
corrosion and tightness.
All battery lids are to be open and electrolyte
exposed to atmosphere in order to let the gas
escape effectively.
Cell voltages and specific gravities of all the cells
should be recorded before and after charging .
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DURING CHARGING :
The rate of charging current should be kept constant
that is @ 10% of the capacity of the battery.
The temperature of the batteries should be
monitored carefully and should not be permitted to
exceed 43 deg. C to 45 deg C.
The event of the temperature reaching beyond this
level, the rate of charging should be reduced.
The rise of specific gravity should also be watched by
taking hourly readings
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The rate of charging current should be reduced


as the batteries reach full state of charging
A close watch should be kept on the battery
voltage during the charging process as excessive
voltage per cell may cause damage to the battery
cells.
Though the cells may reach up to 2.7 VPC during
charging, this voltage is only apparent in nature
the voltage falls to 2.3 VPC as soon as charging
ceases. The average voltage during charging is
2.33 VPC
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The charging time for charging a fully discharged


batteries in good condition is about 12 to 16 hours.
How ever, sulfated batteries may take a long time
to get charged.
Damaged batteries / sulfated batteries are to be
charged at a low rate of current.
Over charging and under charging of batteries
should be avoided

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EFFECTS OF OVER CHARGING


Causes loss of water.
Causes shedding of active materials due to gassing
Raises of the temperature in the battery being
charged lead into adverse effects on plates and
separators.
The plates may buckle due to excessive heat and
this reduces the gap between positive and negative
plates.
Under extreme condition, the shell may distort at
the top cover and crack.

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EFFECT OF UNDER CHARGING


Operating an under charged battery for long
periods, may result in formation of hard
sulfate on the plate surfaces.
This formation of sulfate reduce the
effective area of the plate surface to be
utilized.
This sulfate formation can not be
reconverted to active materials.

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Consequently, this results in reduction of


battery capacity and will not be able to
deliver full power.
The battery will not be able to retain
charge, since the effect of sulfation will
cause higher self discharge.
Periodical equalizing charge may, to some
extent, remedy the situation.
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PRECAUTIONS DURING CHARGING:


Since the gases emanating during charging that is
oxygen and hydrogen form an explosive mixture,
adequate provision should be made for these gases to
escape.
Do not used metal tools on the batteries during
charging. Switch off the charger in case tools are to
be used
Do not disturb any connection as there is a possibility
of spark occurring in the process.
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In case of acid are electrolyte


splattering into the eyes, the eyes
are to be washed immediately with
cold and clean water.
Ammonia solution is a handy
neutralizer and may be kept in store.

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TRICKLE CHARGING / FLOAT CHARGING


The process to keep batteries in fully
charged state by feeding an equivalent
charging current so as to compensate for
leakage current and self discharge that
occurs in a battery system.

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EQUALISING CHARGE:
A charge given to sulfated batteries in order
to restore active materials on to the plates.
It is a small current of 1 to 2 Amps given over
a long period of time say even up to 75 hours.
This condition arises in the battery which are
in operation under partial charge conditions
for long time.

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EMERGENCY HEAVY CHARGE


A quick charging session for a discharged
battery by injecting a high rate of
current for a very short duration, with
out damaging the plates.
How ever the temperature under such
charging should not rise beyond 50 deg C.

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IMPORTANCE OF 84TH & 55TH CELL


The 84th cell negative is generally connected to the
negative of the load bus through a zenor diode.
This connection ensures the availability of DC supply to
the load in the event of failure of AC supply to the
charger.
This arrangement is made because the batteries are in a
receiving mode and not in giving mode during the
boost charge.
This is achieved by placing a contactor on the positive of
the 110th cell.
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The 55th cells negative is connected to earth a


through the charger DC milli-ammeter circuit, in
order to detect DC leakage current in the
system.
DC leakage current can cause feeders to trip with
out indication and may cause un warranted
discharge in batteries.
How ever, it is to be ensured that the earth to
which 55th cell is connected is not linked to be
main earth mat of the sub station.

