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THERMODYNAMICS-II

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

By:Dated:20-09-2012

Harjinder Pal Singh

Lect. Mech.
Govt. Polytechnic College Batala
8

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

INTRODUCTION:
design
and
development
of
engines is to reduce
the cost and improve
the efficiency and
power
output.
In
order to achieve the
above
the
development
engineer
has
to

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

INTRODUCTION:
-engines in terms of
its
output
and
efficiency.
Towards
this end he has to
test the engine and
make measurements
of
relevant
parameters
that
reflect
the
performance of the
engine.

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

INTRODUCTION:
-range
of
speed.
Some engines are
speed by means of
speed
governor,
which is its rated
speed.
The
performance of the
engine depends on
the inter-relationship
between the power

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

INTRODUCTION:
-consumption at each
operating
condition
within
the
useful
range of speed and

The following factors are to be

considered
in
evaluating
the
performance of an engine:
(i) Maximum power or torque available
at each speed within the useful
range of speed.
(ii)The range of power output at
constant speed for stable operation
of the engine. The different speeds
should be related at equal intervals
within the useful speed range.
7

(iii) Brake specific fuel consumption at

each operating condition within the
useful range of operation.
(iv) Reliability and durability of the
engine for the given range of operation.

Purpose of Testing an I.C. Engine:

In general the purpose or significance of
testing an I.C. engine is to determine
the following:
(i) To determine rated power output
with respect to the fuel consumption
in Kg per Kw-hr of brake power
output.

Purpose of Testing an I.C. Engine:

(ii) To determine the mechanical and
thermal efficiencies of the engine.
(iii) To see the performance of the

Purpose of Testing an I.C. Engine:

(iv) To determine the quantity of
lubricating oil required per bp Kw hr.
(v) To determine the quantity of cooling
water required per bp Kw hr.
(vi) To determine the overload carrying
capacity of the engine.
(vii) To prepare the heat balance sheet
of the engine.

Some Important Terms as per ISI

Standard:
1. Speed : The speed of an engine is
the mean speed of its crank shaft in
revolutions per minute (RPM), except
in case of free piston engines where
the speed is the number of cycles per
minute
,
of
the
reciprocating
components.
maximum total variation in speed
expressed as a %age of the mean 7

Some Important Terms as per ISI

Standard:
3. Continuous Power: The power
which the engine is capable of
delivering continuously between the
normal maintenance intervals stated by
the manufacturer, at stated speed and
under stated operating conditions.
4. Indicated Power: It is the total
power developed in the working
cylinder
by
the
gases
on
the
combustion side of the working pistons. 7

Some Important Terms as per ISI

Standard:
6. Brake Power: It is the total power
measured at the driving shaft.
7. Fuel Consumption: The quality of
fuel consumed by the engine per unit
time of the stated power and under
stated operating conditions.
8. Specific Fuel Consumption: It is
the quantity of fuel consumed per unit
of power per unit of time. It is generally
expressed in gms of fuel consumed per 6

Some Important Terms as per ISI

Standard:
9. Standard Operating Conditions :
The
following
are
the
standard
operating conditions:
(i) Mean Barometric Pressure: It is taken
as 736 mm of mercury (Hg).
(ii)Intake Air Temperature : It is taken as
3000k or 270C

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Engine Power :
The energy flow through the engine is
expressed in three distinct terms. They
are indicated power, ip, friction
power, fp and brake power, bp.
Indicated power can be computed
from the measurement of forces in the
cylinder and break power from the
measurement of forces at the crank
shaft of the engine. The friction power
can be estimated by motoring the
engine or from the difference between 6

Indicated Mean Effective Pressure

(Pim):
It may be defined as, the constant
pressure acting over the full length of
the stroke and capable of producing the
same amount of work, as is actually
produced during the complete cycle of
the engine. It is generally denoted by
Pim or i.m.e.p.
As, the pressure in the cylinder varies
throughout the cycles and the variation
can be expressed with respect to the

Indicated Mean Effective Pressure

(Pim):
respectively.
However,
such
a
lend itself to simple mathematical
analysis in the computation of ip. If an
average pressure for one cycle can be
used, then the computations become
far less difficult.
Refering figure, as the piston moves
back and forth between TDC and BDC,
the process lines on the p-V diagram

Indicated Mean Effective Pressure

(Pim):
The indicated network of the cycle is
represented by the area 1-2-3-4
enclosed by the process lines for that
cycle. If the area of rectangle A-B-C-D
equals, the area 1-2-3-4, the vertical
distance between the horizontal lines
AB and CD respectively gives the
indicated mean effective pressure,
imep. It is a mean value expressed in
N/m2, which when multiplied by the

