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Prepared by

RAJASEKHAR V

13l31D4208

nd year M.Tech, EEE (P&ID)

2nd

UNDER

UNDER THE

THE ESTEEMED

ESTEEMED GUIDANCE

GUIDANCE OF

OF

Adari .G V . CHIRANJEEVI

Asistente .Profesor

VIGNANS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

BLOCK DIAGRAM

MULTY LEVEL INVERTERS TOPOLOGY

CASCADED H-BRIDGE MULTILEVEL INVERTER

SIMULATION RESULTS

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

In a traditional method, all the battery cells are directly connected in series and are

charged or discharged by the same current.

battery cells from over charging or over discharging.

converters, which can realize energy transfer between battery cells.

3

In EV energy storage systems, a large number of battery cells are usually connected in

series to enhance the output voltage for motor driving.

These vehicles

have battery storage with large capacity and these batteries are

The ac output of the HCMC is multilevel voltage, while the number of voltage levels is

proportional to the number of cascaded battery cells.

So the HCMC used in the applications of EV with a larger number of battery cells, the

4

To simplify the circuit, multilevel converters are widely used in medium or high

voltage motor drives.

If their flying capacitors or isolated dc sources are replaced by the battery cells, the

battery cells can be cascaded in series combining with the converters instead of

connection in series directly.

A

+

B+

Va

Vb

A-

B-

V load = VA - VB

BLOCK DIAGRAM

7

Diode clamped (neutral-point clamped)

Flying capacitor (capacitor-clamped)

Cascaded topology.

8

H BRIDGE INVERTER

Vdc

A+

B+

+ Vdc

Va

Load

A+ closed and B closed, Vab = Vdc

A+ closed and B+ closed, Vab = 0

B+ closed and A closed, Vab = Vdc

B closed and A closed, Vab = 0

Vb

B

to flow even if all switches are open

These diodes also permit lagging

currents to flow in inductive loads

Vload V A VB V AB

H BRIDGE INVERTER

Vdc

A+

B+

+0

Va

Load

A+ closed and B closed, Vab = Vdc

A+ closed and B+ closed, Vab = 0

B+ closed and A closed, Vab = Vdc

B closed and A closed, Vab = 0

Vb

B

to flow even if all switches are open

These diodes also permit lagging

currents to flow in inductive loads

Vload V A VB V AB

10

10

H BRIDGE INVERTER

Vdc

A+

B+

Vdc +

Va

Load

A+ closed and B closed, Vab = Vdc

A+ closed and B+ closed, Vab = 0

B+ closed and A closed, Vab = Vdc

B closed and A closed, Vab = 0

Vb

B

to flow even if all switches are open

These diodes also permit lagging

currents to flow in inductive loads

Vload V A VB V AB

11

11

H BRIDGE INVERTER

Vdc

A+

B+

+0

Va

Load

A+ closed and B closed, Vab = Vdc

A+ closed and B+ closed, Vab = 0

B+ closed and A closed, Vab = Vdc

B closed and A closed, Vab = 0

Vb

B

to flow even if all switches are open

These diodes also permit lagging

currents to flow in inductive loads

Vload V A VB V AB

12

12

The cascaded H-bridge converters are used for the voltage balance of the battery cells.

The converter can also realize the charge and discharge control of the battery cells.

The ac output of the converter is multilevel voltage, while the number of voltage levels

is proportional to the number of cascaded battery cells.

So in the applications of Electric Vehicles with a larger number of battery cells, the

output ac voltage is approximately ideal sine waves.

13

14

It includes two parts, the cascaded half-bridges with battery cells shown on the left

and the H-bridge inverters shown on the right.

The output of the cascaded half-bridges is the dc bus which is also connected to the dc

input of the H-bridge.

Each half-bridge can make the battery cell to be involved into the voltage producing

or to be bypassed.

15

By control of the cascaded half-bridges, the number of battery cells connected in the

circuit will be changed, that leads to a variable voltage to be produced at the dc bus.

The H-bridge is just used to alternate the direction of the dc voltage to produce ac

waveforms.

Hence, the switching frequency of devices in the H-bridge equals to the base

frequency of the desired ac voltage.

16

For the cascade half-bridge converter, define the switching state as follows:

= 0, lower switch is conducted, upper switch is OFF.

When Sx = 1, the battery is connected in the circuit and is discharged or charged which

is determined by the direction of the external current.