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The boost charger is to operate under


the following conditions:
* 3 ph supply,415vwith +10% to -15%variation.
* Capable of boost charging
2.0v,80/200Ahlead acid cells up to a max.
cell voltage of 2.7vpc, and a max. charging
current of 16/30A.
* The max amb. Temp. shall not exceed 50
deg.C.
* The time taken to charge the battery from
total discharged condition to fully charged
condition within 14 hours.

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BATTERIES
The DC obtained from batteries can be
termed as pure and ripple free.
How ever, the possibility of voltage
drooping along with time and in a condition
where availability of DC supply is
imperative through out, there is a need to
find a solution where DC is made available
at constant voltage and with out
interruption.
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BASIC TYPES OF BATTERIES


The batteries can be divided into:
Primary Cells
Secondary cells

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PRIMARY CELLS
Direct production of emf due to chemical action in
a cell is called primary cell
The voltage is instantaneous and the voltage
reduces on load over a period of time.
These cells can be used only until the useful
voltage is available. These batteries are dry in
type and are discarded on loss of charge.
These batteries cannot be recharged.
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It is light in weight
These batteries supply low current at
low voltage
These batteries are cheap and require
no maintenance.
These batteries have short life
Easily portable
The cells are to be used only
intermittently such as bells torch light
etc
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SECONDARY CELLS

Secondary cells are those that initially


utilize electrical energy in order to
create a chemical energy which is stored
and then utilized gain electrical energy.

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LEAD ACID BATTERIES


Invented in 1859 by GASTON PLANTE, these
batteries have become automatic choice for
automotive SLI (starting, Lighting, and Ignition)
applications due to its mechanical with stand
properties, and due to its low cost.
For power applications of higher capacity

and intermittent loads, these batteries suffer


due to its lack of compactness and weight and
shorter cycle life.
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The usual power is only about 50%


of the depth of discharge (DOD).
However there are many other
reasons that contribute to the out
standing preference to these
batteries.

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The reacting compounds are well


defined, and there are no
intermediate states of oxidation. As a
consequence, any voltage above the
open circuit voltage results in
complete charge, and equalizing
charges are not required when the
battery is float charged in standby
applications.

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The electronic conductivity in the


electrodes is high enough,
conducting additives are not
required.
The cell voltage of 2V is fairly high
and so a comparable small number of
cells is sufficient for a certain
battery voltage.
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ADVANTAGES
Low cost.
Reliable over 140 years of development
Robust tolerant to abuse
Tolerant to overcharging
Low internal impedance
Can deliver very high currents
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Indefinite shelf life if stored without


electrolyte.
Can be left on trickle or float charge for
prolonged periods.
Wide range of sizes and capacities available.
Many suppliers world wide.
The worlds most recycled product.
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SHORTCOMINGS
Very heavy and bulky.
Danger of overheating during charging.
Not suitable for fast charging.
Typical cycle life 300 to 500 cycles.
Must be stored in a charged state once the
electrolyte has been introduced to avoid
deterioration of the active chemicals.

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Gassing:

Is the production and release of


bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen in the
electrolyte during the charging process,
particularly due to excessive charging.

This causes loss of electrolyte.

In large battery installations, this


can cause an explosive atmosphere in the
battery room.

Sealed batteries are designed to


retain and recombine these gases.
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Sulphation:
May occur:

If a battery is stored for prolonged


period in a completely discharged state
Very low state of charge,
If it is never fully charged,
If electrolyte has become abnormally low
due to excessive water loss from
overcharging and evaporation.
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Sulphation:

Is the increase in internal resistance of


the battery due to the formation of large lead
sulphate crystals which are not readily
reconverted back to lead, lead dioxide and
sulphuric acid during re-charging.

In extreme cases the large crystals may cause


distortion and shorting of the plates.
Sometimes sulphation can be corrected by
charging very slowly (at low current) at a
higher than normal voltage.

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Battery discharged for a long time

defective acid

Rapid charging and discharging of the battery

Completely discharging the battery may cause


irreparable damage.

This defect can be remedied by charging the


batteries at low rate of current for a prolonged
time.

