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REDA Production

System Variable Speed


Drive
Introduction

Variable Speed Drive


Upon completion of this section, you should
be able to:
Explain the three basic steps of VSD operation
Understand how drive proves beneficial to
certain applications.

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SpeedStar 2000 Flux Vector


VSD
State of the Art
Technology,
High Performance,
Reliable,
Variable Speed Drive

Variable Speed Drive Objectives


What is the function of a VSD
Learn how the system works
Features & Benefits

What does the VSD do for us


Provides constant torque through the
entire speed range.
Can be used manually to set the V/Hz
ratio for specific applications (Base
Speed).
Provides reduced starting capabilities
(Soft Start).
Optimizes the output of the well (Avoids
cycling of the well and equipment).
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Why use a VSD in your


application?
Flexibility
Provide lightning
for the downhole
toprotection
the system:

equipment.
Eliminate the need for chokes in the system.
Provide inherent soft start no inrush currents.
Protect the downhole equipment from pump
off.
Enable remote operation/automation.
Enable smooth response to torque changes.

Why use a VSD in your


application?

Slow acceleration ramp ultimately reduces


pump wear, prevents sand infiltration, and
thus increases run life
Reduces downtime and maintenance
AND!!!
can catch a back-spinning motor.
can provide Tracking underload.

VSDs add value to the


application
Every application can benefit from variable
speed!
ESPs are no exception
Extend your equipment life
Improve your system efficiency
Enable optimization as well conditions change

VSD Application
Step-Down
Transformer
Bank

VSD

Step-Up
Transformer

Disconnect
J Box

VSD Output to Motor


controls the output Voltage and Frequency
to the motor by:
Changing the input AC signal to DC signal,
Chopping the resulting DC signal, and
finally,
Varying the output voltage and frequency
to the motor.
By varying the voltage and frequency to the
motor, we are changing what is called the
V/Hertz ratio.
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Basic VSD Electrical diagram

3
Phase
s AC

1)
1) Diodes
DiodesConverter
Converter
2)
2) DC
DCLink
LinkCapacitors
Capacitors
3)
3) IGBTs
IGBTsInverter
Inverter

Fixed
FixedVoltage,
Voltage,Fixed
FixedFrequency
Frequency

Variable
VariableVoltage,
Voltage,Variable
VariableFrequency
Frequency

Why use VSD?


As we have seen, a VSD is simply a device
for taking a fixed frequency power supply;
and changing it to a variable frequency to
drive the downhole equipment.
There is nothing "magic" about a VSD. As
the frequency increases, so does the motor
speed as well as its horsepower capability.
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Medium Voltage vs. Low Voltage


VSDs
Skid/ Enclosure
Step-Down
Transformer
380/480 /
600 V

4.16 kV

Step-Up
Transformer

Low Voltage VSD

Oil-filled Transformer
Outdoor Use

Controller

0-input

Medium Voltage VSD

4160 V

Motor

Oil-filled Transformer
Outdoor Use

Controller

4.16 kV

0 4.16 kV

Input Transformer Internal

Motor

Why use VSD?


The increased speed causes the pump to put
out more head and flow; and, in an effort to
obey the laws of physics, the brake
horsepower required to do this task also
increases.
We can predict the change
performance with affinity laws.

in

pump

Sizing a VSD application is then a matter of


matching the pump and motor at the speed
of interest.

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Summary
There is another point for discussion which
may be regarded a speciality; but could quite
possible come in handy on some occasions.
We should probably call this "tweaking" the
application.

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04/19/16

Summary
The well system curve is simply a reflection
of the total energy available and lost in the
well system with the exception of the pump.
In our application, we try to match the pump
performance curve to the well system curve;
and where they meet is where the well
should produce.
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Summary
For the sake of this discussion let's assume
our well system curve is a straight line and
we
know
the
end
points.
Assume we want to use a GN5600 and
produce 1350 feet of TDH at 8800 bpd - and
we want to produce only 200 feet of TDH at
3400 bpd (this is what our productivity
calculations have told us).
Our number one criterion is to produce as
much of this range as possible.

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Summary
We could use a 50 stage GN5600 and get the
desired 1350 feet of TDH at 70 Hz but look
what happens to the 3400 BPD point. We
could not possibly run the unit this slowly.

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Reda Single Stage Pump Performance Curve


GN5600

Hea
Fee
d
t

540 Series Pump - Variable Frequency

Hea
d Ca
pac
ity

6
0
5
0

70
Hz
65
Hz

4
0

60
Hz
55
Hz
50
Hz

3
0
2
0

Well System
Curve

1
0
HP
Moto
rLoa
d

ly Load
Pump On

3.0
0

60
55 Hz
50 Hz
Hz

2.0
0
1.0
0

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100
0

200
0

3000

4000

5000

6000

70
65 Hz
Hz

Capacity - Barrels per Day

7000

8000

9000

1000
0

Summary
Achieving the lower point of 200 feet at 3400
bpd may cause us to drop to a lower
frequency than we really want to use.
Is there anything we could do?