(Pim):

Indicated Mean Effective Pressure

(Pim):
produced with the varying pressures.
PimX(V1-V2) = Net work of cycle
Pim=
Also,
Pim=
=
If, a= area of indicator diagram in cm2.
l= length of the indicator diagram in
cm
6

Indicated Mean Effective Pressure

(Pim):
And
s = spring no. or spring strength in N/m 2
per cm.
Then Pim = N/m2
The value of the area measured, when
divided by the piston displacement and
multiplied by the spring number of the
indicator, results in the mean ordinate
or indicated mean effective pressure ,
P .
6

Brake Mean Effective

Pressure (Pbm):
It may be defined as the
mean effective pressure
acting on the face of
piston,
which
would
develop
brake
power
equivalent to that during
actual varying pressure
condition. It is generally
denoted
by
Pbm
or
b.m.e.p.

Brake Mean Effective

Pressure (Pbm):
Friction mean effective
pressure (Pfm) is that
portion of mean effective
pressure (Pim), which is
required to overcome
friction losses and brake
mean effective pressure
is the portion, which
produces
the
useful
power delivered by the

Brake Mean Effective Pressure

(Pbm):
Pim=Pfm+ Pbm
Also, Break Power, bp= kW
Where Pbm = Break mean effective
pressure in N/m2.
L= Length of stroke in m.
A = Area of piston in m2.
N= number of working strokes/min
K= number of cylinders of the engine.
Mechanical Efficiency, m==
5

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Piston Speed :
It is the average or mean distance
travelled by the piston of the engine in
one minute.
i.e., Piston speed = 2 L.N. m/min
Where, L = Length of stroke (m)
And
N= Revolutions per minute of the
crank
shaft.

Fuel-Air (F/A) or Air-Fuel (A/F)

Ratio:
The relative proportions of the fuel and
air in the engine are very important
from the stand point of combustion and
efficiency of the engine. This is
expressed either as a ratio of the mass
of the fuel to that of the air or vice
versa.
In the SI engine the fuel-air ratio
practically remains constant over a wide
range of operation. In CI engines at a

Fuel-Air (F/A) or Air-Fuel (A/F)

Ratio:
-ratio is generally used instead of airfuel ratio.
A mixture that contains just enough
air for complete combustion of all the
fuel in the mixture is called a
chemically correct or stoichiometric
fuel-air ratio. A mixture having more
fuel than that in a chemically correct
mixture is termed as rich mixture and
a mixture that contains less fuel or

Fuel-Air (F/A) or Air-Fuel (A/F)

Ratio:
-fuel-air ratio is called equivalence
ratio and is denoted by ,
=
Accordingly,
= 1 means chemically correct
mixture.
< 1 means lean mixture or weak
mixture.
And > 1 means rich mixture.
5

Calorific Value (CV) :

Calorific value of a fuel is the thermal
energy released per unit quantity of the
fuel when the fuel is burned completely
and the products of combustion are
cooled back to the initial temperature of
the combustion mixture. Other terms
used for the calorific value are heating
value and heat combustion.
When the products of combustion are
cooled to 250C practically, all the water
vapour resulting from the combustion

Calorific Value (CV) :

-condensed. The heating value so
obtained is called the higher calorific
value or gross calorific value of the
fuel. The lower or net calorific value is
the heat released when vapour in the
products
of
combustion
is
not
condensed and remains in the vapour
form.

Measurement of Air Supply of an

I.C. Engine:
To measure air supply, the orifice
method can be used
if pressure
pulsations could be damped out by
some means. The usual method of
damping out the pressure-pulsations is
to fit an air box of suitable volume (500
to
600 times the swept volume in
single cylinder engines and less in case
of multi-cylinder engines) to the engine
with an orifice placed in the side of the

I.C. Engine:

Measurement
of Air
by Air Box
Method.

Measurement of Air Supply of an

I.C. Engine:
Let a= area of orifice in m3.
Cd= Coefficient of discharge of
the orifice.
H= Difference of pressure as
measured in cm. of water.
Ma= Mass of one cubic metre of
air, in kg.
Mw=Mass of one cubic metre of
water, in kg.