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BUCKLING:
Charging and discharging of
batteries high rate of current can
cause the plates to buckle (bend) and
cause a short circuit.
This defect can be removed only by
replacing the plate

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Shedding:

Is loss of material from the plates may occur due to


excessive charge rates or excessive cycling.

The result is chunks of lead on the bottom of the cell,


and actual holes in the plates for which there is no
cure.
This is more likely to occur in SLI batteries whose
plates are composed of a lead sponge similar in
appearance to a very fine foam sponge.
This gives a very large surface area enabling high
power handling, but if deep cycled, this sponge will
quickly be consumed and fall to the bottom of the cells.
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CORROSION :
The interaction of the battery
terminals with moisture and
atmosphere affects the terminals
leaving a coating of oxide as an
insulation layer.
This can be prevented by cleaning the
terminals frequently and applying
petroleum jelly coating over the
terminals.
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Decomposition of the Electrolyte:


Cells with gelled electrolyte are prone to
deterioration of the electrolyte and unexpected
failure.
Such cells are commonly used for emergency
applications such as UPS back up in case of loss
of mains power.
So as not to be caught unawares by an unreliable
battery in an emergency situation, it is advisable
to incorporate some form of regular self test
into the battery.
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THE ACTIVE PARTS IN A LEAD ACID


CELL

The positive plate is made of lead dioxide


Pbo2 which are in the form of lumps in its charged
condition.

These lumps are porous agglomerates with 50% of


pbo2 in volume and the other 50% consists of
pores.
A large share of micro pores results in a large
surface area, enhances the capacity of the cell.
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These plates are made of Pb (lead) in a grid like


structure, punctuated with square holes to
accommodate active materials.

The grid frame is made mechanically stronger


by adding4% to 12% of antimony to form an alloy.

The square holes in the frame are filled with a


paste of red oxide Pb3o4 and sulphuric acid.
These plates known as FAURE PLATES, and are
dark brown in color.

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The negative plates are also similar in


structure, where in litharge (pbo) and
H2SO4 paste is inserted.
The appearance is soft crystalline in
nature and grey in color.
The function of the grid frame is to
provide:
Mechanical support Increased
conducting area that enhances the
capacity.

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SEPERATORS :

Separators are made of chemically treated soft


wood, micro porous rubber, or PVC material.
They are non conducting and porous in nature, and
provides easy access for the flow of electrolyte.
They have a plain face on one side and is ribbed
on the other side. The ribbed portion is always
placed adjacent to the positive plate to facilitate
more acid to react.
Separators are the interposing material between
positive and negative plate.
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ELECTROLYTE :
Battery grade H2SO4 is used a electrolyte.
A fully charged battery has 31 % of sulfuric acid
by weight, for a specific gravity of 1.23 at 27
degrees Centigrade.
This value is recommended for tropical
countries, and for cold countries, the value is
1.280.

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The specific gravity of pure H2SO4 is 1.835. It is mixed


with water in given proportions to obtain electrolyte of
different specific gravities.

Specific Gravity.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Approx. parts of water to be added


By vol. to acid of sp. Gravity 1.835.

9.8 parts of water by vol.


4.3
-do2.5
-do1.6
-do-

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Electrolyte of Specific gravity 1.400 can


damage the plates, and hence they are not
supposed to be used.

Electrolyte with Specific gravity. 1.200 is to


be used in batteries which are STAND BYE in
nature.

One of the method to check the state of


charge of charge of the battery is to measure
the specific gravity of the cell, as there is a
definite relationship between these two.
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Specific Gravity
1.220 to 1.230
1.200 to 1.210
1.175 to 1.185
1.150 to 1.160
Below 1.150

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State Of Charge.
100%
75%
50%
25%
discharged.

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Specific gravities are not to be measured


immediately after topping of D.M. water.
A little charging is advisable after topping
up in order to make the electrolyte more
homogenous.
Specific gravities should not be taken
immediately after a prolonged
discharge/short discharge, as the reading
may be misleading.