17

The other is the higher voltage devices used in the H-bridges which worked just in base

frequency.

So the high voltage large capacity devices such as GTO or IGCT can be used in the

H-bridges.

The number of battery cells in each phase is n, then the devices used in one phase

cascaded half-bridges is 2n.

18

19

19

20

It means that not all the battery cells are needed to supply the load at the same time.

As the output current is the same for all cells connected in the circuit, the charged or

discharged energy of each cell is determined by the period of this cell connected into the

circuit, which can be used for the voltage or energy equalization.

The cell with higher voltage or SOC can be discharged more or to be charged less in

using, then the energy utilization ratio can be improved while the overcharge and over

discharged can be avoided.

21

It includes two parts, the cascaded half-bridges with battery cells shown on the

left and the H-bridge inverters shown on the right.

The output of the cascaded half-bridges(CHB) is dc bus which is connected to

the dc input of the H-bridge.

Each half-bridge can make the battery cell to be involved into the voltage

producing or to be bypassed.

22

connected in the circuit will be changed, that leads to a variable voltage to be

produced at the dc bus.

The H-bridge is used to alternate the direction of the dc voltage to produce ac

waveform.

Hence, the switching frequency of devices in the H-bridge equals to the base

frequency of the desired ac voltage.

There are two kinds of power electronics devices in the proposed circuit.

23

One is the low voltage devices used in the cascaded half-bridges these devices

work in higher switching frequency to reduce harmonics.

MOSFETs with low on-resistance are used in these circuits for switching

action.

The Switches used in H-Bridge should withstand high voltages and operate

low frequency usually at grid frequency.

24

All the half-bridges are controlled individually, a staircase shape halfsinusoidal-wave voltage is produced on the dc bus of MMC.

As a result multilevel ac voltage can be formed at the output side of HBridge.

The number of ac voltage levels in any phase is equal to 2n1, where n is the

number of cascaded half-bridges in each phase.

The more of the cascaded cells, the more voltage levels at the output side, and

the output voltage is closer to the ideal sinusoidal.

25

26

S.No

S1

S2

S3

S10

S11

Vout

V1

2V1

3V1

4V1

5V1

6V1

7V1

8V1

9V1

10

10V1

11

11V1

27

Cascaded HCMC circuit proposed in [1] taken into consideration.

Cascaded Half Bridge modules of required number are taken for

production of different levels in the output voltage across the terminals

of a H-Bridge.

The output levels that are generated are 3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,21 and 23.

Peak amplitudes of Phase voltage, % THD are estimated.

28

Results

29

1630

Simulink circuit

(Phase Voltages)

31

(Line Voltages)

32

33

34

34

CONCLUSION

The levels in output voltage increases and the high power switches are switched

at low frequency as a result the switching loss decreases.

The HCMC converter has the ability of producing the required number of levels

in

the

output

voltage;

this

makes

it

suitable

for variable

voltage

applications.

The Converter offers a reasonably good THD in the load voltages as results

the cost of filters will get reduced.

As the number of levels increases beyond 19 there in no considerable change

35

23 for which the THD value is lies between 2.13 and 2.16.

Depending upon the load power requirements the numbers of levels

required in output are opted.

For example for low power applications 17 levels in output may

chosen for high power applications 23 levels and beyond may be opted.

36

References

1. Zedong Zheng, Kui Wang, Lie Xu, Yongdong Li, A Hybrid Cascaded Multilevel

Converter for Battery Energy Management Applied in Electric Vehicles, IEEE

TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 3537 3546, july 2014.

2. S. M. Lukic, J. Cao, R. C. Bansal, F. Rodriguez, and A. Emadi, Energy storage

systems for automotive applications, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 6, pp.

22582267, Jul. 2008.

3. H. M. Zhang and S. P. Ding, Application of synergic electric power sup- ply in HEV, in

Proc. 8th World Congr. Intelligent Control Autom., 2010, pp. 40974100.

4. A. Emadi, Y. J. Lee, and K. Rajashekara, Power electronics and motor drives in

electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, IEEE Trans. Ind.

Electron., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 22372245, Jun. 2008.

5. K. Jonghoon, S. Jongwon, C. Changyoon, and B. H. Cho, Stable configuration of a LiIon series battery pack based on a screening process for improved voltage/SOC

balancing, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 411424, Jan. 2012.

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