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WATER QUALITY

OBJECTIVES
In the end of this chapter the students should be able to:
i.

identify the rules, criteria and standard quality for stream,


drinking water and waste water
ii. explain the water parameter which including physical,
chemical and biological parameter

WATER
common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known
forms of life. In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but
the substance also has a solid state (ice), and a gaseous state (water vapor or
steam).
plays an important role in the world economy, as it functions as a solvent for a
wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and
transportation.
To function properly, human needs at least 8 glasses of water daily.
Approximately 70% of freshwater is consumed by agriculture.
Different bodies of water provide livelihood and economic security to different
countries.
Declining water quality has become a global issue of concern as human
populations grow, industrial and agricultural activities expand, and climate

Water quality the physical, chemical,


biological, and aesthetic characteristics
of water which determines its fitness for
a variety of uses and for protecting the
health and integrity of aquatic
ecosystems.
Another general perception of water
quality is that of a simple property that
tells whether water is polluted or not.
depends on the local geology and
ecosystem, as well as human uses such
as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution,
use of water bodies as a heat sink, and
overuse (which may lower the level of the
water).

STANDARDS
In the setting of standards, agencies make political and
technical/scientific decisions about how the water will be used.
In the case of natural water bodies, they also make some reasonable
estimate of pristine conditions.
Different uses raise different concerns and therefore different
standards are considered.
Natural water bodies will vary in response to environmental conditions.

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2.1 RULES, CRITERIA AND STANDARD QUALITY FOR STREAM,


DRINKING WATER AND WASTE WATER

WATER QUALITY CONTROL


The WHO guidelines divide water quality parameters into two categories:
I. Health guidelines, which take into account chemical and radiological constituents
that have the potential to directly adversely affect human health; and
Ii. Acceptability guidelines, which include parameters that may not have any direct
health effects but result in objectionable taste or odour in the water.

WQI CALCULATION FORMULA:


WQI = (0.22* SlDO) + (0.19*SIBOD) + (0.16*SICOD) +
(0.15*SIAN) + (0.16 * SISS) + (0.12 * SIpH)
where;
SI = the sub index of each parameter
DO = Dissolved Oxygen
BOD = Biological Oxygen Demand
COD = Chemical Oxygen Demand
AN = Ammoniacal Nitrogen NH3-N
SS = Suspended Solid
pH = Acidity/Alkalinity
0 WQI 100

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National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia


PARAMETER

UNIT

Ammoniacal Nitrogen
Biochemical Oxygen
Demand
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Dissolved Oxygen
pH
Colour
Electrical Conductivity*
Floatables
Odour
Salinity
Taste
Total Dissolved Solid
Total Suspended Solid
Temperature
Turbidity
Faecal Coliform**
Total Coliform

mg/l
mg/l

I
0.1
1

IIA
0.3
3

IIB
0.3
3

mg/l
mg/l
TCU
S/cm
%
mg/l
mg/l

10
7
6.5 - 8.5
15
1000
N
N
0.5
N
500
25

25
5-7
6-9
150
1000
N
N
1
N
1000
50

25
5-7
6-9
150
N
N
N
50

NTU
count/100
ml
count/100
ml

5
10

Normal +
2 C
50
100

50
400

100

5000

5000

Notes
* = At hardness 50 mg/l CaCO3
# = Maximum (unbracketed) and 24-hour average (bracketed) concentrations
N = Free from visible film sheen, discolouration and deposits

CLASS
III
0.9
6
50
3-5
5-9
150

IV
2.7
12

V
> 2.7
> 12

100
<3
5-9
6000
2
4000
300

> 100
<1
300

Normal +
2 C
5000
5000
(20000)a (20000)a
50000
50000

> 50000

Effects of pollutant to environment


and human

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WATER QUALITY MONITORING: MALAYSIA


PERSPECTIVE

National monitoring network established in 1978.


Aims
To establish the status of river water quality;

To detect changes in water quality as a result of development activities.


To-date, 902 manual stations in 120 basins (462 rivers).
Program include:
In-situ measurements (more than 6 parameters: turbidity, dissolved oxygen, salinity,
temperature, ph and electrical conductivity.)
Sampling and laboratory analyses (24 physicochemical and biological parameters). 10
automatic water quality monitoring stations on major rivers
To detect changes in river water quality on a continuous basis.
Water quality levels violating the ambient standard for specific parameters will be transmitted
real-time to DOE.

