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# Analysis of a Relay Operation

## for an Intercircuit Fault

Ryan McDaniel
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

## Winter Storm Batters Midwest

15 inches of snow in 48 hours
High moisture content in snow

Heavy weight

24-hour period

System Overview

## Unusual Relay Operation

Relay W overreach occurs when Breaker 4
is open
Relay W reports fault location shorter than
line it protects
Fault study shows that maximum phase-toground fault at Substation B is 3,225 A
There is no universal time

## Puzzling Fault Location

Apparent Line Impedance and Resistance
XAG is 40% of Z1MAG
(2.76-mile fault location is 40% of total line)
RAG is 150% of Z1MAG

## Shift in A-phase voltage contributes to overreach

Is this restricted to Relay W?

Relay W

Relay Y

Event

2.25

0.62

1.35

0.25

3.38

1.35

Relay Z
R

0.45

## Calculated Double-Ended Fault Location

Event Miles From W
2

8.26

Miles From Y

Miles From Z

1.46

4.45

## Relay Y Event #1 Phasor View

Fault Location Is 1.98 miles

System-Wide Event
All Relays Experienced A-Phase
Voltage Shift
Affected relay mho elements

## Low apparent reactance

...Time Passes
After initial analysis, 69 kV underbuild
owned by another utility was revealed
69 kV owner had two events for date in
question from one terminal
All other events pushed out of relay due to
high number of relay operations

69 kV Relay Event
Same Time as Event #2 From Relay W!

## Intercircuit Fault Between 161 kV

A-Phase and 69 kV B-Phase
Tower
construction is
1.46 miles from
Substation B
(double-ended
fault location)

## Symmetrical Component Analysis

Assume no load, no Rf, and infinite system
strength
Observe at Points Fa and Fb

IA = IB

VA = VB

## Solve for Loop Current

Three-Line Solution

## Line Relay Perspective

Line relays only see half of fault
Line relays tend to declare phase-toground fault
Shifted voltage contributes to high apparent
resistance, low apparent line impedance
Ground mho element misoperation
can occur

## Evaluate Ground Mho for AB and

A-Phase-to-Ground Faults
AB fault between Fa and Fb (115%)
A-phase-to-ground fault at Fa (115%)
Zone 1 reach = 85%

## Ground Mho Element Response

A-Phase-to-Ground
VA = 0.5350
IA = 0.46590
AB
VA = 0.68217.2
IA = 0.460
AB
VA = 0.55434.5
IA = 0.62860

The Problem
Difficult to maintain speed, sensitivity,
selectivity, dependability, and security with
mho element

contingencies

## Can We Ignore Intercircuit Faults?

Intercircuit faults are unlikely, but possible

Vehicle crash

Equipment damage

Stability issues

## Solutions and Improvements

Line current differential
Traveling wave fault location