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CFDinVentilation
Design
by
PeterV.Nielsen,

AalborgUniversity

TheAudience
Theuserofthedesignbookismainlyconsidered
tobeaconsultingengineerwhohasto:
-orderaCFDprediction
-considerandworkwithaCFDprediction
-discussCFDandtheCFDqualitywithasupplierof
aCFDprediction

In principlethebookisnotwrittenforengineers
whoaremakingCFDpredictionsalready

CFDinVentilationDesign
Authors:FrancisAllard,HazimB.Awbi
LarsDavidson,AloisSchlinandPeterV.Nielsen
Computationalfluiddynamicsinanutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematicalbackground
Turbulencemodels
Numericalmethods
Boundaryconditions
Qualitycontrol
CFDcombinedwithotherpredictionmodels
ApplicationofCFDcodesinbuildingdesign
Casestudies
Benchmarktests

CFDinVentilationDesign
Computational fluid dynamics in a nutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematicalbackground
Turbulencemodels
Numericalmethods
Boundaryconditions
Qualitycontrol
CFDcombinedwithotherpredictionmodels
ApplicationofCFDcodesinbuildingdesign
Casestudies
Benchmarktests

DevelopmentinComputerCost

CFDinVentilationDesign
Computationalfluiddynamicsinanutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematical background
Turbulencemodels
Numericalmethods
Boundaryconditions
Qualitycontrol
CFDcombinedwithotherpredictionmodels
ApplicationofCFDcodesinbuildingdesign
Casestudies
Benchmarktests

MathematicalBackground
Fromthegeneraldescription

( )
div ( V ) div ( grad ) S
t
toatwo-dimensionaltimedependenttransport
equation

2c 2c
c
c c
u v D 2 2
t
x y
x y

CFDinVentilationDesign
Computationalfluiddynamicsinanutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematicalbackground
Turbulence models
Numericalmethods
Boundaryconditions
Qualitycontrol
CFDcombinedwithotherpredictionmodels
ApplicationofCFDcodesinbuildingdesign
Casestudies
Benchmarktests

TurbulenceModels
Laminarflow/turbulentflow
2Dsteadystate

c
c
2c
u v c 2 Sc
x
y
y
Adiscussionofdifferentturbulencemodelsase.g.
thek-model,thek-model,theSSTmodel
andtheReynoldsStressmodel
TheLargeEddySimulationisalsodiscussed

CFDinVentilationDesign
Computationalfluiddynamicsinanutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematicalbackground
Turbulencemodels
Numerical methods
Boundaryconditions
Qualitycontrol
CFDcombinedwithotherpredictionmodels
ApplicationofCFDcodesinbuildingdesign
Casestudies
Benchmarktests

OneDimensional
Case

Thecasecanbeconsideredas
asmallpartofaflow,which
incertainareasisone-dimensional,
parallelwithgridlinesandsteady.

dc
d 2c
u c 2 S c
dx
dx

OneDimensionalDiscretization
Equation
Controlvolumeformulation:

Itisnecessarytoreplacevaluesatthecellsurfacese
andw withvaluesfromthegridpointsWW,W,P,E and
EE tohaveafinalversionofthediscretizationequation.

DifferentDiscretization
Equations,1
Theflowisstudiedinacasewherethelengthx isequal
to4.Theboundaryvaluesco andc3 areequalto1.0and
0.0.
Centraldifferencesise.g.ce = (cP + cE)/2 andu = 0.1

DifferentDiscretization
Equations,2
Centraldifferencese.g.ce = (cP + cE)/2 andu = 3.0

xu
Pe
Wigglyforlargerthan2
c

HistoryandNumericalSchemes,1
The sixties
Thecentraldifferenceschemebecomesunstable(wiggly)
whenthePecletnumberislarge.Thecureistodecrease
thegridsize.
The seventies
Upwinddifferenceopenedthewayforinfinitelyhigh
Reynoldsnumbers,butfalsediffusioncouldinmany
casesbelargerthandiffusionofphysicalkind.
The eighties and the nineties
Secondorderschemesdecreasedtheeffectoffalsediffusion.

DifferentDiscretization
Equations,3
Theflowisstudiedinacasewherethelengthx isequal
to4.Theboundaryvaluesco andc3 areequalto1.0and
0.0.
Upwindschemee.g.ce=cPandu = 3.0

HistoryandNumericalSchemes,2
The sixties
Thecentraldifferenceschemebecomesunstable(wiggly)
whenthePecletnumberislarge.Thecureistodecrease
thegridsize.
The seventies
Upwinddifferenceopenedthewayforinfinitelyhigh
Reynoldsnumbers,butfalsediffusioncouldinmany
casesbelargerthandiffusionofphysicalkind.
The eighties and the nineties
Secondorderschemesdecreasedtheeffectoffalsediffusion.

False
Diffusion

HigherOrderSchemes
Secondorderupwindschemeisanexampleofanew
schemedevelopedinthemiddleoftheseventies.
Theone-dimensionalcasewiththevelocityu = 3.0and
1stand2ndorderupwindscheme

FalseDiffusionand
OrderoftheSchemes
Flowfromanopening,whichis
inclinedat~30deg.tothemesh.
Three-dimensionalflow.

Profileattheuppersurfaceata
distanceof1mfromtheopening.

Dispersiveerror
Diffusiveerror

Svidt

HistoryandNumericalSchemes,3
The sixties
Thecentraldifferenceschemebecomesunstable(wiggly)
whenthePecletnumberislarge.Thecureistodecrease
thegridsize.
The seventies
Upwinddifferenceopenedthewayforinfinitelyhigh
Reynoldsnumbers,butfalsediffusioncouldinmany
casesbelargerthandiffusionofphysicalkind.
The eighties and the nineties
Secondorderschemesdecreasedtheeffectoffalsediffusion.

