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Lessons Learned from Loss of

Nuclear Plant
David Penney, P.E., CISSP
Senior Reliability Engineer
Texas Reliability Entity, Inc.

Purpose

Review lessons learned from the


loss of a nuclear plant

Overview of the event


Review event analysis findings
Review of corrective actions and lessons
learned

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One-Line Diagram

Plant size
2100 MW
Four
transmission
exits

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Sequence of Events Initial Conditions

One transmission
circuit out of
service for
maintenance

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Sequence of Events Initial Conditions

One transmission
circuit out of
service for
maintenance

Single line to
ground fault occurs
at the remote
terminal of
outgoing
transmission circuit

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Sequence of Events Initial Conditions


One transmission
circuit out of service
for maintenance

Single line to ground


fault occurs at the
remote terminal of
transmission circuit
Large zero sequence
currents induced in
the unfaulted parallel
line due to mutual
coupling

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Sequence of Events Initial Conditions


One transmission circuit
out of service for
maintenance
Single line to ground fault
occurs at the remote
terminal of transmission
circuit
Large zero sequence
current induced in the
unfaulted parallel line due
to mutual coupling
Unfaulted line remote
terminal trips on ground
directional instantaneous
overcurrent
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Sequence of Events
Single line to ground fault
occurs at the remote terminal
of transmission circuit
Large zero sequence current
induced in the unfaulted
parallel line due to mutual
coupling
Unfaulted line trips on ground
directional instantaneous
overcurrent
Generator goes unstable.
Remaining line trips on
unstable power swing resulting
in loss of unit and loss of offsite
power to the nuclear facility
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Analysis by Entity

Failure to consider effects of mutual coupling


between adjacent lines

Failure to consider or simulate a line-end fault


(with end open) on the adjacent line that was
mutually coupled to the protected line

Incorrect setting of ground directional


instantaneous overcurrent element

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Corrective Actions

Revised relay settings

Conducted comprehensive review of transmission system

Changed protection system philosophy

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Lessons Learned

Mutual impedances between all line


pairs should be calculated and
included in the system model
Out-of-zone simulations should
ensure Zone 1 protection elements
do not operate

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Out-of-Zone Simulations

Perform an out-of-zone simulation on each line


connected to each remote terminal close to the remote
terminal with the remote line-end open and closed
Then with the largest remaining remote terminal ground source out
of service

Simulate a line-end fault (with end open) on all lines


that are mutually coupled with protected line for more
than 10 percent of the protected lines length
Then with the largest remaining remote terminal ground source out
of service

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References
NERC Event Analysis
http://
www.nerc.com/pa/rrm/ea/Pages/EA-Program.aspx

NERC Lessons Learned


http://
www.nerc.com/pa/rrm/ea/Pages/Lessons-Learned.
aspx

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Questions?
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