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EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON ELECTROLYTE :

The volume of the electrolyte varies with


temperature and so, its specific gravity.

Specific gravities are hence taken at 27 deg C


as standard and specific gravities taken at any
other temperature is corrected appropriately
to arrive at the correct value.
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A value of 7 points i.e., 0.007 is added to the value


observed for every 10 deg.C higher than 27 deg.C,
and deducted for a value lower than 27 deg.C. In
effect, the battery will appear discharged in the
first instance and charged in the second instance
which is actually not so.
To overcome such problems, hydrometers with
built in thermometers and correction scales which
are available in the market are used.

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BATTERY CAPACITY
The battery capacity is defined as that useful
current a battery offers at uniform discharge rate
until the cell voltage falls to 1.75 x n volts where
n is the number of cells.
This is expressed in AMPERE HOURS.

The capacity of the battery depends upon


the following factors :

Size and number of plates or the surface area of


active materials in contact with the electrolyte.
Quantity of acid in the battery.
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Rate of discharge :
The higher the rate of discharge, the lesser is the
capacity.
This is due to the inability of the acid to diffuse in
pace with rate of discharge and react with the
active materials in the plate.
However, a battery will deliver its full rated
capacities even at higher rates of discharge,
subject to condition that the discharge is
intermittent in nature.
This will provide time for the electrolyte to
diffuse with active materials.
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EFFECT OF TEMP. ON CAPACITY


The average Temperature at which the
battery discharges also affects the capacity
of the battery.
The capacity is more at higher temperature
and less at lower temperature with 27 deg C as
the reference temperature
The correction rate is taken as 1% for every
degree C difference.
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VOLTAGE OF A CELL
The nominal voltage of a cell is 2.0 V
The average voltage of a cell during period from full
charge to full discharge is 1.95 VPC.
A cell is considered fully discharged, if during
discharge its voltage falls to 1.75 VPC.
lower voltage indicates the percentage of state of
charge
O.C Voltage
2.07 and above
2.05
2.03
2.00
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State of Charge
Fully charged
75% Charged
50% Charged
25% Charged
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In addition to electrodes, separators and


electrolytes, there all other part such as
terminals, bus bar, shell, lids and electrolyte
level indicator.
To facilitate the negative terminal to be
brought out to give inter battery connection
This arrangement also helps in more
electrolyte reacting with active material

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THE THERMODYNAMIC SITUATION


OF LEAD-ACID BATTERIES

The diagram on the


left shows reactions
that are possible in
lead-acid batteries
on account of
thermodynamic
parameters in
relation to
electrode potential.
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Reactions that occur in lead-acid batteries


dependent on electrode potential (thermodynamic
situation).
Their equilibrium potentials are inserted as enframed numbers.
Equilibrium potentials of the charge/discharge
reactions (Pb/PbSO4 and PbSO4/PbO2) are
Represented by columns, to indicate their
dependence on acid concentration.
The inserted equilibrium potentials (-0.32 and +1.75
V) of the charge/ discharge reactions correspond
to an acid density 1.23 g/cm3.
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Besides charging and discharging, a number of


secondary reactions are possible because their
equilibrium potentials are within the potential
range covered by the cell voltage of the
battery.
Hydrogen evolution occurs at an electrode
potentials below 0 V which is about 0.3 V above
the open circuit potential of the negative
electrode.
Oxygen evolution occurs at an electrode
potential above 1.23 V which is about 0.5 V
below the positive electrode potential.
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Oxygen reduction
As the reversal of oxygen evolution, is
possible below 1.23 V verses SHE. Thus,
oxygen evolved at the positive electrode
in addition to the one intruding into the
battery from outside, is reduced as soon
as it reaches the negative electro
surface. This reaction is utilized to
establish the internal oxygen cycle in
valve-regulated batteries. It is largely
hindered by the slow diffusion rate of
solved o2 in the flood type batteries.
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Hydrogen Oxidation
As the reversal of hydrogen evolution
is possible for thermodynamic reasons
above 0V verses SHE, but is hindered
at the Pb02 surface battery. It
cannot be removed by electrochemical
oxidation (unless auxiliary electrodes
or catalysts are applied), but has to
escape from the cell an important
fact for value regulated batteries.

