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Aerodynamics

Getting to the Point

Orville Wright

Wilbur Wright

Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative


By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame
Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!

Four Forces of Flight


Lift opposes Weight
Thrust opposes Drag
In straight, unaccelerated
flight, L = W & T = D
Lift created by pressure
differential around wing. High
pressure on lower surface
and low pressure on the
upper surface low pressure
caused by increased airflow
velocity over top of airfoil.
Weight downward force of
gravity
Drag rearward retarding force
Thrust forward force
propelling airplane through air

Airfoils
What is NACA?
National Advisory
Committee for
Aeronautics
Chartered in
1915, operational
from 1917-1958
The National
Aeronautics and
Space Act of 1958
created NASA
from NACA

Aerodynamic Surfaces

Aerodynamic Surfaces
Prop

Jet

B727 Spoilers

Airfoils - Nomenclature
Low p

High p

Chord line - straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges of an airfoil
Camber line locus of all points equidistant from top and bottom of airfoil
Camber distance between chord line and camber line
Thickness maximum distance between top and bottom surfaces of wing
Leading Edge
Trailing Edge
Wingspan (b)
Aspect Ratio (AR = b2/S)

Frost
If wing is below
dewpoint which is
below freezing, frost
will form
Sublimation of air to
solid ice crystals
Disrupts smooth
airflow over the wing

Why is this bad?


Decreases lift
Increases drag

Frost removed
before take-off
Rime Ice
Clear Ice

Angle of Attack
Angle between wing chord line and relative
wind
The angle of attack at which airplane stalls
does not change

Published NACA Data NACA 2415

Airfoils - Nomenclature

Flaps
Plain Flap

Flaps increase lift and decrease stall speed


Flaps allow steep rate of descent for approaches
without increasing airspeed

Split Flap

Fowler Flap
-Fowler Flap effectively increases
the wing area by rolling backwards
on a roller system.

Slotted Flap
-Slotted Flap allows high pressure
air underneath wing to join airflow
above wing. This effectively
increases velocity of top airflow
and thus increases lift.

Laminar v. Turbulent

Laminar flow about a sphere

Laminar v. Turbulent

Turbulent flow about a sphere

Bernoullis Principle - Lift

Low Pressure

High Pressure

A1V1=A2V2

As the velocity of a fluid


increases, its internal pressure
decreases.
From Newtons 2nd (F=ma)
Shown by Venturi tube

Bernoullis Principle Again

Courtesy of FAA: Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B

Bernoullis Principle Again

Courtesy of FAA: Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B

Bernoullis Principle Again

Courtesy of FAA: Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B

Lift Vector

Courtesy of FAA: Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B

Drag Types
Induced drag is the unavoidable by-product of lift
and increases as the angle of attack increases
Parasite drag is caused by any aircraft surface
that deflects or interferes with smooth airflow
around airplane
Skin-friction drag - between the outer surfaces
of the aircraft and the air through which it
moves. Reduced by using glossy, flat finishes on
surfaces
Form drag - resistance of air to the shape of the
aircraft. Form drag can be reduced by
streamlining the aircraft shape.

Drag Body Comparison

sphere

cylinder

airfoil

Wingtip Vortices Twin Tornadoes

A few words on wingtip vortices:


High pressure on the lower surface creates a natural
airflow that makes its way to the wingtip and curls upward
around it to the area of low pressure. When flow around
the wingtips streams out behind the airplane, a vortex is
formed. These twisters represent an energy loss and are
strong enough to flip airplanes that blunder into them.

Wingtip Vortices

Why Winglets?
Equivalent to span extension w/o increased wingspan
Reduces wingtip vortices
Reduces drag

NASA B-727 Wingtip Vortex Test Flight

Learn more about winglets:


http://www.airspacemag.com/ASM/Mag/Index/2001/AS/htww.html

Drag Ground Effect

TIP:
On a soft-field
runway, you can
takeoff at a lower
speed and then
accelerate while in
Ground Effect.

Drag vs Angle of Attack

Relationship between drag and angle of attack

Torque / P-factor (Left-Turning Tendencies)


Newtons 3rd law: For
every action there is an
equal and opposite
reaction.

Propeller rotates CW
when viewed from pilots
seat.
Torque reaction rotates
the airplane CCW about
longitudinal axis

P-factor (asymmetrical
thrust) caused by
descending blade taking
a greater bite of air
than ascending blade at
high angle of attack

Stability & Control


Inherently stable airplane
returns to its original condition
after being disturbed. Requires
less effort to control

Center of Gravity concerns:


Unable to compensate with
elevator in pitch axis
Weight and Balance becomes
critical taught in a coming
lecture

Stability & Control


pitch
The 3 axes of motion:
roll, pitch, yaw

roll
yaw

Tail Placements

Looks like the A-10


Also called H-Tail

Canards
Stabilizer located in
front of the main wings
Used on the Wright
Flyer
More aerodynamically
efficient than an
elevator b/c canards
provide positive lift

Accident Report Loss of Elevator


AIRCRAFT FINAL REPORT
THE AIRCRAFT HAD JUST BEEN REPAIRED AFTER RECEIVING TORNADO
DAMAGE. THIS REPAIR INCLUDED REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT OF THE
ELEVATOR CONTROL TUBE. THE PILOT TAXIED TO THE RUNWAY FOR THE
PURPOSE OF A TEST FLIGHT. ALL FLIGHT CONTROL CHECKS APPEARED
NORMAL. AFTER LIFT-OFF, THE PILOT INTENDED TO LEVEL OFF AT 5 TO 10
FEET, THEN TOUCH DOWN AGAIN. HOWEVER, AFTER THE AIRPLANE
BECAME AIRBORNE, HE LOST ELEVATOR CONTROL, AND THE AIRCRAFT
CLIMBED STEEPLY TO 50 TO 75 FEET. THE PILOT THEN REDUCED POWER,
THE AIRCRAFT'S NOSE DROPPED, AND THE AIRCRAFT DESCENDED. WITH
NO ELEVATOR CONTROL, THE PILOT WAS UNABLE TO ARREST THE
DESCENT, AND THE AIRCRAFT IMPACTED THE GROUND. A POST-CRASH
EXAMINATION REVEALED THAT A BOLT AND NUT WERE MISSING FROM THE
ELEVATOR CONTROL LINKAGE, WHICH ALLOWED THE LINKAGE TO BECOME
DISCONNECTED.
AIRCRAFT 1 CAUSE REPORT
FAILURE OF MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL TO PROPERLY REINSTALL A BOLT
AND NUT IN THE ELEVATOR CONTROL LINKAGE, WHICH RESULTED IN A
DISCONNECT OF THE LINKAGE AND LOSS OF ELEVATOR CONTROL.