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Classification of The

Consonant Sounds

Prof. Jórdán Masías


Places of Articulation
1. Lips
2. Teeth 1. Labial
3. Alveolar Ridge 2. Dental
4. Hard Palate 3. Alveolar
5. Soft Palate 4. Palatal
6. Uvula 5. Velar
7. Glottis 6. Uvular
7. Glottal
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Other Places of Articulation
1. Pharyngeal
1. Pharynx
2. Laryngeal
2. Larynx
3. Apical
3. Apex
4. Laminal
4. Lamina
5. Dorsal
5. Dorsum
6. Radical
6. Tongue Root

Prof. Jórdán Masías


Manners of Articulation
1. Plosives 1. Closure & Release
2. Nasals 2. Total Oral Closure
3. Fricatives 3. Friction
4. Affricates 4. Closure & Friction
5. Laterals 5. Only Center Closure
6. Rothics 6. Center Closure+Friction
7. Semi-vowels 7. Minimum Closure
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Voicing

1. Voiced 1. Vibration in
the vocal folds

2. Voiceless 2. No vibration in
the vocal folds

Prof. Jórdán Masías


The English Phonetic
Alphabet

Prof. Jórdán Masías


The English Phonetic Alphabet
Consonant Sounds
PLACE BilabialLabiodental
InterdentalAlveolarP-AlveolarPalatal Velar Glottal
MANNER
Plosive       
Nasal   
Affricate  
Fricative
       
Approximant

Lateral 
Rhotic 
S.Vowel  
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Interactive Sagital Section
From Iowa University

http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html

Prof. Jórdán Masías


Classification of The
Vowel Sounds

Prof. Jórdán Masías


Monophthongs

Prof. Jórdán Masías


The traditional descriptions for vowels use the shape of the
lips and the position of the tongue:

1. Tongue Position Front – Central – Back


2. Tongue Height High – Mid - Low
2. Jaw Height Close – Mid – Open
3. Lip Shape (Rounding) Rounded – Neutral – Spread
Additional terms:
4. Tongue Tension Tense – Lax

5. Vowel Duration Long – Short

6. Number of vowels Monophthong –


Diphthong – Tripthong
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Vowel Space from the International Phonetic Alphabet

Prof. Jórdán Masías


Simplified Chart for English Vowels
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH/CLOSE    
 
MID    
 
LOW/OPEN    
Height 
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Shape
Simplified Chart for English Vowels
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH

MID

LOW

Height
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Shape
Names of Monophthongs

Short or Lax Vowels





Long or Tense Vowels





Prof. Jórdán Masías
Diphthongs

Prof. Jórdán Masías


In Phonetics, a DIPHTHONG (Greek δίφθογγος,
"diphthongos", literally with two sounds) is a vowel
combination usually involving a quick but smooth
movement from one vowel to another, often
interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or
phoneme.

While "pure" vowels, or monophthongs, are said to


have one target tongue position, diphthongs have a
moving tongue.

Prof. Jórdán Masías


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pure vowels are represented in the
International Phonetic Alphabet by one
symbol:

English "seem" as /si:m /,

Diphthongs are represented by two


symbols:

English "same" as / /

Prof. Jórdán Masías


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
where the two vowel symbols are
intended to represent approximately
the beginning and ending tongue
positions.

  
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Falling diphthongs are stressed on the
first element; rising diphthongs on the
second.

The unstressed elements of the


diphthongs may be transcribed as
semivowels. However, when the whole
diphthong is analysed as being one single
phoneme, both elements are often
transcribed as vowels.

Prof. Jórdán Masías


Diphthongs in British English (RP):

•/  / as in hope
•/  / as in house
•/  / as in kite
•/  / as in same
•/  / as in join
•/  / as in fear
•/  / as in hair
•/  / as in poor

/  / as in few (This is phonemically


analyzed as a sequence of a semivowel
Prof. Jórdán Masías and a monophthong.)
Diphthongs in Spanish:

•/ja/ as in comedia •/  / as in ambiguo


•/je/ as in tierra •/aj/ as in hay
•/  / as in dio •/ej/ as in rey
•/ju:/ as in ciudad •/  j/ as in hoy
•/wa/ as in guante •/uj/ as in muy
•/  / as in fuego •/aw/ as in Jauja
•/wi/ as in •/ew/ as in feudo
pingüino
Prof. Jórdán Masías
There are 3 groupings of diphthongs
in English:
1. Those moving to 

/  / /  /
/  /
2. Those moving to 

/  / /  /
/  /
3. Those moving to 

/  / /  /
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH/CLOSE    

MID    
 
LOW/OPEN    
Height 
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Shape
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH/CLOSE    
 
MID    
 
LOW/OPEN    
Height 
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Shape
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH/CLOSE    
 
MID    
 
LOW/OPEN    
Height 
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Shape
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH/CLOSE    
 
MID    
 
LOW/OPEN    
Height 
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Shape
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH/CLOSE    
 
MID    
 
LOW/OPEN    
Height 
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Shape
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH/CLOSE    
 
MID    
 
LOW/OPEN    
Height 
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Shape
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH/CLOSE    
 
MID    
 
LOW/OPEN    
Height 
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Shape
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH/CLOSE    
 
MID    
 
LOW/OPEN    
Height 
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Shape
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Position
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
Height

HIGH/CLOSE    
 
MID    
 
LOW/OPEN    
Height 
SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED
Lip
Shape
Prof. Jórdán Masías
Triphthongs

Prof. Jórdán Masías


In Phonetics, a triphthong is a
monosyllabic vowel combination
usually involving a quick but smooth
movement from one vowel to another
that passes over a third one.
While "pure" vowels, or
monophthongs, are said to have one
target tongue position, triphthongs
have a moving tongue
position.
Prof. Jórdán Masías
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Triphthongs stressed on the second
element in Spanish:
•/ wej / as in buey
•/ waj / as in Uruguay
Triphthongs are stressed on the
first element in British English:
•/ / as in hour
•/  / as in fire
Prof. Jórdán Masías
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1. The letter names (The Alphabet)

Yy
Zz
Mm
Bb
Qq
Ff
Tt
Ww
Dd
Gg
Cc
Kk
Nn
Oo
Uu
Xx
Vv
Rr
Pp
Ll
Jj
Ss
Ii
Aa
Hh
Ee







 


 


 

 



 
Prof. Jórdán Masías
1. The letter names (The Alphabet)

Aa Bb Ff Qq Ii
Hh Cc Ll Uu Yy
Jj Dd Mm Ww Rr
Kk Ee Nn
Gg Ss Oo
Pp Xx
Tt Zz
Vv
Prof. Jórdán Masías
3. C sounds
B = N =
C =  P =
D = Q=
F =   R =
G =  =
S   
H = T =

J =  V =
    
K = =
W
L = X =
      
M = =
Y 
Z =      
Prof. Jórdán Masías

From the 25 consonant sounds, only are missing. Why?
3. C sounds

Bad Nab
Cad Cell Special Pad
Dad Quiet
Fad Of Rag
Gad Gel Massage Sad Sure Vision Easy
Had Tad Action Nature
Jab Van
Kid Wad Few Bow
Lad Xerox Exam Alex
Mad Yeah Myth Fly
Zip
Prof. Jórdán Masías