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Chapter 3

Sketch Mode

Sketch Mode

Contents

Training Manual

DesignModeler Geometry

Sketch Constraints

Length Units

Sketch Dimensions

DesignModeler Geometric Entities

Dimension Editing

Sketch Mode

Workshop 3-1, Sketching

New Plane Button

Modifying Sketches

New Sketch Button

Sketch Instance

From Face Plane/Sketch

Geometry Interfaces

The Sketch Mode GUI

Attaching to a CAD Session

Planes and Sketches

Importing CAD Files

Plane Transforms

Positioning Imports

Sketching Tools

Import Units

Sketching - Basic Shapes

Exporting a Model

Sketch Details

Body Attributes

Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry

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Sketch Mode

DesignModeler Geometry

To study DesignModeler geometry well focus on four fundamental


areas:
Sketch mode:
Contains tools to create 2D geometric shapes as a prerequisite to
3D geometry creation or concept modeling.
3D Geometry:
Geometry derived from sketch entities such as extrusions,
revolves, surface models, etc.
Geometry import:
Geometry originating from a commercial CAD system. Typically
imported into DM to allow modification for FE meshing.
Concept modeling:
These tools are used to create and modify line and surface bodies
which can be used as the basis for FE beam and shell models.

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Sketch Mode

Length Units

When a new DM session is started a dialog box allows selection


of the desired length unit (can be set as default)

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Sketch Mode

DesignModeler Geometric Entities

2D Sketch Points

3D Vertices
PF Points (Point Features):
spot-welds
point loads
construction points

Edges (Lines, Curves)

3D, and 2D Sketch

Faces (Areas, Surfaces)

Bodies (Volumes)

Multiple bodies
(not shown)

Points

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Mode

Training Manual

DM sketches are created on planes. In a new DM session there are


three default orthogonal planes in place at the global origin (XY, ZX,
YZ).

Users may create and position new planes as needed by defining


origin and orientation or by using existing geometry as a reference.

The process to begin sketching is twofold:


1. Identify the plane upon which you wish to sketch.
2. Create or identify the sketch which lies on the desired plane.

Users may create as many planes as needed.

Each plane may have multiple sketches associated with them.

In the next few pages well look at plane and sketch entity creation
and tools to assist in sketching.

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GUI - Graphical User Interface

New Plane Button


>New Plane

creates a new plane:

New plane object is placed in the Tree


Six types of plane construction (Detail Pane):
From Plane new plane is based on another existing plane
From Face new plane is based on a face
From Point and Edge new plane is defined by a point and a
straight line edge
From Point and Normal new plane is defined by a point while its
normal is defined by an edge direction
From Three Points new plane is defined by three points
From Coordinates new plane is defined by typing in the
coordinates of the origin and normal

Sketches are then added to plane


A sketch is utilized to create 3D geometry

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GUI - Graphical User Interface

New Sketch Button

Training Manual

New Sketch

New sketches are placed in Tree beneath their associated Plane.

Navigate sketches (make active) via the Tree or drop down list.

Note: drop down list references sketches on currently active plane


(see example below).

: creates new sketch on the active plane.

XYPlane is active

Only XYPlane sketches


displayed in drop down

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GUI - Graphical User Interface

From Face Plane/Sketch Shortcut


Shortcut to create a new From Face plane and sketch using
existing geometry:
Highlight desired surface to place new plane.
Switch to the Sketch tab and begin sketching.
New plane and sketch are automatically created!

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Sketch Mode

The Sketch Mode GUI

In sketch mode the GUI presents sketching toolboxes to the left


through a series of panels.

Plane and sketch


creation and
management
Draw
Panel

x
o
B
ol els
o
T an
P

At the
beginning of
a new
session the
XY plane is
displayed at
the origin.

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Sketch Mode

Planes and Sketches


The active plane is highlighted in the
tree and shown in the drop down list.
Active plane can be changed from either
location.

Clicking the New Plane button results


in a plane being created.

The same functionality and behavior


applies to sketch creation and
manipulation.

Note that each sketch will be


associated with a plane.

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Sketch Mode

Planes and Sketch Details

Training Manual

After setting plane


details, the
Generate button
creates the new
plane.
Note: this step is not
necessary for sketch
creation.
Can Generate
with RMB
The Details for
each plane and
sketch controls basic
behavior.

The triad and display ruler


can be turned on/off.

Triad
Ruler

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The plane origin can be turned on/off.

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Sketch Mode

Plane Transforms

Up to 9 plane transformations are available. They can be applied


quickly by choosing the desired transform through the RMB in the
Transform field in the plane detail window.