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Lead corrosion (or grid corrosion):

Is a secondary reaction that finally limits service life.

Lead used as grid material and for conducting elements, is


stable only below the open-circuit potential of the negative
electrode.

At higher potentials, it is converted into lead sulfate


(PbSO4) or lead dioxide (PbO2).

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In the positive electrode, it is a layer of Pb02


formed by corrosion.
This layer protects the lead against spontaneous
oxidation, but conducts electronic current.
The situation at the plate boundary is however,
not stable and the corrosion layer penetrates
slowly into the bulk of the lead, and a
corresponding anodic current is continually
required to re-establish the Pbo2 layer.

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According to this thermodynamic situation the


lead acid battery system is unstable in two
respects:
Water is decomposed into oxygen and hydrogen
above 1.23 V/cell which is considerably below
the 2V of open-circuit voltage of the lead-acid
battery. Thus water decomposition cannot be
avoided.
lead corrosion to lead dioxide (pb02) occurs
with all conducting elements connected to the
positive electrode.
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Fortunately hydrogen and oxygen


generation are very slow reaction and
the lead corrosion rate is also largely
reduced due to passive effects of the
elements. So these secondary
reaction mostly can be tolerated but
they always have to be considered as
unwanted discharge reactions that
consume water and often limit service
life.

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CHEMICAL CHANGES DURING CHARGING &


DISCHARGING

DURING CHARGING:
Electrolyte decomposes to H2 (positive ions) and SO4
(negative ions).

H2 ions move towards cathode (negative plate)


At cathode Pbso4 + H2 Pb + H2SO4
At Anode PBSO4 + SO4 + H2O PBO2 + H2SO4

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Thus after charging:


Anode becomes dark brown (PBO2) and
cathode becomes Gray (PB)
Acid concentration increases causing
specific gravity to rise
Cell voltage increases.

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DURING DISCHARGING:
The flow of current decomposes the sulfuric
acid into hydrogen (positive ions) and sulfate
(negative ions).
H2 (positive) moves to lead dioxide plate to
make it positive, that is
At anode PBO2 + H2 + H2SO4 PBSO4 + H2O.
At cathode PB+SO4 PBSO4

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Thus after discharging:


Both plates are changed into lead
sulfate
Specific gravity of H2SO4 reduces
leading to formation of water
The EMF of the cells are reduced

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Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA)


Batteries:

(Also called Sealed Lead Acid SLA) batteries)


This construction is designed to prevent
electrolyte loss through evaporation, spillage and
gassing.
This in turn prolongs the life of the battery and
eases maintenance.
Instead of simple vent caps on the cells to let
gas escape, VRLA have pressure valves that open
only under extreme conditions.
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electrolyte design in these batteries reduces


gassing by impeding the release of oxygen and
hydrogen that is generated by the galvanic
action of the battery during charging.
This usually involves a catalyst that causes the
hydrogen and oxygen to recombine into water
and is called a recombinant system.
Because spillage of the acid electrolyte is
eliminated the batteries are also safer.

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STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS.


The batteries are supposed to adhere to
the following norms:
Standards.
Service conditions.
Technical specifications.

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STANDARDS:

INDIAN STANDARD

ISS 1885/1986(Part viii)

TITLE
Electro technical vocabulary &
secondary cells and batteries.

ISS 1651/1991 (3rd revision)

Stationery cells & batteries


lead acid type (with tubular
positive plates).

ISS 1651/1964.

Water for storage batteries.

ISS 8320/1982.

General requirements and


methods of test of lead
storage batteries.

acid

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SERVICE CONDITIONS:
The batteries should be suitable
for operating under the following
service conditions.
Location.
Max. ambient air temp.
Min. ambient air temp.
Ave. daily ambient air temp.
Max. relative humidity %.

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Max. altitude above MSL (meters).