Measurement of Air Supply of an

I.C. Engine:
V= Velocity of air flowing through
the orifice in metre per sec.
Q= Discharge of air flowing through
the orifice , in m3 per sec.
Now, consider one m3 of air at a
pressure of p N/m2 and absolute
temperature T, Kelvin.
Then, applying gas=n
pv=Ma.RT
But v=1m3
4

Measurement of Air Supply of an

I.C. Engine:
Ma=
( R=287 J/kg-K) ----1
Now, H = X m of air
Also, V = Cd.
And Q= a.V
Q=a.Cd.
-----2
Now, using the equation 1 and 2
the mass of the air supplied can be
calculated as follows.
Mass of air supplied = Q.Ma
4

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Air-Standard Efficiency:
The air-standard efficiency is also
known
as
thermodynamic
efficiency. It is mainly a function of
compression
ratio
and
other
parameters. It gives the upper limit
of the efficiency obtained from an
engine.
For engines working on Otto cycle,
the air standard efficiency ,
Where, r= Compression ratio

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Mechanical Efficiency (:
It may be defined as the ratio of
the power obtained at the crank
shaft, i.e. brake power(bp) to the
indicated power (ip).
Thus, Mechanical Efficiency () =
Mechanical efficiency takes into
account the mechanical losses in
an engine. Mechanical losses of an
engine may be further subdivided
into the following groups.
(i) Friction losses as in case of 4

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Mechanical Efficiency (:
gears, valve mechanisms. With the
development in the bearing design
and materials , improvement in
gears etc. , these losses are usually
limited from 7 to 9 percent of the
indicated power output.
(ii) Power is absorbed by engine
auxilliaries such as fuel pump,
lubricating
oil
pump,
water
and distributor, electric generator

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Mechanical Efficiency (:
-account for 3 to 8 percent of the
indicated output.
(iii) Ventilating or faning action of
the flywheel. This loss is usually
below 4 percent of the indicated
output.
(iv) Work of charging the cylinder
with fresh charge and discharging
the exhaust gases during the
exhaust stroke. In case of twostroke engines the power absorbed

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Mechanical Efficiency (:
-of the indicated power output.
In
general,
the
mechanical
efficiency of engines varies from 65
to 85%.

Indicated Thermal Efficiency (:

It may be defined as the ratio of
heat converted into indicated work
to the heat energy supplied by the
fuel, during a specified period of
time.
So, Indicated thermal efficiency ,
(ith)=
=
Where, Mf = Mass of fuel supplied
to the engine per minute.
CV = Lower calorific value of the

Brake Thermal Efficiency (:

It may be defined as the ratio of
heat equivalent to brake power
(bp) to the heat energy supplied by
the fuel during a specific period of
time.
So, Brake thermal efficiency ,
(bth)=
=
Where, Mf = Mass of fuel supplied
to the engine per minute.
CV = Lower calorific value of the

Brake Thermal Efficiency (:

In modern engines, an indicated
thermal efficiency of almost 28
percent is obtainable with gas and
gasoline
spark-ignition
engines
having a moderate compression
ratio and as high 36 percent or
even more with high compression
ratio diesel engines, i.e. CI Engine.

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Relative Efficiency (:
The
relative
efficiency
or
efficiency ratio, as it is sometimes
called, is the ratio of the actual
efficiency obtained from an engine
to the theoretical efficiency of the
engine cycle.
So, Relative Efficiency
()=
Relative efficiency for most of the
engines varies from 85 to 95 %
with theoretical air and decreases

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Volumetric Efficiency (:
The
Volumetric
efficiency
is
measure of the success with which
the air supply and thus the charge,
is induced into the engine cylinder.
It is very important parameter,
since it indicates the breathing
capacity of the engine.
Volumetric efficiency is defined as
the ratio of volume of air induced
at ambient condition to the swept
volume or it may also be defined as

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Volumetric Efficiency (:
-the theoretical mass which should
have been drawn in during that
same period of time, based upon
the total piston displacement of
the engine and the temperature as
well as pressure of the surrounding
atmosphere.
So,
Here, mth=
Where is the density of air.
Vs is the swept volume.

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Volumetric Efficiency (:
For a four-stroke engine n=N/2 and
for a two-stroke engine n=N, where
N is the speed of the engine in
rev/min. The actual mass is a
measured quantity. The theoretical
mass
is
computed
from
the
geometry of the cylinder, the
number of cylinders and the speed
of the engine in conjunction with
the density of the surrounding
atmosphere.

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Volumetric Efficiency (:
Volumetric efficiency for a naturally
75%.
Mathematically,
Volumetric
Efficiency,
()=

Determination of Indicated and

Brake Power:
In this method, to find out ip an
indicator is used to find out the
mean
effective
pressure.
This
method is used for slow speed
engines.
An indicator is an instrument which
produces a graphic record of the
pressure inside the engine cylinder
for every position of the piston as
it reciprocates. It consists of a

Determination of Indicated and

Brake Power:
communication
with
the
atmosphere. A helical spring on the
top of the piston has one end
attached to the piston and the
other to the cover of the indicator
cylinder through which passes the
piston rod which carries a pencil at
its upper end. This pencil traces
out the indicator (p-V) diagram on
the paper.

