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LANDING GEAR SHOCK ABSOBER MODELING

BY
USING "AMESim" SOFTWARE
By
KHAZI MUSHTAQ MOHAMMED SIDDIQUI
Under

Internal guide
Dr. KRISHNAMURTHY.N
Associate Professor,
Dept of Mechanical Engg,
VVIT college,
Bengaluru.

Internal guide
Dr. KRISHNA LOK
SINGH
Sr. Scientist,
Structural Division,
N.A.L, old airport road,
Bengaluru.

VIJAYA VITTALA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Hennur, Bagalur road, BENGALURU-77

Contents
About organization
About Structural Technologies Department (STTD)
Tasks preformed.

About organization
History
The story of CSIR-NAL began on June 1, 1959, when the
National Aeronautical Research Laboratory (NARL) was set up in
Delhi, with Dr.P Nilakantan as its first Director. Barely nine
months later, in March 1960, it made its humble beginning by
setting up its office in the stables of the Mysore Maharaja's
Palace on the Jayamahal Road and the Palace Road as National
Aeronautical Laboratory.
Later it was renamed as National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL)
in April 1993 to reflect its growing involvement in the Indian
space program.
CSIR-NAL today is spread across two campuses, five kilometers
apart. Each campus has an area of about 100 acres. Both these
campuses are interconnected with high-speed computer
networks for exchange of scholarly communication. Physical
connectivity between the
campuses is operated via shuttle bus operations.

National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), a constituent


of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
(CSIR), India, is the only civilian aerospace R&D
laboratory in India. CSIR-NAL is a high-tech oriented
institution focusing on advanced topics in aerospace
and related disciplines and has a mandate to
develop aerospace technologies with strong science
content, design and build small and medium-size
civil aircraft and support all national aerospace
programs.

Organization Chart

Missions
Development of national strengths in aerospace

sciences and technologies


Advanced technology solutions to national
aerospace programs
Civil aeronautics development (1994)

R&D Activities

Flight mechanics & controls


Turbo machinery and
The research and development
activities of CSIR includes
combustion
Structural design, analysis and
various fields such as
testing
Aerospace Engineering.
Metrological modeling
Structural Engineering.
Parallel processing computers
Ocean Sciences.
Meteorological modeling
Life Sciences.
Wind energy
Composites
Metallurgy.
Structural dynamics & integrity
Chemicals.
Aerospace materials
Mining.
Aerospace electronics and
Food.
systems
Petroleum.
Electromagnetic
Civil aircraft design & development
MAV design & development
Computational fluid dynamics
Experimental aerodynamics

Milestones
HANSA Aircraft

The maiden flight of CSIR-NALs light trainer


aircraft, now called HANSA, took place on 17
November 1993. The aircraft is an ab-initio
two-seat, all composite aircraft

SARAS

SARAS had its maiden flight on 29 May 2004.


The aircraft took off at 08:15 hrs and flew over
about 25 minutes. SARAS is the first civilian
aircraft designed and developed in India.

Milestones
NM5

NM5 is the countrys first public-private


partnership (PPP) for development of civil
transport aircraft in collaboration with M/s
Mahindra Aerospace Pvt Ltd (MAPL). On
the 1st of September 2011, a milestone
event for Indias first public-private
partnership in aircraft development, and a
bold dream became reality; C-NM5
designed & developed jointly by CSIR-NAL
& Mahindra Aerospace successfully
undertook its first flight in Australia.

Achievements
Developed first Indian tractor Swaraj in 1967.
First to introduce DNA fingerprinting in India.
Designed India's first ever parallel processing

computer Flo-solver.
Design of 14 seater plane 'SARAS'.
Topped list of holders of U.S. patents.
In 2009, completed the sequencing of the Human
Genome.
In 2011, successfully tested India's 1st indigenous
civilian aircraft, NAL NM5 made in association with
National Aerospace Laboratories and Mahindra
Aerospace.

CSIR-NAL COLLABORATION

Human Resource
Indicators

Financial Performance
Indicators

About STTD
Structural Technologies Division (STTD) is
one of the largest divisions of NAL, with
primary Research & Technology lead for
aerospace structures in India. The Division
has expertise in aero space structural
design, analysis, testing, qualification,
certification and Research and Technology
development in aerospace structures and
contributed to all aeronautics and space
programs of India. Also initiated a support
on Integrated Vehicle Health Management
(IVHM) activities.

