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PASSIVE FORMS

BE + PAST PARTICIPLE
form

FORMING THE PASSIVE


Active : Mary helped the boy
Passive : The boy was helped by Mary
Active : An accident happened
Passive : None

FORMING THE PASSIVE


In the passive, the object of
an active verb becomes the
subject of the passive verb.

Only transitive verbs (verb that


can be followed by an object) are
used in the passive. It is not

INTRANSITIVE VERBS

Happen
Sleep
Come
Seem
Cry
etc

Form of active and passive


simple present tense
Active
1.Mary helps the boy
2. Mary doesnt help the
boy.
3. Does Mary help the
boy?

Passive
1. The boy is helped by
Mary.
2. The boy isnt helped
by Mary.
3. Is the boy helped by
Mary?

Simple continuous
Active
1. Mary is helping the
boy.
2. Mary isnt helping
the boy.
3. Is Mary helping the
boy?

Passive
1. The boy is being
helped by Mary.
2. The boy isnt being
helped by Mary.
3. Is the boy being
helped by Mary?

Present perfect
Active
1. Mary has helped the
boy.
2. Mary hasnt helped
The boy.
3. Has Mary helped the
boy?

Passive
1. The boy has been
helped by Mary.
2. The boy hasnt been
helped by Mary.
3. Has the boy been
helped by Mary?

Simple future
Active
1. Mary will help the
boy.
2. Mary wont help the
boy.
3. Will Mary help the
boy?

Passive
1. The boy will be
helped by Mary.
2. The boy wont be
helped by Mary.
3. Will the boy be
helped by Mary?

USING THE PASSIVE


A) Rice is grown in India
B) Our house was built in 1980
Usually the passive is used without a BY
phrase. The passive is most frequently
used when it is not known or not
important to know exactly who performs
an action.

USING THE PASSIVE


In (a) Rice is grown in India by people, by
farmers, or by someone. It is not known or
important to know exactly who grows rice
in India.
(a) and (b) illustrate the most common use
of the passive, i.e., without the by-phrase.

USING THE PASSIVE


C) Life on the Mississippi was written by
Mark Twain.
The by-phrase is included only if it is
important to know how performs an action,
as in (c), where Mark Twain is important
information.

Indirect objects as passive


subject
1. Someone gave Mrs. Lee an award
I.O
D.O
2. Mrs. Lee was given an award.
3. Someone gave an award to Mrs. Lee.
D.O
I.O
4. An award was given to Mrs. Lee.

Indirect objects as passive


subject
Either an indirect object or a direct object
may become the subject of a passive
sentence.
1, 2, 3 and 4 have the same meaning.
Notice in 4, when the direct object
becomes the subject, to is usually kept in
front of the indirect object.

The passive form of modals


and phrasal modals
The passive form:
modal + be + past participle
Examples:

1. Tom will be invited to the picnic


2. The window cant be opened
3. Children should be taught to respect
their elders
4. May I be excused from class?

Examples:
5. This book had better be returned to the
library before Friday.
6. This letter ought to be sent before June
1st.
7. Fred is supposed to be told about the
meeting.
8. Mary has to be told about our change in
plans.

The passive form of modals


and phrasal modals
The past-passive form:
modal + have been + past participle
Examples:
1. The letter should have been sent last
week.
2. This house must have been built over
200 years ago.