Determination of Indicated and

Brake Power:
-operating
conditions.
The
necessary
formula
may
be
developed
from
equation
of
network based on the mean
effective
pressure
and
piston
displacement.
Indicated net work/cycle= Pim X Vs
N-m
= Pim X L X A N-m
( Vs = L X A)
Indicated
net
work/min
=3

Determination of Indicated and

Brake Power:
ip=
Where, ip = Indicated power (kW)
Pim = Indicated mean effective
pressure (N/m2)
L = Length of stroke (m)
A= Area of the piston (m2)
n= Number of power strokes per
minute.
= or for four stroke engine.
= Revolutions per minute or N, for two 3

Determination of Indicated and

Brake Power:
And N= Speed of engine in
revolutions per minute.
Hence, ip= kW (for two stroke engine)
And ip= ( for four stroke engine)

Brake Power (bp):

Indicated power is based on
indicated net work and is thus a
measure of the force developed
within the cylinder. More practical
interest is the rotational force
available at the delivery point, i.e.
at the engine crank shaft also
termed as drive-shaft and the
power corresponding to it. This
power is interchangeably referred
to as brake power, shaft power

Brake Power (bp):

-delivered by the engine.
The power, bp, is usually measured
by attaching a power absorption
device to the drive-shaft of the
engine. Such a device sets up
measurable forces counteracting
the forces delivered by the engine
and the determined value of these
measured forces is indicative of the
forces being delivered.
2

Measurement of bp, using Rope

Brake Arrangement:
The
fig
shows
rope
brake
arrangement for the measurement
of brake power, bp.

Rope brake
Dynamometer
2

Measurement of bp, using Rope

Brake Arrangement:
A rope is wound around the
circumference of the brake drum.
One end of the rope is attached
with balance as shown in fig.
Rope brake
Dynamometer

Measurement of bp, using Rope

Brake Arrangement:
The other end carries the dead
weights. The engine is thus run at
a
constant
speed
which
is
measured with the help of a
tachometer.
Now, Let W= Force due to dead
weight of the rope brake (N)
D= Dia. Of the brake drum (m)
d= Dia. of the rope (m)

Measurement of bp, using Rope

Brake Arrangement:
Then, work done per revolution = Force
x Distance
= (W-S) x 2() N-m or J
Work done per minute= (W-S) x 2()xN
J/min
Work done per sec =

J/sec

Measurement of bp, using Rope

Brake Arrangement:
Brake Power,bp = kW
If the diameter of the rope is neglected,
i.e. d=0,
then
Brake Power, bp =

kW

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

MORSE TEST:
It is the method of determining
indicated power (ip) of each
cylinder individually, of a multi
cylinder IC engine, without the use
of an indicator and thus computing
the total ip of the engine by
summing up ip of all the cylinders.
calculate ip of high speed engines,
i.e. where the indicator method is
unsuitable.

Testing of Constant Speed IC

Engines
for
General
Purposes
According to IS: 1600-1960:1. Introduction:
This code applies to testing of
constant
speed
reciprocating
internal combustion engines of the
following types used for general
purposes.
(a)Compression ignition engines.
(b)Carburettor type engines, and
(c)Gas engines.

Testing of Constant Speed IC

Engines
for
General
Purposes
According to IS: 1600-1960:1. Introduction:
-engines for ships propulsion or for
marine auxiliaries' and engines for
aircraft
propulsion
or
aircraft
auxiliaries.

Testing of Constant Speed IC

Engines
for
General
Purposes
According to IS: 1600-1960:2. General Requirements for Tests:
The manufacturer shall supply the
performance characteristics of the
engine prior to the commencement
of the tests.
The engine shall be tested as
offered to the purchaser. All parts
shall be in stock and all parts
essential for engine operation

Testing of Constant Speed IC

Engines
for
General
Purposes
According to IS: 1600-1960:3.Preparation for Tests:
The engine shall be completely
stripped and examined physically
so that design features and also
the condition of the various parts
may be noted before tests are,
commenced. After the physical
examination the dimensions of the
main working parts, listed below

Testing of Constant Speed IC

Engines
for
General
Purposes
According to IS: 1600-1960:3.Preparation for Tests:
2. Valves, valve seats, valve
springs and valve guides.
3. Cylinder liner.
4. Piston Assembly.
5. Connecting rod small end big
end bearings and connecting rod
bolts.
6. Crankshaft, including bearings