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Malaysia Drinking Water Quality Standard

SAFE DRINKING WATER


Free from pathogenic organisms
Clear
Not saline
Free from offensive taste or smell
Free from compounds that may have adverse effect on
human health
Free from chemicals that cause corrosion of water supply
systems

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KEY WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS WATER


USES

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2.2 WATER QUALITY PARAMETER

WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS


PHYSICAL PARAMETERS
Characteristics that respond to the sense of sight, touch, taste or
smell.
Six common parameters: suspended solid, temperature, taste, odor,
color, turbidity and temperature

CHEMICAL PARAMETER
Substance that dissolved in water
Total dissolved solid, alkalinity, hardness, metals, organic compounds,
and nutrients

BIOLOGICAL
Living organism that can be found in the water.
It may lead to bad taste, odor, corrosion and slime production
Pathogen
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ENVIRONMENTAL WATER QUALITY


PARAMETERS

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

TOTAL SOLID

ALKALINITY

TURBIDITY

HARDNESS

COLOR

DISSOLVED OXYGEN (DO),

TASTE AND ODOR

CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD),

TEMPERATURE

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)


NUTRIENT.

BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
BACTERIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS: COLIFORMS,
FECAL COLIFORMS,
SPECIFIC PATHOGENS, AND VIRUSES

PARAMETERS

WHAT IT INDICATES

pH

Indicates contamination and acidification

Biochemical Oxygen
Demand (BOD)

Procedure for determining how fast biological organisms


use of oxygen in a body of water

Chemical Oxygen Demand


(COD)

Indicates the amount of organic pollutants in water

Ammonical Nitrogen (AN)

Indicates nutrient status, organic enrichment and health


of the water body

Suspended Solid (SS)

Small solid particles which remain in suspension in water


as a colloid or due to the motion of water

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

Measures the amount of oxygen dissolved or carried in


the water

UNIT MEASUREMENT
Parameter

Value

Dissolved oxygen

mg/L or ppm

Water temperature

Degrees C or F

pH

Total ammonia nitrogen

mg/L or ppm

Nitrite

mg/L or ppm

Alkalinity/Hardness

mg/L or ppm CaCO3

Salinity

g/L or ppt salt

ppm: Most dissolved substances found in water are measured in parts per million
(ppm) or even smaller amounts. This means that for every one million parts (units)
of water there is a certain number of parts of the substance.
Concentration: Concentrations of certain substances are also measured in
parts per billion, parts per trillion and so on. These are very small amounts
but certain substances can be harmful even at these very low concentrations.

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2.2.1 PHYSICAL
PARAMETERS

1. SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS)


TSS is the measure of the
sediment suspended in the
water.
Water with high TSS usually
has high total dissolved
solids (TDS) as well.
TSS is related to turbidity.
Sediments suspended in the
water increase turbidity.
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FORMULA

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2. TASTE AND ODOR


Mainly due to organic substances, biological activity, industrial
pollution
Taste buds in the oral cavity specially detect inorganic compounds
of metals like magnesium, calcium, sodium, copper, iron and zinc
Odor of water is mainly caused by volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) in water.
Water should be free from objectionable taste and odor.
A combination of chemical treatment, aeration and adsorption may
used to lower the odor intensity.
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3. COLOR
May be due to the presence of organic matter, metals
(iron, manganese) or highly colored industrial waste
Desirable that drinking water be colorless
APHA Color (Hazen scale)
- sometimes referred to as a yellowness index that is
used to
assess the quality of liquids that are clear to
yellowish in
color.
- Desirable limit, 5 hazen unit
- Permissible limit 25 hazen unit

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4. TURBIDITY

Caused by suspended matter:


- silt, sand and mud;
- bacteria and other germs;
- chemical precipitates.