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Summary
Yes there is.
We are dividing the well system curve by the
number of stages in the pump in order to
display it on our single stage pump
performance curve.
If we divide the well system curve by a
larger number of stages -- say 100 for
example, it tends to become "flatter".
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04/19/16

Reda Single Stage Pump Performance Curve


GN5600

Hea
Fee
d
t

540 Series Pump - Variable Frequency

Hea
d Ca
pac
ity

6
0
5
0
4
0

60
55
Hz
50
Hz

3
0

70
Hz
65
Hz
Hz

"50 Stage" Well System


Curve

2
0
1
0

"100 Stage" Well System


Curve

HP
Moto
rLoa
d

ly Load
Pump On

3.0
0

60
55 Hz
50 Hz
Hz

2.0
0
1.0
0

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100
0

200
0

3000

4000

5000

6000

70
65 Hz
Hz

Capacity - Barrels per Day

7000

8000

9000

1000
0

Summary
By using more stages in the pump, we can
make the well system curve flatter and get a
much wider flow range coverage with the
pump. The only problem is that more stages
are giving us too much flow and taking us to
the right of the operating range.
Is there anything we can do to counteract
this?
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Summary
The TDH required is essentially a sum of the
vertical lift required, the tubing friction and
the
wellhead
pressure.
The vertical lift is determined by the well
productivity and is beyond our sphere of
influence.
We could possibly increase friction with
smaller tubing.

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04/19/16

Summary
The easiest thing for us to do is increase the
wellhead
pressure.
This will have the effect of raising the well
system curve vertically without changing the
slope.

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04/19/16

Reda Single Stage Pump Performance Curve


GN5600

Hea
Fee
d
t

Hea
d

6
0

513 Series Pump - Variable Frequency

Cap
acit

5
0

70
Hz
65
Hz

4
0

60
Hz
55
Hz
50
Hz

3
0

"50 Stage" Well System


Curve

"100 Stage"
Well
System Curve

2
0
1
0
HP
Moto
rLoa
d

ly Load
Pump On

3.0
0

60
55 Hz
50 Hz
Hz

2.0
0
1.0
0

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100
0

200
0

3000

4000

5000

6000

70
65 Hz
Hz

Capacity - Barrels per Day

7000

8000

9000

1000
0

Summary
By raising the wellhead pressure, we can
raise the well system curve back up to within
the
range
of
the
pump.
Obviously increasing the wellhead pressure
arbitrarily will cause additional power loss
but there are occasions where the overriding
consideration is strictly a matter of
maximizing the total flow range.
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Summary
By increasing the number of stages, we can
flatten out the well system curve with
respect to the pump performance curve and
achieve a greater range.

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Useful
If we know the pump performance at 60 Hz, we can correct it to
Equations
another frequency by the affinity laws: (1)
Flow

HZ

Flow 60

Head HZ Head60
BHP HZ BHP60

HZ
6
0
HZ
6
HZ0

6
If we know the motor 60 Hz nameplate0rating, we can calculate
the
output horsepower rating at any other frequency with: (1)

HZ
MHP HZ
6
(1) If we prefer to work with 50 Hz as a 0
base, we can substitute in
MHP60

50 in place of 60 everywhere it appears in the equations.

Useful
Equations
If we know the pump BHP
at 60 Hz and we know what is the
maximum frequency we desire to run at, we can determine
the minimum permissible 60 Hz motor HP rating as:

MHP BHP60
60

HZ
6
0

If we know the pump BHP at 60 Hz and we know what our


motor size is at 60 Hz, we can calculate the maximum
allowable frequency before overloading the motor as:

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HZ 6
0

MHP60
BHP60

Useful
If we know the voltage Equations
at 60 Hz, we can calculate it at another
frequency as:

Volts Volts60

Hz

6
0

If we know the pump BHP at 60 Hz and the motor rated Hp at


60 Hz, we can determine the motor load at any frequency as:

% Load =

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04/19/16

BHP60

MHP60

HZ
6
0

Useful Equations
At any frequency, if we know the volts and amps, we can
calculate the KVA as:

Volts

KVA
x

Amps
x
100
0

1.73
2

If we know the drive KVA rating at one input voltage, we can


convert it to another input voltage as:

???V
Drive Output KVA = KVA
x
48
480V
0

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Useful Equations
If we know the pump shaft HP rating at 60 Hz, we can convert it
to another frequency as:

HP Limit Hz Hp

Limit
60

Hz
6
0

If we know the pump shaft HP rating at 60 Hz and the pump BHP


requirement at 60 Hz, we can determine the maximum
frequency allowable before we exceed the shaft capability as:

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HZ 6
0

SHP60
BHP60