Testing

of Constant Speed IC Engines for

General Purposes According to IS: 1600-1960:-

4. Preliminary Run: The engine shall

be subjected to a preliminary run of 49
hours at rated speed under operating
temperatures
as
specified
by
the
manufacturer, in non-stop cycle of 7
hours each, conforming to the following
cycle, the period of each run being a
minimum of one cycle:
Running time(hr)
2

I.C. ENGINE TESTING

Testing of Constant Speed IC Engines for
General Purposes According to IS: 1600-1960:-

4. Preliminary Run:
-During the preliminary run, special
attention shall be paid to engine
vibration and quiteness. The oil pressure
shall be checked from time to time.
Oil, coolant and fuel leaks shall be
rectifiedand
faculty
components
replaced as may be found necessary. A
complete record of such attention and
running time of components changed
shall be kept.
1

The

distributor,

carburettor

or

the fuel pump rack, as the case

may be set as its nominal specified
value at idling in contrast to its
power at each speed.
1

Test Procedure :b. Temperature:

The temperature of the inlet air
shall be measured at the entrance
of the induction system.

Test Procedure :c. Number of Runs:

In every test, a sufficient number
of runs shall be made throughout
the speed range. A run shall be
the engine operates.

Test Procedure :d. Duration of Runs:

Performance
data
shall
be
obtained under stabilized operating
conditions.
Durations
of
the
experimental run depends upon
two principles:
(i) No data shall be taken until load,
speed and temperature have
been satabilized.
(ii) Recorded data shall be average
sustained values maintained over a

Test Procedure :e. Power Test:

For all power tests with results to be
plotted versus speed, a single series of
stabilized runs at ascending speeds is
sufficient. This series of runs should
progress continuously, from the lowest
to the maximum. If the engine requires
to be idled between runs to avoid
excessively high temperature, sufficient
time should for the engine to reach its
stabilized
condition
before
taking

Engine

speed

should

be

held

open

throttle

or

by

throttle

Test Procedure :g. Friction Power:

The friction power test shall, if
the

power

possible,

test.
the

If
test

this

is

not

shall

be

conducted under condition similar

to those for the power test.
8

Fuel

consumption

measured

shall

simultaneously

be
with

brake power. The fuel consumption

measurement shall not be started
un-till the engine is stabilized.

Observations:1. Observed brake power is given

by the formula:
Brake Power, bp= kW
2. Mechanical efficiency,
=
3. Indicated Power, ip= bp + fp

Observations:4.Specific Fuel Consumption:

Specific fuel consumption shall
be computed on the basis of gm of
fuel per observed brake power
hour.
5. Five Hundred Hour Endurance
Test:
After
completion
of
the
performance test, the engine shall
be run for 500 hours at rated speed

Observations:5. Five Hundred Hour Endurance

Test:
Running Time (hrs)
100 % of rated load 4 (including
warm-up
period)
1
3
At the end of each 16 hour
cycle, the engine
4

Observations:5. Five Hundred Hour Endurance

Test:
-shall be stopped and necessary
may be carried out in accordance
with the makers schedule.
Before starting the next cycle,
the engine shall have reached very
nearly the room temperature.
One litre sample of the oil
drained during each oil change and

Observations:6. Recheck of Power and Fuel

Consumption :
The power fuel consumption shall
be determine by repeating the
performance test.
7. Final Inspection:
At the conclusion of the test, the
engine shall be stripped, its
condition noted and the dimensions
of the main working parts checked

Thank
s

ASSIGNMENT
Q.1 Explain the following terms:
a. Engine continuous power.
b. Indicated power.
c. Brake power.
d. Specific fuel consumption.
Q. 2 What do you mean by
(i) Indicated thermal efficiency
(ii)Mechanical efficiency
(iii)Volumetric efficiency
(iv)Overall thermal efficiency.

ASSIGNMENT
Q.3 Discuss any one method to find
indicated power.
Q.4 Explain the performance test of an
engine according to I.S.
Q.5 Explain any one method of finding
brake power.
Q.6 How to measure the quantity of air
supplied to an I.C. engine ?

ASSIGNMENT
Q.7 How do you find the ip of a
multicylinder I.C. engine without using
an indicator?
Q.8 What do you mean by relative
efficiency of an engine ? Explain how it is
expressed?
Q.9 Distinguish between ip and bp,
which is greater ?
Q.10 What for a Morse test is

Thank
s

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