Average annual rainfall.
Max. wind pressure. (Kg/cm sq.)
Seismic level (horizontal accn).
Noise level.
Should be suitable for use in
moderately hot and humid tropical
climate, conducive to rust and
fungus growth.

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PRINCIPAL PARAMETERS:
Sl. No.

Item Specification

1.

Type of Installation

2.
3.

AC Voltage 415 V + 10% TO 15% (FOR 220V


batteries).
No. of phases.
Three.

4.

Frequency. 50 c/s +/- 5%.

5.

Regulation. +/- 1%.

6.

Ripple content.

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Indoor.

Not more than 2%.

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TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS:

Float charger:

- To operate on 3 ph, 415v, with + 10% to 15%


variation at 50 cps.

- Shall be capable of trickle charging the 110 lead acid


cells of 2v rating, 80/200 Ah, at about 2.15vpc.
- Shall also feed a constant load of 8/20 amps, for
80/200ah battery in an ambient temp of 50deg. C.

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- Shall be provided with a regulator to facilitate:


a. controlling of cell voltage.
b. To stabilize the output voltage within +/- 1% of
the set D.C. value.
c. And variations of:
*
*
*
*

+10% to -15% of Ac mains voltage.


+/- 5% of frequency variation.
0 100% D.C. load variation.
And also when all the three variations occur
simultaneously.
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The float charger shall be provided with an


automatic current limiting facility to limit
the float charging current exceeds by 10%
of the rated current.
The float charger shall be of 3ph, full wave
semi controlled thyristor bridge rectifier
type with automatic voltage regulator unit.

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GUARANTEED TECHNICAL PARTICULARS:

Manufacturers name.
Applicable Standards.
Battery Voltage.
Designation as per ISS.
Manufacturers type design.
A.H. Capacity at 10 hr rate of discharge.
No. of positive plates per cell.
No. of negative plates per cell.
Total no. plates per cell.
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Capacity in ampere of battery,


( amps /end voltage.)
- 1 minute load.
- 1 hour load.
- 2 hour load.
- 3 hour load.
- 5 hour load.
- 8 hour load.
-10 hour load.
Nominal cell voltage.
No. of cells in each bank.
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Internal resistance for each cell.


No. of cells in each bank.
Internal resistance of each cell.
Resistance of the battery including
connection in each cell.
Short circuit current (Amps.)
Material container:
-Thickness.
- Type.
- material separator.

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Electrolyte required for first fill


(incl. Of 10% extra).
Specific gravity of the electrolyte at 27
deg C. With all the cells charged.
Specific gravity of the electrolyte with
all the cells discharged at 10 hr rate.
Construction details, dimension:
- positive.
- negative.
- method of supporting elements.

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Surface area of plates in Sq. mm.


Weight of electrolyte per cell in Kgs.
Clearance between edges of plates and
inner surface of container.
Clearance between bottom of negative
plates and bottom of container, mm.
Clearance between top of plates and top of
container, mm.
Sediment space ( depth) mm.
Distance between cells, centre to centre
Where erected
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Dimensions of each cell:


- Length in mm.
- Width in mm.
- Height in mm.
- Thickness of container in mm.

Net weight of the cell complete with


acid.
Ah. Efficiency.
Wh Efficiency.
Recommended float charge current
and voltage.
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Recommended boost charge current


and voltage.
Time required for boost charging
from discharge condition.
Max. charging current per cell.
Nominal charging rate, amps.
Maximum charging rate, amps.
Type of inter cell connection.
Type of stand.
Type of supporting insulators.

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Whether explosion proof or vent plugs


are provided.
Expected life span of battery.
Rack details:
- No. of units.
- Description.
- Unit weight in Kgs. (shipping)
- Unit length in mm.
- Unit width in mm.
- Unit height in mm.

Ventilation required in battery room.