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Sketch Mode

Plane Transforms

Once a transform is selected, additional properties may appear


that will allow you to enter offset distances, rotation angles,
rotation axes, etc.
This transform requires both an offset
and a rotation angle.

PLANE4

To add an additional transform, set


Additional Transform? to Yes.

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Sketch Mode

Sketching Tools - Grid


The Settings panel allows a sketch grid
to be defined and displayed (default = off).
Snap feature applies to major and minor
spacing.

Major spacing
(solid)

Minor spacing
(dashed)

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Sketch Mode

Sketching Tools Grid

Grid Snaps per Minor allows snapping to points in between minor


grid lines.

This rectangle is snapped halfway between two


minor grid lines.

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Sketch Mode

Sketching Tools Ruler


The Ruler tool allows you to get a quick sense of scale.

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Sketch Mode

Sketching Tools Auto Constraints


By default DM is in auto-constraint mode.

Auto constraints allow new sketch entities to


automatically snap to a location or orientation.

The cursor indicates the kind of constraint that


will be applied.

Examples:

Vertical and Horizontal


constraints while
sketching a line.

Point constraint at
beginning of line sketch.

Coincident constraint at
beginning of line sketch.

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Sketch Mode

Sketching Tools Tips

Training Manual

When creating or changing planes and sketches the Look At


tool will immediately orient the display so that the plane, sketch or
selected entity is normal to your view.

Many operations either require or are more efficient via a right


mouse click context menu from the graphics screen.

Right mouse click


RMB

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Sketch Mode

Sketching Tools Tips


The Undo/Redo buttons are available in sketch mode only.
Removes the last completed sketching operation.
Multiple undos allowed.
IMPORTANT: Each plane stores its own Undo stack.

The Back operation (available via RMB) acts like a micro undo
during sketching operations.

Remember: only one sketch is active at any time!

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Sketch Mode

Sketching Tools Tips


The GUI status bar contains instructions on completing each
operation.

Example: using the circle operation . . .


1.

2.

Follow instructions in
status bar: choose
location for center point

3.

Follow instructions
in status bar: drag
and release for
radius

Choose Circle

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Sketch Mode

Sketching Basic Shapes


Once a plane and sketch have been
specified you can begin creating new
geometry from the Draw toolbox.

Remember! Some operations will require a


right click to complete!
Example: to end a spline operation use
the RMB to choose the desired option.

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Details

Training Manual

Reference numbers for the entities in each sketch (lines, circles,


polygons, etc.) can be viewed.

Useful for parametric modeling discussed later.

Can rename sketches


from Detail pane.

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Details

Highlighting lines in the graphics screen (sketch mode only), will


display details for the line.

Can rename sketch


entities from Detail
pane.

Details for
highlighted line

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Constraints

Training Manual

Sketch details can also display sketch constraint details.

Constraints may result from auto-constraints or user defined.

To delete constraints, highlight the definition and use the delete


key.

Show constraints

Constraint definitions

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Constraints . . .
Sketch entities are also color coded to
indicate their current constraint status:

Teal: Under-constrained
Blue: Well Defined
Black: Fixed
Red: Over-Constrained
Gray: Inconsistent or Unknown

Teal

Example:

Initially sketched lines are displayed in


teal color to indicate under-constraint.
Note even when dimensioned, these
lines are underconstrained since they
are not fixed in space
Adding 2 more dimensions resolves the
sketch status and all lines are displayed
in blue

Blue

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Constraints . . .
By adding too many dimensions
and/or constraints the sketch will
become over constrained. Over
constrained lines are displayed in
red in sketch mode

Red
Blue
Red

Applying Fixed constraints to 2 of


the edges shown here results in the
lines being displayed in black

Teal
Black

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Constraints . . .

The picture below demonstrates an inconsistent situation (lines


displayed in gray). Here the arc is dimensioned with a radius of 5
however the vertical dimension has been specified as 15.
Obviously there is no way to maintain the connection between the
2 horizontal lines and the arc while maintaining these dimensions.

Gray

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Dimensions
DesignModeler contains a complete
dimensioning toolbox.

In addition to individual dimension assignment,


semi-automatic dimensioning is available.
Semi-automatic cycles through dimension
choices until model is fully constrained or user
chooses to exit semi-automatic mode.
Right mouse button controls skip or end
functions.

The General dimensioning tool allows quick


access to all primary dimensions via a right
click context menu.

Right Mouse Click

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Dimensions

Training Manual

Move function allows placement of dimension to be modified.

Animate to view dynamic changes applied to the selected


dimension.