High level turbidity shield and protect bacteria from the


action of disinfecting agents
Drinking water should have a turbidity of 5 NTU
(Nephelometric Turbidity Units)

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4. TEMPERATURE
Water temperatureis one of the most important characteristics of
an aquatic system, affecting:
Dissolved oxygen levels. The solubility of oxygen decreases as water
temperature increases.
Chemical processes.Temperature affects the solubility and reaction rates of
chemicals. In general, the rate of chemical reactions increases with increasing water
temperature.
Biological processes.Temperature affects metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
Species composition of the aquatic ecosystem. Many aquatic species can
survive only within a limited temperature range.
Water density and stratification. Water is most dense at 4C. Differences in
water temperature and density between layers of water in a lake leads to
stratification and seasonal turnover.
Environmental cues for life-history stages. Changes in water temperature may
act as a signal for aquatic insects to emerge or for fish to spawn.
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2.2.2 CHEMICAL
PARAMETERS

1. HARDNESS
Capacity of water for reducing and destroying the lather of soap
It is total concentration of calcium and magnesium ions
Temporary hardness Bicarbonates of Calcium and Magnesium
Permanent hardness Sulphates, chlorides and nitrates of calcium
and magnesium
0 50 mg/l CaCO3
- soft
50 150 mg/l CaCO3
- moderately hard
150 300 mg/l CaCO3 - hard
300 above CaCO3
- very hard
Surface water is softer than ground water
Causes encrustations in water supply structures
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Types of hardness
There are two basic types of water hardness:
1. Temporary hardness
2. Permanent hardness

Temporary Hardness
Temporary Hardness is due to the
bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, being present in the
water. This type of hardness can be removed
by boiling the water to expel the CO2.
Ca(HCO3)2CaCO3+ H2O + CO2
Heating
Mg(HCO3)2 Ma (OH)2+ 2CO2
Heating
Main Mechanism

Permanent hardness
Permanent hardness is due to the presence of the
ions Ca2+, Mg+2, Fe3+and SO4-. This type of
hardness cannot be eliminated by boiling. The
water with this type of hardness is said to
bepermanently hard.

2. ALKALINITY
pH is the measure of hydrogen ion concentration
Neutral water pH : 7
Acidic water has pH below 7
Basic water has pH above 7
Desirable limit 6.5-8.5. Beyond this limit the water will affect the mucous
membrane and water supply system
Capacity to neutralize acid
Presence of carbonates, bi-carbonates and hydroxide compounds of Ca, Mg,
Na and K
Alkalinity = hardness, Ca and Mg salts
Alkalinity > hardness - presence of basic salts, Na, K along with Ca and Mg
Alkalinity < hardness neutral salts of Ca & Mg present
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Alkalinity and Hardness

Alkalinity is a measure of the bases that can be neutralized by acid.


Most alkalinity in water used for aquaculture is a result of bicarbonates ( HCO 3- ) and
carbonates ( CO3-- ).
Hardness is a measure of the divalent salts and is normally found in waters used for
aquaculture as calcium ( Ca++ ) and magnesium ( Mg++ ).
Alkalinity and hardness are normally the same concentration in waters used for
aquaculture because calcium and magnesium combine with the bicarbonates and
carbonates. However, some waters can have a high alkalinity and low hardness or low
alkalinity and high hardness.
Total alkalinity and hardness above 25 mg/l is considered adequate for aquaculture of
fishes. Crustaceans require about 40 mg/l total hardness for best growth.
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3. DISSOLVED OXYGEN
is the amount of oxygen that is present in the water. It is measured in

milligrams per liter (mg/L), or the number of milligrams of oxygen dissolved


in a liter of water.
an important parameter in assessing water quality because of its influence
on the organisms living within a body of water.
Decreased DO
a. the water is too warm. The increased molecular activity of the warm water
pushes the oxygen molecules out of the spaces between the moving water
molecules.
b. indicative of too many bacteria and an excess amount of biological
oxygen demand - BOD (untreated sewage, partially treated sewage,
organic discharges, anoxic discharges) which use up DO.
c. because of fertilizer runoff from farm fields and lawns. When the
increased numbers of aquatic plants eventually die, they support increasing
amounts of bacteria which use large amounts of DO.

DISSOLVED OXYGEN DEVICES

DO Meter

Benchtop DO Meter

Dissolved oxygen and water


temperature
dissolved oxygen and water temperature
usually vary over a 24 hour cycle.
Surface dissolved oxygen, mg/L

Surface water temperature, C

15

31

10

29
27

summer

25

0
6 a.m.

noon

6 p.m.

midnight

6 a.m.
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Dissolved oxygen and water


temperature
Stratification can cause dissolved oxygen and
temperature to vary at different depths in the
same pond.