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AGM Absorbed Glass Mat Battery


(Also known as Absorptive Glass MicroFiber)
Used in VRLA batteries the Boron Silicate
fiber glass mat which acts as the separator
between the electrodes and absorbs the free
electrolyte acting like a sponge.
Its purpose is to promote recombination of
the hydrogen and oxygen given off during the
charging process. No silica gel is necessary.
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The fiber glass matt absorbs and


immobilises the acid in the mat but keeps
it in a liquid rather than a gel form.
This way the acid is more readily available
to the plates allowing faster reactions
between the acid and the plate material
allowing higher charge/discharge rates as
well as deep cycling.

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This construction is very robust and can


withstand severe shock and vibration.
The cells will not leak even if the case is
cracked.
AGM batteries are also sometimes called
"starved electrolyte" or "dry", because
the fiberglass mat is only 95% saturated
with Sulfuric acid and there is no excess
liquid.
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Nearly all AGM batteries are


sealed valve regulated "VRLA
type.
AGM's have a very low selfdischarge rate between 1% to
3% per month
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Gel Cell
This is an alternative recombinant
technology.
Promotes recombination of the gases
during charging.
It also reduces the possibility of spillage
of the electrolyte.
Prone to damage if gassing is allowed to
occur, hence charging rates may be
limited.
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They must be charged at a slower rate


(C/20) to prevent excess gas from
damaging the cells.
They cannot be fast charged on a
conventional automotive charger as
they may be permanently damaged.
Used for UPS applications.

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SLI Batteries:
(Starting, Lighting and Ignition):

This is the typical automotive battery


application.
Automotive batteries are designed to be
fully charged.
The loss of charge is about 2 to 5 %
during starting, which is replenished by
the alternator in the automobile.
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These batteries are not


designed to be discharged below
50% Depth of Discharge (DOD).
Discharging below these levels
can damage the plates and
shorten battery life.

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Deep Cycle Batteries

Marine applications, golf buggies, fork


lift trucks and electric vehicles use
deep cycle batteries which are
designed to be completely discharged
before recharging.
Because charging causes excessive heat
which can warp the plates, thicker and
stronger or solid plate grids are used
for deep cycling applications.
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Normal automotive batteries


are not designed for repeated
deep cycling and use thinner
plates with a greater surface
area to achieve high current
carrying capacity.

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MEMORY EFFECT
The memory effect in electrical
batteries, also called lazy battery
effect, is observed in some
rechargeable batteries that causes
them to hold less charge.
The term has become almost universal
in describing any such effect, though
in its original meaning it describes one
very specific case.
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Ni-Cd batteries gradually lose their


maximum energy capacity if they are
repeatedly partially discharged before
being recharged.
This is termed the memory effect.
A major advantage of Ni-MH battery
technology, apart from lack of
toxicity, is the absence of any memory
effect in Ni-MH batteries, and are
remarkably tolerant of frequent 'topup' charging.
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INITIAL FILLING AND CHARGING OF


CELLS:
Initial filling
sp.gr of 1190@27 deg.C.
Soaking time.
12 to 16 hrs/not more
than 24
hrs.
Initial charging: 100 hrs, initiate at 5% of
C10, maintain at 4A for
60 hrs, stop
charging for
4 hrs, and then charge it again
for 40 hrs @ 4A.
Max. permissible
temperature:
50 deg. C

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reading at the
end of charge:
Capacity/discharge
test: (discharge current

2.25v & sp.gr.


of 1.200+.005
at 27 deg. C.
8 amps.

at 0.1 C10)
(After completion of 1st test charge, allow the battery to

remain on open ckt for not less than 12 hrs, but not more than
24 hrs. Discharge the battery through a variable resistance or
acidulated water load at a constant current equal to I =0.1 x
C10 amps. Discharge shall be stopped when the closed ckt
voltage of the battery falls to 1.85v in each cell and sp.gr.
Falls to 1.130 and discharge duration shall be a minimum of 10
hrs, and the sp. Gr corrected to the value at 27 deg. C.)
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Recharging:
recharge current:

up to 8 amps.

End voltage per cell: 2.35 to 2.4 volts


Finishing charge current:
2.65 vpc.

4 amps up to 2.55 to

End sp.Gr. At 27 deg. C.

1.200 +/- .005

Max. charging current:

12 amps.

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Thank you all !

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