The division is organized as


follows:
1. Computational Mechanics and Simulation
Group (CMSG)
2. Dynamics and Adaptive Structures Group
(DASG)
3. Fatigue and Structural Integrity Group
(FSIG)
4. Impact and Structural Crashworthiness
Group (ISCG)
Research
Initiatives:
5. Structural
Health Monitoring Group
(SHMG)
1. CFD based aero elasticity
6. Project Management Group (PMG)
2. Aero-thermo-elastic analysis of Functionally Grade
Material (FGM) panels
3. Simulation Based Reliability Analysis
4. FE based failure analysis of nano-composites

Software
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

MSC/MD NASTRAN.
MSC/FATIGUE.
AFGROW.
ABAQS.
ZAERO.
PATRAN.
HYPERMESH.
ANSYS-CFX.
AEMSim.

Facilities
Ground Vibration Testing
Qualification Testing
Low frequency vibration testing
Full-scale Fatigue Test
NDT -Laser Vibrometer, Eddy current, imaging
etc.
Full scale vertical drop tower
Bird Strike
Sled Test
Low velocity impact test

Collaborations
Indian Air Force, Indian Navy
Defense Research and Development
Organization Indian
Space research Organization
Indian Railways
Indian Industry: Aerospace, Mechanical etc.
International Aerospace Companies

TASKS PREFORMED

Study on type of landing gear shock absorbers

The shock absorber is the one item that is common to


all current landing gears. Some do not have tires,
wheels, brakes, antiskid devices, retraction systems, or
steering systems, but all of them have some form of
shock absorber.
The basic function of the shock absorber, or shock
strut as it is often called, is to absorb the kinetic
energy during landing and taxiing to the extent that
accelerations imposed upon the airframe are reduced
to a tolerable level.

SHOCK ABSORBER
There are two basic types of shock absorbers:
Those using a solid spring made of steel or
rubber and those using a fluid spring with
gas or oil, or a mixture of those two that is
generally referred to as oleo-Pneumatic.
The gas is usually dry air or nitrogen. Figure
compares the efficiencies of the various
shock absorber types.

Types
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Steel Coil Springs and Ring Springs


Steel Leaf Spring
Rubber Springs
Air
Oil
Gas/Oil
Most of today's aircraft use gas/oil (oleopneumatic) shock absorbers, a typical design.
They have the highest efficiencies of all shock
absorber types and also have the best energy
dissipation, i.e., unlike a coil spring that stores
energy and then suddenly releases it, the oil is
returned to its uncompressed state at a controlled

Oleo-pneumatic shock absorber

Efficiency curve

Study on elementary shock absorber


representation of AMESim software demo model.

What is AMESim?
AMESimstands
forAdvancedModelingEnviro
nment for
performingSimulations of
engineering systems. It is
based on an intuitive graphical
interface in which the system
is displayed throughout the
simulation process.

Elementary model of landing gear shock absorber


Title

Unit

Default
values

bar

15

mm

Accumulator parameters
Gas pressure

Parameters of flowcontrol01
Equivalent orifice diameter
Maximum flow coefficient

0.7

Chamber parameters
gas pressure at port 1

bar

15

piston diameter

mm

45

chamber length at zero relative


displacement

mm

110

Velocity at port one

m/s

Velocity at port two

m/s

mass of piston (m1)

kg

10

mass of envelope (m2)

kg

350

gap or clearance

mm

200

contact stiffness

N/m

250000

contact damping

N/(m/s)

100

Piston parameter

Parameters of mass_envelop

Parameters of Spring gap

Displacement

Ground force

Efficiency

Matlab
%# Table format: 1D
%# table_unit = N
%# axis1_unit = null
Matlab Result
%compute area under the curve
area_Under_the_curve =
dum=[---------];
%insert graph
310.2877
Lodi=[---------];
data
max_displacement
=
xv=lodi(:,1);
0.0828 m
yv=lodi(:,2);
max_load
=
plot(xv,yv);
7.7129e+003 N
max_area
= 638.7921
area_Under_the_curve = trapz(xv,yv)
efficiency
= 48.5741%
%efficiency = (Actual wave o/p)/(square wave
o/p)
* 100
max_displacement = max(xv)
max_load = max(yv)
max_area = max_displacement*max_load
eff = (area_Under_the_curve/max_area)*100
xlabel('Displacement, mm','Fontsize',12)
ylabel('Load, kN','Fontsize',12)

Study on two chamber shock absorber


representation of AMESim software demo
model.