Epilimnion

High temperature
High dissolved oxygen

Thermocline
Hypolimnion

Low dissolved oxygen


Low temperature

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4. BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND(BOD)


Biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) is the amount of
dissolved oxygenneeded by aerobic biological organisms in a
body of water to break down organic material present in a given
water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.
The term also refers to a chemical procedure for determining this
amount.
it is widely used as an indication of the organic quality of water.
The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of
oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation
at 20C and is often used as a robust surrogate of the degree of
organicpollution of water.

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)


As micro-organisms decompose (through respiration) organic matter, they use up all
the available oxygen.
BOD is amount of oxygen required to decay a certain amount of organic matter.
If too much organic matter is added, the available oxygen supplies will be used up.

The definition is:


1 mg/L of BOD will, after uptake by bacteria, decrease the DO level by 1 mg/L.

BOD bottle

Note: 1 mg/L of BOD may correspond to more or less than 1 mg/L of the offensive
substance.
BOD is determined in the laboratory by measuring the depletion of dissolved oxygen
in the contaminated water placed in a closed container, over the course of several
days (usually 5 days)
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CALCULATING BOD
The ratio of undiluted sample is called the sample size, usually expressed as a
percentage, while the inverse relationship is called the dilution factor.
Sample size (%) = volume of undiluted sample x 100
volume of diluted sample

Dilution factor = P = volume of wastewater sample


volume of wastewater plus dilution
water

CALCULATING BOD
BODt

DOb ,t DOs ,t

P
DOb,t dissolve oxygen concentration in blank after t day of incubation, mg / L
DOs ,t dissolve oxygen concentration in sample after t day of incubation, mg / L
P dilution factor
( DOs ,i DOs ,t ) ( DOb ,i DOb,t ) f
BODt
P
DOs ,i initial dissolve oxygen of sample
DOb,i initial dissolve oxygen of blank
f ratio of seed in diluted sample to blank
(volume of seed in diluted sample) /(volume of blank )
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EXAMPLE 1
BOD

The BOD of a wastewater sample is estimated to be 180mg/L.


1) What volume of undiluted sample should be added to a 300 mL bottle? What are the sample
size and dilution factor using this volume? Assume 4 mg/L BOD can be consumed in the BOD
bottle.
2) What is the BOD5 of wastewater sample if DO values for the blank and diluted sample after
5days are 8.7 and 4.2 mg/L, respectively.

Solution 1: Estimate the sample size needed.


Sample size = 4 mg/L
x 100 = 2.22%
180 mg/L
Estimate the volume of undiluted sample needed because the volume of diluted
sample is 300 mL .
Volume of undiluted sample = 0.0222 x 300 mL = 6.66 mL
Therefore a convenient sample volume would be 7.00 mL
Compute the actual sample size and dilution factor.
Sample size = 7.0 mL x 100 = 2.33%
300 mL
Dilution factor = P = 7.0 mL = 0.0233
300 mL

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Solution 2: Substitute the appropriate values into equation

BODt

DOb ,t DOs ,t
P

BOD 5 = 8.7 4.2 = 204.5, or 205 mg/L


0.0233

EXAMPLE 2
BOD

Suppose the estimated BOD of an influent sample is 400 mg/L and assume the DO of saturated
dilution water is 8.0 mg/L. Since the criteria for most valid results states that the DO depletion at
the end of five days incubation should be at least 2.0 mg/L and the residual DO at least 1.0
mg/L, the formulas to calculate the minimum and maximum estimated dilution.

TUTORIAL 1
A BOD measurement is to be carried out for wastewater
sample. The waste water sample inserted to BOD bottle is 10
ml. The 300 ml BOD bottle will be filled up with dilution water.
Calculate the BOD5 for the waste water using the given data.
Concentration
DO (mg/L)

Day 1
7.5

Day 5
5.0

SOLUTION

Where,
= DO of diluted sample immediately after preparation, mg/L
= DO of diluted sample after 5 days incubation at 20 C, mg/L
P = Dilution factor

TUTORIAL 2
200 mL of river water sample was collected. 2 mL of river
water diluted to 1 L, aerated and seeded. The dissolved
oxygen content was 7.8 mg/L initially. After 5 days, the
dissolved oxygen content had dropped to 5.9 mg/L. Estimate
the BOD5 of this river water sample.