Dimensions can be displayed as the dimension value or name.

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Dimensions
To modify dimensions highlight then change value in details
window.

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Highlight dimension

Enter new value

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Sketch Mode

Dimension Editing

Once highlighted, dimension can also be quickly edited through a


RMB menu option, >Edit Name/Value.

Note: a recent Generate might be necessary to see Value as well as Name

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Workshop 3-1, Sketching

Training Manual

Using a simple example, lets see how we put to use what weve
seen so far (note RMB = Right Mouse Button).

Goal:
Sketch a rectangle 50mm high and 75mm wide with the bottom left
corner at the origin.
Add a 10mm radius circle within the rectangle with the center 20mm
from the left side and 30mm from the bottom.
Place all dimensions where they can be easily viewed.
75mm

20mm
50mm
30mm
R = 10mm

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Workshop 3-1, Sketching

Training Manual

>File>New, or Start DesignModeler (Geometry) stand alone mode

When prompted, set length unit to millimeters

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Workshop 3-1, Sketching


When DM starts, switch to sketch mode using the
sketch tab.

Icon

Note: use the Look At icon (or RMB options) to


orient the sketch plane in the normal direction.

Select the Rectangle tool and place the cursor at


the origin.
Once the P (point constraint) symbol shows, click,
hold and drag, then release to create the rectangle.
RMB

Click

ag
Dr

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Workshop 3-1, Sketching


Before continuing, click the Fit icon (or RMB menu).

Now choose the Circle tool and click, drag and release
to create a circle in the approximate location within the
rectangle.

Icon

RMB

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Workshop 3-1, Sketching

Training Manual

Well now formalize the sketch by adding dimensions.

Select the Dimension toolbox and leave the default selection at


General.
Click on the top line of the rectangle to display the proposed
dimension.

Place the dimension above the rectangle by dragging and clicking.

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Workshop 3-1, Sketching

Training Manual

Repeat the preceding steps to add the remaining dimensions.

Next modify the details for each dimension to the desired values
as shown.

75mm
20mm

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50mm
30mm

D = 20mm

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Workshop 3-1, Sketching

To complete our sketch use the Move function in the Dimension


toolbox to position (drag) the dimensions (like below for example).

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Workshop 3-1, Sketching


Now try animating several dimensions:
Choose the Animate function then click on a dimension in the
graphics window.

Change the dimension display from Name to Value.

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Workshop 3-1, Sketching

Training Manual

As a last check of our stated goals go to the details for sketch 1 and
change Show Constraints? to >Yes.

Scroll down to the details for Line7 and note the base point is coincident
with the origin - - DM captured our design intent during sketching.

Note: leave DM session running as we will continue with this geometry later.

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches

Training Manual

The Modify toolbox contains a number of functions for editing


sketches.

Some functions are self explanatory (e.g. fillet, chamfer). This


section will focus on some of the less obvious functions.

Remember! - check the status bar at the bottom of the GUI for
real-time instructions for each function.

Status Bar - Example

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches
Split:
RMB Options (choose before selecting edge):

Split Edge at Selection (default): splits an edge into two pieces at


the selection location (unless the edge is a full circle or ellipse).
For a full circle or ellipse, both start and end endpoints are created
at the selection location.
Split Edges at Point: Select a point, and all edges, which pass
through the selected point, are split there.
Split Edge at All Points: Select an edge and it is split at all points
that it passes through and that have a coincident constraint to it.
Split Edge into n Equal Segments: Set the value n in the edit box
and then select the edge which you want to Split.
Note: up to 100 allowed for n.
Split is useful for sketches to be used with Skin/Loft
Split edges also offer greater control in subsequent meshing and/or
boundary condition operations.

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches
Drag:
Can drag a point or edge using the cursor.
How the model changes depends on what is selected, existing
constraints and dimensions.
Can pre-select multiple entities before issuing the Drag function.

Drag - Example
Select corner point of
rectangle and drag.

Dr
ag

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches
Cut/Copy:

Requires the selection of a paste handle (RMB) relative to which the


Paste will be performed.
The paste handle is the location to which the cursor is attached while
you are moving the image into position to paste.
RMB paste handle options:
End / Set Paste Handle, and specify the paste handle.
End / Use Plane Origin as Handle, the 0.0, 0.0 location of the plane
will be used as the paste handle
End / Use Default Paste Handle, the start of the first curve selected
will be used as the handle
This lets you select a set of items to copy to an internal clipboard, and
leaves the originals in the sketch.
If Cut or Copy is exited without selecting a paste handle, a default will be
used.
Copy: RMB options.