CFDinVentilationDesign
Computationalfluiddynamicsinanutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematicalbackground
Turbulencemodels
Numericalmethods
Boundary conditions
Qualitycontrol
CFDcombinedwithotherpredictionmodels
ApplicationofCFDcodesinbuildingdesign
Casestudies
Benchmarktests

BoundaryConditions
Wallboundary

Freeboundary

Planeofsymmetry

Airsupplyopening

Airexitopening

Obstacleboundary

Airsupplyopening

CFDinVentilationDesign
Computationalfluiddynamicsinanutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematicalbackground
Turbulencemodels
Numericalmethods
Boundaryconditions
Quality control
CFDcombinedwithotherpredictionmodels
ApplicationofCFDcodesinbuildingdesign
Casestudies
Benchmarktests

QualityControl
Qualitycontrolconsistsofthesemajorsteps:
-recognizepossiblesourcesoferrors
-checkfortheseerrorsinyourownsimulations
-estimatetheaccuracyofthesimulations
-improvethesimulations,ifpossible
Mainitemsinthischapterare:
-StepsinaCFDsimulation
-Sourcesoferrorsanduncertainties
-Howtoensurehighqualitypredictions
(recommendations)
-QuestionstoasktheCFDengineerasregards
theworkreported
-Additionaladviceandremarks
-Ashortchecklist

QualityControl,Sourcesof
ErrorsandUncertainties
Someexamples:2Dtreatmentinsteadof3D

Simplification,modellinglevel

CellQuality

Monitoringvelocities
versusnumberofcells
intheprediction

CellQuality

TurbulenceModel
3Dwalljetinaroomsimulatedbya k-epsilon Model
andaReynolds Stress Model.

SchlinandNielsen

CFDinVentilationDesign
Computationalfluiddynamicsinanutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematicalbackground
Turbulencemodels
Numericalmethods
Boundaryconditions
Qualitycontrol
CFD combined with other prediction models
ApplicationofCFDcodesinbuildingdesign
Casestudies
Benchmarktests

CFDCombinedwithOther
PredictionModels

CFDinVentilationDesign
Computationalfluiddynamicsinanutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematicalbackground
Turbulencemodels
Numericalmethods
Boundaryconditions
Qualitycontrol
CFDcombinedwithotherpredictionmodels
Application of CFD codes in building design
Casestudies
Benchmarktests

ApplicationofCFDCodesin
BuildingDesign
TheapplicationsofCFDinbuildingsmaybegroupedunderthe
followingheadings:
Predictionofairjetdiffusion
AnalysisofRoomairmovement
Predictionofcontaminantdispersal
Modellingemissionfrommaterialsandequipmentinbuildings
Indoorairqualityprediction
Thermalcomfortassessment
Meanageofairandventilationeffectivenesspredictions
Predictionoffireandsmokespread
Windflowaroundbuildings

CFDinVentilationDesign
Computationalfluiddynamicsinanutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematicalbackground
Turbulencemodels
Numericalmethods
Boundaryconditions
Qualitycontrol
CFDcombinedwithotherpredictionmodels
ApplicationofCFDcodesinbuildingdesign
Case studies
Benchmarktests

CaseStudiesonDifferentAir
DistributionSystems
Fiveairdistributionsystems
arecomparedwitheachother.
Theyareallinstalledinthe
sameroom,andtheyall
handlethesamesituation
andthesameload.

Mixing ventilation
with end wall
mounted diffuser.
Vertical ventilation
with a textile
terminal..
Displacement
ventilation. End wall
mounted low velocity
diffuser.

Mixing ventilation
generated by a
ceiling mounted
radial diffuser.

TheTestRoom

ThetestroomistheIEAAnnex20roomwithlength,widthand
heightequalto4.2m,3.6mand2.5m.
TheheatloadconsistsoftwoPCs,twodesklampsandtwo
manikinsproducingatotalheatloadof480W.Oneworkplace
isusedinsomeoftheexperiments(240W).

CaseStudy,MixingVentilation
withWallMountedATD

SimulationoftheDiffuser

MixingVentilationwithEnd
WallMountedDiffuser

CaseStudy,VerticalVentilation

VerticalVentilation,Diffuser

VerticalVentilation,Diffuser
1stordersteadystateequations,k-turbulencemodel,
300,000cells

VerticalVentilation

BC:DiffuserF

VerticalVentilation,Quality
Control
Monitoringpoints

Velocityin
y-direction

VerticalVentilation
Predictionsinthewhole
room
n=5h-1
218.400gridpoints

CaseStudy,Displacement
Ventilation

DiffuserforDisplacement
Ventilation

DisplacementVentilation

CaseStudy,MixingVentilation
withCeilingMountedATD

MixingVentilationwithCeiling
Diffuser,DiffuserModels

Fixedflowdiffuser
Diffuserwith
horizontalsurface

DiffuserModel
Measurements

Diffuserwithhorizontal
surface

CFDSimulations
Temperatures

Velocitiesatthetheheightof
1.80mclosetothesidewalls

SimulationofUnsteadyFlow
(TimeDependentEquations)

CFDinVentilationDesign
Computationalfluiddynamicsinanutshell
Symbolsandglossary
Mathematicalbackground
Turbulencemodels
Numericalmethods
Boundaryconditions
Qualitycontrol
CFDcombinedwithotherpredictionmodels
ApplicationofCFDcodesinbuildingdesign
Casestudies
Benchmark tests

CFDManikins

BenchmarktestfordifferentCFDmanikins:

www.cfd-benchmarks.com