Title

Unit

Default values

bar

19.013

Pneumatic parameters
Gas pressure

Main parameters
Equivalent orifice diameter

mm

Maximum flow coefficient

30
0.7

Metering pin and Recoil Orifice parameters


Equivalent orifice diameter

mm

Maximum flow coefficient

X
0.7

All Moving Chambers parameters


gas pressure at port 1

bar

19.013

piston diameter

mm

337

chamber length at zero relative displacement

mm

700

Oil chamber Piston parameters

Secondary chamber Piston parameters


piston diameter

mm

184

chamber length at zero relative displacement

mm

1000

piston diameter

mm

200

chamber length at zero relative displacement

mm

0.1

piston diameter

mm

384

chamber length at zero relative displacement

mm

Velocity at port one

m/s

3.9

Velocity at port two

m/s

3.9

mass of piston (m1)

kg

mass of envelope (m2)

kg

50,000

Recoil orifice chamber Piston parameters

All Fixed chamber Piston parameters

Parameters of mass_envelop

Parameters of Spring gap


gap or clearance

mm

contact stiffness

N/m

1e8

contact damping

N/(m/s)

1e4

Displacement

Oil temperature in chambers

Detailed model

Title

Unit

Default values

bar

15

Pneumatic parameters
Gas pressure

Main parameters
Equivalent orifice diameter

mm

Maximum flow coefficient

5
0.7

Metering pin and Recoil Orifice parameters


Equivalent orifice diameter

mm

Maximum flow coefficient

X
0.7

All Moving Chambers parameters


gas pressure at port 1

bar

15

piston diameter

mm

45

chamber length at zero relative displacement

mm

110

piston diameter

mm

31

chamber length at zero relative displacement

mm

230

piston diameter

mm

23

chamber length at zero relative displacement

mm

0.1

piston diameter

mm

65

chamber length at zero relative displacement

mm

Velocity at port one

m/s

Velocity at port two

m/s

mass of piston (m1)

kg

10

mass of envelope (m2)

kg

350

Oil chamber Piston parameters

Secondary chamber Piston parameters

Recoil orifice chamber Piston parameters

All Fixed chamber Piston parameters

Parameters of mass_envelop

Parameters of Spring gap


gap or clearance

mm

contact stiffness

N/m

250000

contact damping

N/(m/s)

100

Displacement

Ground force

Efficiency

Matlab
%# Table format: 1D
%# table_unit = N
%# axis1_unit = null
%compute area under the curve
Matlab result
dum=[---------];
%insert graph
area_Under_the_curve =
Lodi=[---------];
data
1.1450e+003 mm^2
xv=lodi(:,1);
max_displacement = 0.2784mm
yv=lodi(:,2);
max_load =5.9387e+003N
plot(xv,yv);
max_area = 1.6536e+003mm^2
eff = 69.2459%
area_Under_the_curve = trapz(xv,yv)
%efficiency = (Actual wave o/p)/(square wave o/p)
* 100
max_displacement = max(xv)
max_load = max(yv)
max_area = max_displacement*max_load
eff = (area_Under_the_curve/max_area)*100
xlabel('Displacement, mm','Fontsize',12)
ylabel('Load, kN','Fontsize',12)

Displacement

Ground force

Efficiency

Matlab
%# Table format: 1D
%# table_unit = N
%# axis1_unit = null
%compute area under the curve
Matlab result
dum=[---------];
%insert graph
area_Under_the_curve =
Lodi=[---------];
data
4.766e+003 mm^2
xv=lodi(:,1);
max_displacement = 0.1385mm
yv=lodi(:,2);
max_load =4.235e+003N
plot(xv,yv);
max_area = 5.8638+003mm^2
eff = 81.2785%
area_Under_the_curve = trapz(xv,yv)
%efficiency = (Actual wave o/p)/(square wave o/p)
* 100
max_displacement = max(xv)
max_load = max(yv)
max_area = max_displacement*max_load
eff = (area_Under_the_curve/max_area)*100
xlabel('Displacement, mm','Fontsize',12)
ylabel('Load, kN','Fontsize',12)

References
ARMSTRONG-HELOUVRY B., "Control of Machines with

Friction", Norwell, Massachussets: Kluwer Academic


Publishers, 1991.
KARNOPP D., "computer simulation of stick slip friction in
mechanical dynamic systems", Transactions ASME,
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control,
vol. 107, March 1985, pp. 100-103.
Aircraft Landing Gear Design Principles and PracticesNorman S. Currey
John A. Dean, Lange's Handbook of Chemistry. 14rd
Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992.
Development of aircraft shock absorbers using friction
as energy dissipater W.W. Fricker