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches
Paste:
RMB Context Menu:
Rotate by +/- r Degrees
Flip Horizontally / Vertically
Scale by Factor f or 1/f
Paste at Plane Origin
Change Paste Handle
End

Paste lets you take items placed on the clipboard by Cut or Copy and
place them into the current (or new) sketch, even if it is on a different
plane.

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches

Training Manual

After creating a rectangle we wish to copy it, rotate it by 45 degrees


with respect to the origin and scale it by a factor of 0.5.

3. RMB

1. Copy

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A Copy/Paste example . . .

2. Select edges

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches

Choose Paste
and set
options

Notes on Copy/Cut/Paste:

After copying, paste can be done multiple times.


Can copy from one sketch and paste to another.
During Paste operation you can change the paste handle.

5.

RMB
Rotate

6.

RMB
Scale

7.

RMB
Paste

8.

RMB
End

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4.

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches Quick Cut/Copy/Paste

Cut, Copy, and Paste commands are available as RMB options in


sketching mode.

1) Select source edges


2) RMB>Copy
3) Select paste origin
4) Paste the edges

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches
Replicate:

The Replicate command is equivalent to the Copy command, followed


by a Paste.
After one of the End / options is selected, the right mouse button
changes to the Paste right mouse button.

Move:
The Move command functions the same as the Replicate command
with the exception that your original selection is moved to a new
location instead of being copied.

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches
Offset:

The Offset function allows you to create a set of lines and arcs that are
offset by an equal distance from an existing set of lines and arcs.
The original set of lines and arcs must be connected in an open or
closed profile.
Preselect or select the edges then choose the right mouse button
option End selection / Place offset
The cursor location is used to determine three things:
Offset distance
Offset side
Offset area
Distance and Side are clear but the area is very important:
If portions of your selected curves would collapse out or cross
over one another given the current offset side and distance, the
cursor location determines which area of offset curves is kept.
An example . . .

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches

The direction and


distance the cursor is
moved determines
the offset.

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First we choose all


edges to be offset

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Sketch Mode

Modifying Sketches

By alternating the cursor location


(left and right) we can determine
which offset region will be retained.

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Notice as the offset is dragged


further, the arc will eventually
intersect the bottom line.

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Instance

Sketch Instancing allows copies of sketches to be added in other


planes. The copies are persistent, meaning they will update when the
source sketch is updated.
Features:
Edges in a sketch instance are fixed (like a plane boundary) and cannot be
moved, edited, or deleted by sketch operations
When changes are made in the base sketch its instances will be updated when a
Generate is done
A sketch instance can be used just like normal sketches for creating other
features except:
Cannot be used as base sketches for other Instances
Sketch instances are not included in the pull-down list of sketches

Step 1: Choose the destination plane


for the instance.
The source sketch must be in a plane
prior to the destination plane (higher in
Tree).
Therefore, you can never place a
sketch instance onto the XYPlane.

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Instance

Step 3: Modify the


placement options. The
sketch instance may be
offset, rotated, and
scaled.

Step 4: Click Generate to


complete the sketch
instance.

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Step 2: Choose the


source sketch via
Apply/Cancel buttons.

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Sketch Mode

Sketch Instance

Example: Sketch2 is instanced onto Plane4 as Sketch5. Note how


the instance appears as fixed edges, similar to plane boundary
edges.

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Geometry

Geometry Interfaces

Training Manual

Can Import/Attach anytime, even multiple times per model


Can add, subtract, etc. during Import/Attach process
Base Plane Property for orientation

The following CAD versions are supported:

ACIS - 13.0

Unigraphics NX 2.0 / NX 1.0

BladeGen 4.1

CATIA - V4

Parasolid - 16

CATIA - V5 (R2 - R13)

SolidWorks - 2003 SP4 / 2004

Pro/ENGINEER 2001 / Wildfire 1 & 2

Solid Edge - V15 / V16

IGES Reader - 4.0, 5.2, 5.3

Mechanical Desktop 2004DX /2005

Autodesk Inventor R8 / R9

(DM-CFX Course)

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DM >File>Import & >File>Attach capability:

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Geometry

Attaching to a CAD Session

Training Manual

If a CAD session is currently open, this automatically imports the


model into the DesignModeler session

File>Attach to Active CAD File

Maintains bi-directional associativity

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Geometry

Importing CAD Files

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File>Import External Geometry File


The active plane controls
placement for assembly modeling
(multi-bodies).
The details pane import type: Add,
Cut, Slice, etc
Does not maintain associativity

