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CIS 601

Image Segmentation

Segmentation divides an image into its

constituent regions or objects.

Segmentation of non trivial images is one of

the difficult task in image processing. Still

under research.

Segmentation accuracy determines the

eventual success or failure of computerized

analysis procedure.

Segmentation Algorithms

Segmentation algorithms are based on one of

two basic properties of intensity values

discontinuity and similarity.

First category is to partition an image based on

abrupt changes in intensity, such as edges in an

image.

Second category are based on partitioning an

image into regions that are similar according to a

predefined criteria. Histogram thresholding

approach falls under this category.

Domain

spaces

histogram spaces

color space

other complex feature space

Histograms

Histogram are constructed by splitting the range

of the data into equal-sized bins (called classes).

Then for each bin, the number of points from the

data set that fall into each bin are counted.

Vertical axis: Frequency (i.e., pixel counts for

each bin)

Horizontal axis: Response variable

In image histograms the pixels form the

horizontal axis

Thresholding - Foundation

Suppose that the gray-level histogram

corresponds to an image f(x,y) composed of

dark objects on the light background, in such a

way that object and background pixels have gray

levels grouped into two dominant modes. One

obvious way to extract the objects from the

background is to select a threshold T that

separates these modes.

Then any point (x,y) for which f(x,y) < T is called

an object point, otherwise, the point is called a

background point.

Example

Segmented Image

constructed using the imhist command.

I = imread('pout.tif');

figure, imhist(I) %look at the hist to get a threshold, e.g., 110

BW=roicolor(I, 110, 255); % makes a binary image

figure, imshow(BW) % all pixels in (110, 255) will be 1 and white

% the rest is 0 which is black

match the values in the gray level interval.

BW is a binary image with 1's where the values of I match the values

of the interval.

Bimodal Histogram

If two dominant modes characterize the

image histogram, it is called a bimodal

histogram. Only one threshold is enough

for partitioning the image.

If for example an image is composed of

two types of dark objects on a light

background, three or more dominant

modes characterize the image histogram.

Multimodal Histogram

In such a case the histogram has to be

partitioned by multiple thresholds.

Multilevel thresholding classifies a point (x,y) as

belonging to one object class

if T1 < (x,y) <= T2,

to the other object class

if f(x,y) > T2

and to the background

if f(x,y) <= T1.

Basic Global Thresholding:

1)Select an initial estimate for T

2)Segment the image using T. This will produce two groups of pixels.

G1 consisting of all pixels with gray level values >T and G2 consisting

of pixels with values <=T.

3)Compute the average gray level values mean1 and mean2 for the

pixels in regions G1 and G2.

4)Compute a new threshold value

T=(1/2)(mean1 +mean2)

5)Repeat steps 2 through 4 until difference in T in successive iterations

is smaller than a predefined parameter T0.

Basic Adaptive Thresholding: Images having

makes it difficult to segment using histogram,

divide the original image into sub images and

thresholding process to each of the sub images.

uneven illumination

this approach is to

use the above said

A method based on

Discrete Curve Evolution

The histogram is treated as a polyline

and is simplified until a few vertices

remain.

Thresholds are determined by vertices

that are local minima.

It yields a sequence: P=P0, ..., Pm

Pi+1 is obtained from Pi by deleting the vertices of Pi

that have minimal relevance measure

K(v, Pi) = |d(u,v)+d(v,w)-d(u,w)|

v

>

w

v

w

u

Example

In colour images each pixel is

characterized by three RGB values.

Here we construct a 3D histogram, and

the basic procedure is analogous to the

method used for one variable.

Histograms plotted for each of the colour

values and threshold points are found.

Segmented Image

The objects can be distinguished by

assigning a arbitrary pixel value or

average pixel value to the regions

separated by thresholds.

Type of images used:

1) Two Gray scale image having bimodal

histogram structure.

2) Gray scale image having multi-modal

histogram structure.

3) Colour image having bimodal histogram

structure.

Segmented Image

Multimodal Histogram

Histogram of lena

Segmented Image

Image after segmentation we get a outline of her face, hat, shadow etc

Histogram

Segmented Image

Each image point is mapped to a point in a color space, e.g.:

Color(i, j) = (R (i, j), G(i, j), B(i, j))

The points in the color space are grouped to clusters.

The clusters are then mapped back to regions in the image.

Resluts 1

Original pictures

segmented pictures

k-means Clustering

An algorithm for partitioning (or clustering)

N data points into K disjoint subsets Sj

containing Nj data points so as to minimize

the sum-of-squares criterion

K

J | xn j |

j 1 nS j

the geometric centroid of the data points in Sj

First, K centroid points are selected , e.g., at random.

j

Second, each data points is assigned to

the cluster Sj of the closest centroid j.

Third, the centroid

The steps two and three are alternated until a stopping criterion is met,

i.e., when there is no further change in the assignment of the data points.

In general, the algorithm does not achieve a global minimum of J over the

assignments. In fact, since the algorithm uses discrete assignment rather than

a set of continuous parameters, the "minimum" it reaches cannot even be

properly called a local minimum. Despite these limitations, the algorithm is used

frequently as a result of its ease of implementation.

Homework:

Implement in Matlab and test on some example images the clustering in the

color space. You can use k-means or some other clustering algorithm.

Matlab example

Matlab programs are in

www.cis.temple.edu/~latecki/CIS601-03/Lectures/Matlab/Clustering/

data=load('irises1.dat'); % loads a classic data set of Irises

[distance,cluster,tse] = kmeans1(data,3); %starts k-means clustering

showcluster(cluster,'irises1.dat'); % shows clusters in 3D projection obtained by PCA

[output_matrix] = test_tableform('ireses_gt.txt',cluster,3);

%if the ground truth is know, this function compares the clustering result to it

Conclusion

After segmenting the image, the contours of

objects can be extracted using edge

detection and/or border following techniques.

Image segmentation techniques are

extensively used in Similarity Searches, e.g.:

http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/photos/blobworld/

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