SOLUTION
BOD5 = 7.8 mg/L 5.9 mg/L = 950 mg/L
2 mL/1000 mL

5. CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (C.O.D)


Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is the amount of oxygen
required to degenerate all pollution in a chemical way (by
adding oxidizing agents and heating).
In general with chemical destruction you can remove more
pollution than with the biological way.
It is expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) also referred to as
ppm (parts per million), which indicates themassof oxygen
consumed per liter ofsolution.

DIFFERENCE
B.O.D
BOD is only a measurement of

C.O.D
COD refers the requirement

consumed oxygen by aquatic

of dissolved oxygen for the

microorganisms to decompose

oxidation of organic and

or oxidize organic matter.

inorganic constituents both.

> Although, some of the organic compounds, which can be broken


down by microorganisms, are countable for the biological oxygen
demand, they may not be encountered in measuring chemical
oxygen demand

Chemical Parameter: BOD & COD

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6. NUTRIENT
Excess nutrients cause algal blooms. As algae die and decay, the high bacterial
load rapidly consumes dissolved oxygen.
Nitrate
Increasing level of nitrate is due to Agricultural fertilizers, manure, animal dung,
nitrogenous material ,sewage pollution (blue baby diseases to infants)
Under normal conditions, the nitrogen cycle keeps the amount of available nitrogen in
balance with the demands. However, excessive use of fertilizers and nutrient rich sewage
release have created a surplus of nitrate. The result is eutrophication from excess algae
and bacteria with reduced dissolved oxygen.
Phosphate
Phosphates concentrations in clean water is generally low; however, phosphorus is used
extensively in fertilizer and other chemicals.
The primary sources of phosphates to surface water are detergents, fertilizers, and natural
mineral deposits.
High levels of phosphate can over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae.
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7. METAL
IRON
One of the earths most plentiful resource
High iron causes brown or yellow staining of laundry, household fixtures
Metallic taste, offensive odour, poor tasting coffee
Cause iron bacteria
Acceptable limit 0.3 mg/l
FLUORIDE
Occurs naturally
Long term consumption above permissible level can cause
dental flurosis (molting of teeth)
Skeletal flurosis
Acceptable limit 1 mg/l
Maximum permissible limit 1.5 mg/l
Remedy 1) Deflouridation
2) Mixing Fluoride free water
3) Intake of vitamin C,D, calcium, antioxidants

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METAL
Arsenic
Occur in ground water
Industrial waste, agricultural insecticide
High arsenic causes 1) various type of dermatological lesions, muscular weakness,
paralysis of lower limbs, can also cause skin and lung cancer
Acceptable limit 0.05 mg / l
Heavy Metal
Present as mineral in soil and rocks of earth
Human activities
Battery Lead & Nickel
Textile - Copper
Photography Silver
Steel production Iron

Spektrofotometer DR6000
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COLORED WATER
Green or blue water: Usually caused by corrosion of copper
plumbing.
Black or dark brown water: Often caused by manganese in
the water or pipe sediment.
Brown, red, orange or yellow water: Usually caused by
iron rust.
Milky white or cloudy water: Usually caused by tiny air
bubbles. If your water is white, fill a clear glass with water and
set it on the counter. If the water starts to clear at the bottom
of the glass first, the cloudy or white appearance is trapped
air.

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETER

PATHOGENS
Capable of infecting and transmitting diseases to human
Bacteria: Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryotic
microorganisms. Typically a few micrometers in length, bacteria have a
number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.

Virus: smallest microorganisms with sizes range from 0.01 to 0.3 m.


Could cause certain disease like hepatitis, flu, jaundice, polio

Protozoa: simplest animal species. Infection are usually characterized by


gastrointestinal disorders.

Fungi: can produce musty taste and odour as well as colour and turbidity.
Algae: Increase the level of DO in water. But too much of algae, will affect
taste and smell and can reduce the intensity of light penetration.
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