Active
Plane

Add
Cut

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Geometry

Positioning Imports
Both Import and Attach have a Base
Plane property.
Specify the plane (orientation) in
which the Import or Attach model is
referenced
When creating a new Import or Attach
feature, the active plane is chosen as
the Base Plane by default
Users select planes from the tree
view or Plane pull-down list prior to
import

Example:
XY chosen for first import
YZ plane for second import
Add material option chosen

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Geometry

Import Units

Training Manual

Set the desired length unit when DM starts

Some import types allow you to set the units via the import details
(Prior to Generate)
DM then converts the model length units into the current unit
system

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Geometry

Exporting a Model
File>Export

IGES exporting:
When exporting the model to an IGES
file, you have the option to export
solids or just trimmed surfaces.
>Tools>Options

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Geometry

Body Attributes
DM supports two kinds of body attributes through Import and
Attach features :
Surface body thickness
Material properties

Material properties are controlled by the Import Material Properties


option in the property list for Import and Attach features. If set to
>Yes, then any material properties will be processed with the
bodies. Material properties are read-only in DM they are brought
in through the Import and Attach features, but you cannot edit
them.
Properties are transferred with the model when sent to Sim.

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Geometry

Body Attributes

Surface body thickness is transferred to DM from CAD systems


that support it.
Users can modify the thickness of any surface body in DM.
The thickness will be attached to the surface bodies when the model is
sent to Sim.

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Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry


Goals:

Utilize the model created in Workshop 3-1 and generate 3D geometry


from the sketch.
Create a new sketch and extrude it to create a boss on the original
model.
Create another sketch and Imprint a face on the boss to allow for
applying boundary conditions to an FE model.
Save the model and Exit.

Start Page (if workshop 3-1 was closed):


Choose the option Open

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Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry

If this is not available open


the file called Workshop
3-1.agdb and continue
with workshop 3-2.

1
3

1. With the model open


choose the Extrude icon
from the toolbar.
2. In the extrusion details
change the depth to
10mm.

2
3. Generate the extrusion.

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Continue with the


database created in
Workshop 3-1

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Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry


Insure that the XYPlane is
active and click on the
New Plane icon.

5
5.

In the Details of Plane4 set


Transform 1 to be Offset
Z and change the offset
Value to 50mm.

6.

Generate the Plane.

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4.

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Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry


Click the Look At icon to
reorient the view.

8.

Switch to Sketching mode


and choose Rectangle
from the drawing toolbox
(check Auto-Fillet box).

[Sketching] >Draw>Rectangle
9.

Draw a rectangle and utilize


Auto-Fillet approximately as
shown here.

10. Click on the Dimensions


10
toolbox.
[Sketching] >Dimension

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7.

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Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry

11

11

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11. Dimension the sketch as shown below.


Note: your dimension names may not match those shown.

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Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry

15
12
An isometric view shows
the proposed (wireframe)
extrude using a surfacenormal direction (facing
away from the original
model).
13. From the Detail window
change the direction field
from Normal to Reversed.
14. Change the Type to To
Next
15. Generate the extrusion.

13
14

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12. From the toolbar choose


Extrude (do not generate
yet!).

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Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry

Click on >Display Plane


button to turn off plane
+ dimensions
if necessary

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The extrude operation creates the boss which is merged with the original geometry.

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Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry


18

17

16. Select (Highlight) the top


surface of the boss.
17. Click the New Plane icon
in the toolbar.
18. Generate the plane.
16

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In our FE simulation we wish to


add a boundary condition at an
arbitrary location on the boss.
We will imprint a face on the
boss for that purpose.

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Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry

Training Manual

20. Go to sketch mode and


choose circle from the draw
toolbox.

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19. Click the Look At icon


from the toolbar.

19

20

[Sketching] >Draw>Circle
21. Draw a circle approximately
like the one shown here.

21

Decem

Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry

22
[Sketching]
>Dimensions>General

ANSYS Workbench - DesignModeler

22. Add dimensions as shown


at right. Note your
dimension names may not
match those shown here.

Training Manual

Decem

Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry

24. In the details change the


operation to Imprint
25
Faces.

23

25. Generate the extrusion

24

ANSYS Workbench - DesignModeler

23. Choose Extrude from the


toolbar (do not Generate).

Training Manual

Decem

Workshop 3-2, 3D Geometry

(Rotate the Model as Desired)

Notice we now have a circular


area that we can use for
localized boundary conditions in
our simulation.

Exit without saving:


File>Exit Workbench

ANSYS Workbench - DesignModeler

Make sure the surface selection


filter is active and highlight
(select) the circular surface on
the boss.

Training Manual

Decem