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Grounding Transformers

Medford, Oregon
Medford,
John S. Levine, P.E.
Oregon

Levine Lectronics and Lectric, Inc.


March 2011
February,
2007

It is used to provide a ground path on


either an ungrounded Wye or a Delta
connected system
The relatively low impedance path to ground
maintains the system neutral at ground potential

On Ungrounded systems you can


have overvoltages of 6 to 8 times
normal with arcing faults

Arcing Ground Faults


Intermittent or Re-strike
Plot of transient over-voltage for an arcing
ground fault

Intermittent ground fault: A re-striking ground fault can create a


high frequency oscillator (RLC circuit), independent of L and C values,
causing high transient over-voltages.
i.e. re-striking due to ac voltage waveform or loose wire caused by
vibration
480V Delta Source
3 Load

R fe

Cb

Cb
S fa

CONTROL OF TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGE

It supports the voltage on a


faulted phase
If a single line-to-ground fault occurs on an
ungrounded or isolated system, no return path
exists and no current flows
The system will continue to operate but the
other two un-faulted lines will rise in in voltage
by the square root of 3, possibly overstressing
the transformer insulation, and other
components, by 173%

Provides a metering point to measure


faults

A typical example is a Wind Farm. They


utilize grounding transformers for fault
protection on ungrounded lines
When a ground fault occurs on a collector cable causes the
substation circuit breaker to open, the wind turbine string becomes
isolated
Turbines do not always detect the fault and the generators continue to
energize the cable.
Voltages between the un-faulted cable and the ground rise by the
173%
The transformer, placed on the turbine string, provides the ground
path

A typical example is a Wind Farm.

When the feeder breaker


Opens, the collector bus and
the step up transformer delta
connected MV windings
rely on the Grounding
Transformer for their ground
path and voltage support.

Two different constructions:

ZIG ZAG (Zn)


WYE CONNECTED

What if no neutral exists (i.e. delta systems)?


A grounding transformer is installed (either a zig-zag or
a wye-delta) from all three phases to create an artificial
neutral for grounding purposes only.
A

Zig-Zag
Grounding
Transformer

HRG

Wye-Delta
Grounding
Transformers
HRG

HRG

Broken Delta
Grounding
Transformers

The zigzag transformer contains six coils


on three cores. The first coil on each core
is connected contrariwise to the second
coil on the next core.
The second coils are then all tied
together to form the neutral and the
phases are connected to the primary
coils.
Each phase, therefore, couples with each
other phase and the voltages cancel out

A
Typical Wye connection with
Neutral end of windings connected
Together
B
C
A

C
B
Vector diagram of
balanced system

Symmetrical three phase source

a
A

The Zig-Zag connection has 2


windings on each leg.
B
b

c
A
b

B
a

Each leg of the Zig-Zag


Connection is connected
to a winding from another which
is out of phase

The resulting Zig-Zag connection


Is phase shifted with respect to the
incoming three phase source

Az
Cz

Bz

Limits circulation of triplen harmonics


( 3 rd, 6th, 9th, etc)
Can be used without a Delta
connected or 5-legged core
Elimination of secondary winding
results in smaller footprint, lower
cost (25-30%)

Includes a Delta or Wye connected


secondary
Utilizes 4 or 5 legged core when Wye
connected secondary is specified
Multi-functional, provides benefit of
auxiliary power

Know the basic parameters


Primary Voltage
Phase to Phase
continuous primary
current (or Rated kVA)
Continuous Neutral
current
Available Fault Current
and Duration

Impedance as a % or
as an ohms/phase
value
Primary Winding
connection
Secondary connection
Basic overall
construction

This is the system voltage to which


the grounded winding is to be
connected.
Dont forget to specify the BIL also.
In some cases the BIL will be dictated
by equipment considerations, such as
150 kV BIL on 34.5 kV wind farms
because of the limitation of dead
front connectors

The Transformer must be sized to carry


the rated continuous, phase-to-phase
current without exceeding its temperature
limit
The higher the current, the larger and
more costly the transformer
Typical values can be as low as 5 amps to
as high as a few hundred
Include any auxiliary loading requirements

Is defined as 3X the Phase-to-Phase


current (Zero Sequence Current)
It is the value that is expected to flow
in the neutral circuit without tripping
protective circuits
Used to design for thermal capacity
of the transformer

Used to determine the short time


heating resulting from a fault on the
system which returns through the
transformer
Typical ranges run from a few
hundred to a few thousand amps
Duration is expressed in seconds (i.e.
400 amps for 10 seconds)

Can be expressed as either a percentage or


as an ohmic value
Either should be chosen such that the unfaulted phase voltages are within the
temporary over-voltage capability of:
The Transformer
Associated equipment (i.e. arresters, terminal
connectors, etc.)

Typical values can be as low as 8% and as


much as 100%
Must be determined by the system designer

Zig Zag or Grounded Wye

Specify the secondary voltage


and connection for primary Wye
connected transformers
Specify size of auxiliary loading
to be connected
If two winding with no secondary
load, advise if the delta winding
can be buried (not brought
out) or if only one bushing is to
be brought out for grounding to
the tank or testing

Compartmental
pad mount or unit
substation design
Indoor or outdoor
Fluid type (Mineral
Oil, Silicone, or
Envirotemp FR3)
Site Elevation or
Environmental
conditions

Connectivity
Dead Front or Live
Front
Spade terminals
Cover-mounted or
sidewall
Exposed or enclosed

Temperature Rise
65 degrees C
55 degrees C
55/65 deg. C

Special Coating
requirements

Round Coils

360 degree cooling


ducts

Radial forces are equalized during short circuits & overloads

Cruciform stacked core construction

The following transformers are


for reference only to let you be
aware of different type
transformers for different
applications.

A Scott T Transformer is a
transformer that is designed for
converting 2 phase current to 3
phase current or vice-versa.

An autotransformer is a transformer that only


have one winding with taps. No isolation is
provided between the primary and secondary.

A Buck-Boost
transformer is one
that is designed
to lower (buck) or
raise (boost) the
voltage in the
range of 5% to
25%. This is a
great (low cost)
way to get
between 208 and
240 Volts, or
between 480 and
575 Volts. Used
on 1 and 3 Phase
applications.

A drive isolation
transformer is one
that is typically used
on AC or DC Drive
systems. It typically
has the same
primary and
secondary voltages
and is used for
isolation. In
addition you
typically have a
shield to attenuate
line to ground noise.

A constant voltage transformer is one in


which the secondary stays constant with
large swings on the primary voltage.
This is accomplished by operating the
primary in a saturated mode so even
when the primary voltage dips you can
still maintain a constant output. Typical
input may be 80% to 110% with the
output maintaining 1% voltage
regulation.

A copy of this
presentation
can be found
at:
www.L-3.com

For more information and


specification sheets

www. PacificCrestTrans.com