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WEB ENGINEERING

LECTURE #01

LAYERS OF THE
INTERNET:

TCP/IP protocol family

IP : Internet Protocol
UDP : User Datagram Protocol
RTP, traceroute
TCP : Transmission Control Protocol
HTTP, FTP, ssh
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WHAT IS AN INTERNET?

A set of interconnected networks


example
Networks can be completely different
Ethernet, ATM, modem,
(TCP/)IP is what links them

Routers (nodes) are devices on multiple networks


that pass traffic between them
Individual networks pass traffic from one router or
endpoint to another
TCP/IP hides the details as much as possible

ISO/OSI NETWORK MODEL


Seven network layers

Layer 1 : Physical cables


Layer 2 : Data Link ethernet
Layer 3 : Network IP
Layer 4 : Transport TCP/UDP
Layer 5 : Session
Layer 6 : Presentation
Layer 7 : Application

TCP/IP NETWORK MODEL


Different view 4 layers
Layer 1 : Link (we did not look at details)
Layer 2 : Network
Layer 3 : Transport
Layer 4 : Application

OSI Model

TCP/IP Hierarchy

Protocols

7th
Application Layer
6th
Presentation
Layer
5th
Session Layer
4th
Transport Layer
3rd
Network Layer

Application
Layer

Transport
Layer
Network Layer

2nd
Link Layer
1st
Physical Layer

Link Layer

Link Layer
: includes device driver and network interface card
Network Layer : handles the movement of packets, i.e. Routing
Transport Layer : provides a reliable flow of data between two hosts
Application Layer : handles the details of the particular application

IP

Responsible for end to end transmission


Sends data in individual packets
Maximum size of packet is determined by the networks

Fragmented if too large

Unreliable

Packets might be lost, corrupted, duplicated, delivered out of order

IP ADDRESSES

4 bytes

e.g. 163.1.125.98
Each device normally gets one (or more)
In theory there are about 4 billion available

But

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IP CLASSES:
THERE ARE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF THE IP WHICH ARE
AS FOLLOWS:
Class A
0-127
Class B
128-191
Class C
192-232
Class D
233-255

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The World Wide Web

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THE WORLD WIDE WEB


The Web
An infrastructure of information combined and the network software used to
access it
Web page
A document that contains or references various kinds of data
Links

A connection between one web page and another

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Website
A collection of related web pages
Web browser
A software tool that retrieves and displays Web pages
Web server
A computer set up to respond to requests for web pages

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Uniform Resource Locator (URL)


A standard way of specifying the location of a Web page, containing the
hostname, "/", and a file

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SEARCH ENGINES
Search Engine
A website that helps you find other websites

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INSTANT MESSAGING
Instant messaging (IM)

Applications that allow people to send short messages

Similar to texting, but based on username not cellular phone number

Some applications allow more than two users in a chat room

If participants run application simultaneously, they can have an interactive conversation

Most applications use proprietary protocols that dictate the precise format and structure
of the messages

Most instant messages are not secure

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WEBLOGS
Blog or Weblog
An online journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for public
consumption

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COOKIES
Cookie
A small text file that a web server stores on your local
computers hard disk

A cookie contains information about your visit to the site


Cookies can be used

to determine number of unique visitors to the site


to customize the site for future visits
to implement shopping carts that can be maintained from visit to visit

Cookies are not dangerous

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THE DNS IS

The Domain Name System


What Internet users use to reference anything by name on the Internet
The mechanism by which Internet software translates names to attributes
such as addresses

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A globally distributed, scalable, reliable database


Comprised of three components
A name space
Servers making that name space available
Resolvers (clients) which query the servers about the name space

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DOMAIN NAMES

A domain name is the sequence of labels from a node to the root, separated by dots (.s),
read left to right

The name space has a maximum depth of 127 levels

Domain names are limited to 255 characters in length

A nodes domain name identifies its position in the name space

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SUBDOMAINS

One domain is a subdomain of another if its domain name ends in


the others domain name

So sales.nominum.com is a subdomain of

nominum.com & com

nominum.com is a subdomain of com

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